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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497041

RESUMO

Nester abundance is a key measure of the performance of the world's largest green turtle rookery at Raine Island, Australia, and has been estimated by mark-resight counts since 1984. Nesters are first marked by painting their carapace with a longitudinal white stripe. Painted and unpainted turtles are then counted by a surface observer on a small boat in waters adjacent to the reef. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and underwater video may provide more cost-effective and less biased alternatives to this approach, but estimates must be comparable with historical estimates. Here we compare and evaluate the three methods. We found comparatively little variation in resighting probabilities between consecutive days of sampling or time of day, which supports an underlying assumption of the method (i.e. demographic closure during sampling). This lack of bias in the location availability for detection of painted versus unpainted turtles and further supported by a parallel satellite tracking study of 40 turtles at Raine Island. Our results demonstrated that surface observers consistently reported higher proportions of marked turtles than either the UAV or underwater video method. This in turn yielded higher population estimates with UAV or underwater video compared to the historical surface observer method, which suggested correction factors of 1.53 and 1.73 respectively. We attributed this to observer search error because a white marked turtle is easier to spot than the non-marked turtle. In contrast, the UAV and underwater video methods allowed subsequent frame-by-frame review, thus reducing observer search error. UAVs were the most efficient in terms of survey time, personnel commitment and weather tolerance compared to the other methods. However, underwater video may also be a useful alternative for in-water mark-resight surveys of turtles.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Ilhas , Comportamento de Nidação , Tartarugas , Animais , Automação , Feminino , Imersão , Densidade Demográfica , Queensland , Gravação em Vídeo
2.
J Plant Physiol ; 249: 153180, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422486

RESUMO

Several Lotus species are perennial forage legumes which tolerate waterlogging, but knowledge of responses to partial or complete shoot submergence is scant. We evaluated the responses of 15 Lotus accessions to partial and complete shoot submergence and variations in traits associated with tolerance and recovery after de-submergence. Accessions of Lotus tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. pedunculatus and L. japonicus were raised for 43 d and then subjected to aerated root zone (control), deoxygenated stagnant root zone with shoots in air (stagnant), stagnant root zone with partial (75 %) and complete submergence of shoots, for 7 d. The recovery ability from complete submergence was also assessed. We found inter- and intra-specific variations in the stem extension responses (i.e. promoted or restricted compared to controls) depending on water depth. Eight of 15 accessions promoted the stem extension when in partial submergence, while three of those eight (all L. tenuis accessions) had a restricted stem extension when under complete submergence. Two accessions (belonging to L. corniculatus and L. penduculatus species) also promoted the stem extension under complete submergence. The accessions that attained better recovery in terms of leaves produced after de-submergence, were those that had high leaf and root sugar concentration at de-submergence, and high thickness and persistence of gas films on leaves during submergence (all L. tenuis accessions). We conclude that all Lotus accessions were able to tolerate 7 d of partial and complete shoot submergence, despite adopting different stem extension responses.


Assuntos
Lotus/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Imersão , Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(3): 304-309, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134027

RESUMO

Background: Denture hygiene is an important factor to remove dental plaque and discoloration, to provide optimal oral health, and to prevent denture stomatitis. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of coffee staining and denture cleaner on the color stability of two differently polymerized (heat and microwave) denture acrylic resin in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two commonly used denture base acrylic resins and effervesecnt tablet form denture cleaner were used in this study. Disc-shaped specimens from each acrylic resin were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions (n = 7). Color values were recorded before and after immersion in distilled water (I), denture cleaner (II), coffee (III), and coffee + denture cleaner (IV) with a tristimulus colorimeter using CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's least significant difference tests were used for multiple comparisons at a 95% confidence level (P < 0.05). Surface topography of the acrylic resin denture base specimens before and after immersion were taken under 500 × magnification. Results: The two-way ANOVA revealed significant interactions between denture base resins and solutions (P < 0.001). Immersion in denture cleaner and coffee solution caused significant color changes in acrylic resin denture bases. Conclusion: Heat- and microwave-polymerized acrylic denture base resins can show different color stability. Immersion in coffee and denture cleaner solutions can cause noticeable color changes.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Café , Materiais Dentários/química , Bases de Dentadura , Higienizadores de Dentadura/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Descoloração de Dente , Água , Cor , Colorimetria , Humanos , Imersão , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Coloração e Rotulagem , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(5): 639-647, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of daily cold- and hot-water recovery on training load (TL) during 5 days of heat-based training. METHODS: Eight men completed 5 days of cycle training for 60 minutes (50% peak power output) in 4 different conditions in a block counter-balanced-order design. Three conditions were completed in the heat (35°C) and 1 in a thermoneutral environment (24°C; CON). Each day after cycling, participants completed 20 minutes of seated rest (CON and heat training [HT]) or cold- (14°C; HTCWI) or hot-water (39°C; HTHWI) immersion. Heart rate, rectal temperature, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during cycling. Session-RPE was collected 10 minutes after recovery for the determination of session-RPE TL. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression in a Bayesian framework; Cohen d was calculated, and for session-RPE TL, the probability that d > 0.5 was also computed. RESULTS: There was evidence that session-RPE TL was increased in HTCWI (d = 2.90) and HTHWI (d = 2.38) compared with HT. The probabilities that d > 0.5 were .99 and .96, respectively. The higher session-RPE TL observed in HTCWI coincided with a greater cardiovascular (d = 2.29) and thermoregulatory (d = 2.68) response during cycling than in HT. This result was not observed for HTHWI. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cold-water recovery may negatively affect TL during 5 days of heat-based training, hot-water recovery could increase session-RPE TL, and the session-RPE method can detect environmental temperature-mediated increases in TL in the context of this study.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Imersão , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Água , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 607-611, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997718

RESUMO

Hot water immersion, known as a hot bath, is used by MMA athletes to produce rapid weight loss (RWL) by means of passive fluid loss. This study investigated the magnitude of body mass losses using a standardized hot bath protocol with or without the addition of salt. In a crossover design, eleven male MMA athletes (28.5 ± 4.6 y; 1.83 ± 0.07 m; 82.5 ± 9.1 kg) performed a 20-min immersion at 37.8°C followed by a 40-min wrap in a warm room. This bath and wrap was performed twice per visit. During one visit, only fresh water was used (FWB), and in the other visit, magnesium sulphate (1.6% wt/vol) was added to the bath (SWB). Prior to each visit, 24 h of carbohydrate, fibre, and fluid restriction was undertaken as part of the RWL protocol. Body mass losses induced by the hot bath protocols were 1.63 ± 0.75 kg and 1.60 ± 0.80 kg for FWB and SWB, respectively, and equivalent to ~2.1% body mass. Under the conditions employed, the magnitude of body mass loss in SWB was similar to FWB. However, further research should explore bathing in a temperature that is consistent with that habitually used by fighters, and/or higher concentrations of salt.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Imersão , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Urina/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Athl Train ; 55(2): 124-131, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909640

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cardiovascular responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) provide information regarding sympathetic function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if recently concussed collegiate athletes had blunted cardiovascular responses during the CPT. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 symptomatic concussed collegiate athletes (5 men, 5 women; age = 20 ± 2 years) who were within 7 days of diagnosis and 10 healthy control individuals (5 men, 5 women; age = 24 ± 4 years). INTERVENTION(S): The participants' right hands were submerged in agitated ice water for 120 seconds (CPT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Heart rate and blood pressure were continuously measured and averaged at baseline and every 30 seconds during the CPT. RESULTS: Baseline heart rate and mean arterial pressure were not different between groups. Heart rate increased throughout 90 seconds of the CPT (peak increase at 60 seconds = 16 ± 13 beats/min; P < .001) in healthy control participants but remained unchanged in concussed athletes (peak increase at 60 seconds = 7 ± 10 beats/min; P = .08). We observed no differences between groups for the heart rate response (P > .28). Mean arterial pressure was elevated throughout the CPT starting at 30 seconds (5 ± 7 mm Hg; P = .048) in healthy control individuals (peak increase at 120 seconds = 26 ± 9 mm Hg; P < .001). Mean arterial pressure increased in concussed athletes at 90 seconds (8 ± 8 mm Hg; P = .003) and 120 seconds (12 ± 8 mm Hg; P < .001). Healthy control participants had a greater increase in mean arterial pressure starting at 60 seconds (P < .001) and throughout the CPT than concussed athletes (peak difference at 90 seconds = 25 ± 10 mm Hg and 8 ± 8 mm Hg, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Recently concussed athletes had blunted cardiovascular responses to the CPT, which indicated sympathetic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Baixa , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Imersão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Therm Biol ; 87: 102478, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent review article on an aromatherapeutic inhaler demonstrated clinical effects on a number of bodily systems, like the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the endocrine system. OBJECTIVE: This paper extends these findings and investigates whether specially designed essential oils inhalers are capable to counter experimentally induced stressful heat sensations. METHOD: Two prospective, randomized, controlled experiments using the Hot Immersion Test Paradigm (HIT) were conducted to investigate whether deep odor inhalations increase heat tolerance. RESULTS: In both experiments, the inhaler strongly prolonged pain tolerance and increased blood oxygenation (1 < d < 1.3). In the second experiment, the inhaler also increased heart rate variability (d = 1.3) as a mechanism to cope with heat stress. CONCLUSION: The ability to resist a stressful thermal stimulus can be exogenously improved by short and deep inhalations of essential scents directly delivered to the olfactory system.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue
8.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 323-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381141

RESUMO

An 85-year-old man was found deceased floating in an irrigation ditch 18 days after his disappearance. During crime scene investigation, specimens of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were found in proximity of the body. The feeding activity of these nonendemic crayfishes contributed to the formation of specific injuries on the body and in the production of a large substance defects inside the corpse. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the scavenging activity of P. clarkii on a human body and highlight the potential postmortem artefacts caused by this species. This is the first report on a real case of postmortem injuries produced by P. clarkii crayfishes on a submerged human body. So far, crustaceans are not considered useful for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval. However, the important modifications on the corpses deriving from the activity of these animals should be kept in consideration.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Afogamento , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110051, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The methods developed in recent years for the assessment of the Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI) have proven to be promising, but are strictly related to specific geographical areas or climates. The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of two of the most recent total aquatic decomposition scores (TADS) for the determination of the PMSI in bodies recovered from fresh water in an area of Mediterranean climate in the last 15 years. To do this, the correlation coefficient (r2) between PMSI and Accumulate Degrees Days (ADD) or PMSI and days was studied. METHODS: The correlation between PMSI (expressed in days or in ADD) and the TADS was evaluated considering: (a) bodies recovered during the entire period; (b) bodies recovered during the cold season; (c) bodies recovered during the warm season. A linear regression analysis was set comparing the statistical significance of a model plotting TADS versus ADD, and another model plotting TADS versus PMSI (expressed in days) for both scores. RESULTS: Scores were scarcely applicable when considering the entire casuistry, as regression models showed low r2 values, but both scores showed high correlations after dividing the cases into 2 groups. In fact, after performing the seasonal partition, we observed a strong correlation between PMSI and TADS, using either of the scores. CONCLUSION: This study helps increase the accuracy, reliability, and validity of PMI estimation in bodies recovered from freshwater in an area of temperate climate, such as Northern Italy, supporting the need to establish regionally-specific equations for estimating PMI in a forensic context.


Assuntos
Cadáver , Água Doce , Imersão , Modelos Estatísticos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Clima , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(3): 485-495, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677292

RESUMO

This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI), partial-body cryotherapy (PBC), or a passive control (CON) on physiological and recovery variables following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, 5 × 20 drop jumps) in females. Twenty-eight females were allocated to PBC (30 seconds at -60°C, 2 minutes at -135°C), CWI (10 minutes at 10°C), or CON (10 minutes resting). Muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2 ), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and local skin temperature were assessed at baseline and through 60 minutes (10-minute intervals), while delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle swelling, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and vertical jump performance (VJP) were assessed up to 72 hours (24-hour intervals) following treatments. SmO2 was lower in PBC (Δ-2.77 ± 13.08%) and CWI (Δ-5.91 ± 11.80%) compared with CON (Δ18.96 ± 1.46%) throughout the 60-minute follow-up period (P < .001). CVC was lower from PBC (92.7 ± 25.0%, 90.5 ± 23.4%) and CWI (90.3 ± 23.5%, 88.1 ± 22.9%) compared with CON (119.0 ± 5.1 and 116.1 ± 6.6%, respectively) between 20 and 30 minutes (P < .05). Mean skin temperature was lower from CWI vs PBC (between 10 and 40 minutes, P < .05). Mean skin temperature was higher in CON compared with CWI up to 60 minutes and compared with PBC up to 30 minutes (P < .05). DOMS was lower following both PBC and CWI compared with CON through 72-hour (P < .05), with no difference between groups. No main group differences for swelling, MVIC, and VJP were observed. In conclusion, CWI elicited generally greater physiological effects compared with PBC while both interventions were more effective than CON in reducing DOMS in females, but had no effect on functional measures or swelling.


Assuntos
Crioterapia , Imersão , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/terapia , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Temperatura Cutânea , Água , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(2): 98-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842246

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of endurance training and regular post-exercise cold water immersion on changes in microvascular function. Nine males performed 3 sessions∙wk-1 of endurance training for 4 weeks. Following each session, participants immersed one leg in a cold water bath (10°C; COLD) for 15 min while the contra-lateral leg served as control (CON). Before and after training, microvascular function of the gastrocnemius was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy, where 5 min of popliteal artery occlusion was applied and monitored for 3 min upon cuff release. Changes in Hbdiff (oxyhemoglobin - deoxyhemoglobin) amplitude (O-AMP), area under curve (O-AUC) and estimated muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2) were determined during occlusion, while the reperfusion rate (R-RATE), reperfusion amplitude (R-AMP) and hyperemic response (HYP) were determined following cuff release. Training increased O-AMP (p=0.010), O-AUC (p=0.011), mVO2 (p=0.013), R-AMP (p=0.004) and HYP (p=0.057). Significant time (p=0.024) and condition (p=0.026) effects were observed for R-RATE, where the increase in COLD was greater compared with CON (p=0.026). In conclusion, R-RATE following training was significantly higher in COLD compared with CON, providing some evidence for enhanced microvascular adaptations following regular cold water immersion.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Temperatura Baixa , Imersão , Microcirculação , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Artéria Poplítea/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 21: 42454, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1053528

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a prática do banho enrolado em bebês prematuros, em unidade neonatal, na perspectiva de enfermeiros. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa, realizada por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, com 13 enfermeiros atuantes em unidades neonatais, captados através da técnica de amostragem bola de neve. Dados submetidos à análise temático-categorial. Resultados: os enfermeiros consideraram benefícios relacionados ao conforto e à estimulação no banho enrolado, entretanto, citaram desafios para a prática, relacionados ao desconhecimento, à baixa adesão e sobrecarga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem, ausência de rotinas e protocolos institucionais, além da escassez ou mesmo inadequação dos recursos materiais disponíveis nas instituições. Conclusão: a prática do banho enrolado, na perspectiva de enfermeiros, tem efeitos positivos para o desenvolvimento de bebês prematuros, porém existem desafios gerenciais que precisam ser superados para efetiva implementação.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Banhos/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Enfermeiras Pediátricas , Imersão , Humanização da Assistência
13.
Appl Ergon ; 82: 102964, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604187

RESUMO

The purpose was to evaluate whether a cold-water immersion test could be used to identify individuals susceptible to local cold injuries (LCI). Sixty-five healthy non-injured (N-I) subjects, and fifteen subjects, who were tested either prior to or after a LCI, sequentially immersed one hand and one foot, in 8 °C water for 30 min (CWI phase); this was followed by 15 min of spontaneous rewarming (RW phase). The LCI group showed a lower toe temperature during the CWI phase, and a lower maximum RW temperature of the fingers than the N-I group. However, digit temperatures during the CWI and RW phases exhibited low predictive values for LCI, e.g. results implied that to identify 80% of the LCI subjects, 34-78% of the N-I subjects would also be excluded. Thus, the results suggest that, in practice, hand or foot cold-water immersion tests cannot be used to identify individuals at high risk of LCI.


Assuntos
Lesão por Frio/diagnóstico , Lesão por Frio/prevenção & controle , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Militares , Dedos do Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Roupa de Proteção , Reaquecimento , Fatores de Risco , Temperatura Cutânea , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-8, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1087806

RESUMO

Objetivo:O objetivo do estudo foi verificar, in vitro, a alteração de cor da resina composta Beautiful-Bulk®, exposta aos líquidos pigmentantes. Métodos:Foram confeccionados 60 espécimes da resina (15,0 mm de diâmetro e 1,0 mm de espessura, n = 5) nas cores A2, B2 e C2. Os espécimes foram mantidos em uma sala escura por sete dias, em ambiente seco, a 37 °C e, em seguida, foram fotografados com aparelho celular iPhone 6S®. Os espécimes foram divididos aleatoriamente e submetidos a ciclos de imersão em quatro líquidos: água destilada (controle), suco de açaí, Coca-Cola® e molho de tomate. As imersões foram realizadas em sete e quatorze dias de forma cíclica, após a confecção dos espécimes, três vezes ao dia, durante 20 minutos. Ao fim de cada ciclo, novas fotografias foram realizadas. As imagens foram analisadas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e os dados convertidos em L*a*b através de um histograma. A variação de cor (∆E) foi analisada pela escala CIE-Lab. Resultados:A análise dos resultados (One-way ANOVA, Teste de Tukey, p < 0,05) demonstrou que o grupo controle produziu maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete e quatorze dias na cor A2. A cor B2, no ciclo de quatorze dias, apresentou maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) para os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate sem diferença estatística (p > 0,05) do controle. Para a cor C2, os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate tiveram maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete dias. Conclusão:Conclui-se que todas as substâncias pigmentantes e a água destilada foram capazes de produzir grandes alterações de cor na resina Beautifil Bulk®. Existe uma interação significativa entre a cor da resina e agentes pigmentantes.


Aim: This study sought to verify, in vitro, the color change of the nanoparticle composite resin, Beautiful Bulk®, exposed directly to pigmented liquids. Methods: Sixty test specimens were made in a Metal matrix (15.0 mm X 1.0 mm) using composite resin (n = 5) in colors A2, B2, and C2. The specimens were photographed with a smartphone (iPhone 6S®) seven days after the preparation. The specimens were kept in the dark for seven days, dry, at 37°C. The specimens were then randomly divided and immersed in four liquids: distilled water (control), açaí juice, Coca-Cola®, and tomato sauce. The immersions were performed in seven and fourteen days cyclically, three times a day, for 20 minutes. At the end of each immersion cycle, new photographs were taken with the same smartphone. The images were analyzed in the Adobe Photoshop® program, and the data was converted to L* a* b* through a histogram. The color variation (∆E) was analyzed by the CIE-Lab scale. Results: Analysis of the results (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) showed that the control group produced a greater color change (p < 0.05) in seven and fourteen days in the A2 shade. The B2 shade, in fourteen days, showed a greater color change (p < 0.05) for the specimens immersed in tomato sauce with no statistical difference (p > 0.05) of the control. For the C2 shade, the specimens immersed in tomato sauce presented a greater color change (p < 0.05) at seven days. Conclusion: It could therefore be concluded that there is a significant interaction between the composite resin and pigment agents. All pigmented substances produced color changes in the composite resin.


Assuntos
Resinas Sintéticas , Pigmentação , Cor , Resinas Compostas , Materiais Dentários , Imersão
15.
Physiol Rep ; 7(24): e14304, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883220

RESUMO

Exposure to extreme cold environments is potentially life-threatening. However, the world record holder of full-body ice immersion has repeatedly demonstrated an extraordinary tolerance to extreme cold. We aimed to explore thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses during 88 min of full-body ice immersion. We continuously measured gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi ), skin temperature (Tskin), blood pressure, and heart rate (HR). Oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured at rest, and after 45 and 88 min of ice immersion, in order to calculate the metabolic heat production. Tskin dropped significantly (28-34°C to 4-15°C) and VO2 doubled (5.7-11.3 ml kg-1  min-1 ), whereas Tgi (37.6°C), HR (72 bpm), and mean arterial pressure (106 mmHg) remained stable during the first 30 min of cold exposure. During the remaining of the trial, Tskin and VO2 remained stable, while Tgi gradually declined to 37.0°C and HR and mean arterial blood pressure increased to maximum values of 101 bpm and 115 mmHg, respectively. Metabolic heat production in rest was 169 W and increased to 321 W and 314 W after 45 and 80 min of ice immersion. Eighty-eight minutes of full-body ice immersion resulted in minor changes of Tgi and cardiovascular responses, while Tskin and VO2 changed markedly. These findings may suggest that our participant can optimize his thermoregulatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to challenge extreme cold exposure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Temperatura Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Gelo , Imersão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 535-537, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of snail control between immersion of molluscicides through tide diversion and mollusciciding by spraying in marshland areas. METHODS: Immersion of 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide through tide diversion and spraying 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide alone were employed for snail control in two neighboring snail-breeding marshlands, and snails were surveyed before and after mollusciciding. The mortality of snails and the density of living snails were estimated. RESULTS: The density of living snails reduced by 72.19% and 100.00% 1 and 2 years after immersion of 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide through tide diversion, and 5.93% and 18.15% 1 and 2 years after spraying 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide alone. CONCLUSIONS: Immersion of 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide through tide diversion is significantly superior to spraying 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide along for snail control, and implementation of immersion of 26% suspension concentrate of metaldehyde and niclosamide through tide diversion for more than 2 successive years may achieve a higher snail control efficiency.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas , Niclosamida , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos , Animais , Imersão , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suspensões , Ondas de Maré , Áreas Alagadas
17.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 581-601, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683356

RESUMO

Introduction: We aimed to document identified cases of immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) in divers from Oceania (the Indo-Pacific region) from January 2002 to May 2018, inclusive. Method: Cases were identified using various sources, including searches of the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) Fatality Database, published case reports, and interviews with survivors who had reported their incident to DAN AP. Where available, investigations, pathology and autopsy results were obtained. Only incidents diagnosed as IPE by diving physicians or pathologists with experience in the investigation of diving accidents were included. Individual case histories and outcomes, together with brief individual summaries of the associations and possible contributing factors were recorded. Results: Thirty-one IPE incidents in divers from Oceania were documented. There were two surface snorkelers, 22 scuba air divers and seven nitrox divers which included three closed-circuit rebreathers (CCR). The mean (SD) age was 53 (12) years, 58% of victims were females, and the average dive profile was to a maximum depth of 19 meters of seawater for 25 minutes. Six victims (19%) had previous episodes of IPE. There were nine recorded fatalities. Cardiac anomalies dominated the associated or possible contributing factors. These included valvular disease in 29%, transient cardiomyopathies in 26% and dysrhythmias in 16%. Conclusions: Previously reported associations of IPE such as exertion, stress, cold exposure, negative inspiratory pressure, hypertension, overhydration, ascent or surfacing, tight wetsuit, aspiration and certain medications were identified. Cardiac conditions were frequent and included chronic disorders (valvular pathology, coronary artery disease) and transient disorders (dysrhythmias, transient myocardial dysfunction, takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy). It is likely that the chronic cardiac disorders may have contributed to the IPE, whereas the transient cases could be either sequelae, contributors or coincidental to the IPE.


Assuntos
Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Imersão/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oceania/epidemiologia , Esforço Físico , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Água do Mar , Distribuição por Sexo , Natação , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 603-610, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683357

RESUMO

Aim: To review incidents of immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) from Oceania, to determine the demographics, diving parameters, and comorbidities that may be related to this disorder. Method: Incidents of IPE, most of which were documented by Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) or reported in our medical literature, were analyzed. They included interviews with the survivors and a review of available medical records. Only incidents diagnosed as IPE by specialist diving physicians or pathologists with experience in the investigation of diving accidents were included. Results: Thirty-one IPE incidents in divers from Oceania were documented. There were two surface snorkelers, 22 scuba air divers and seven nitrox divers, which included three closed-circuit rebreathers (CCR). The mean (SD) age was 53 (12) years, 58% of victims were females, and the average dive profile was to a maximum depth of 19 msw for 25 minutes. Six victims (19%) had previous episodes of IPE. There were nine recorded fatalities in this cohort. Medical comorbidities were recorded in 68%, with 42% being cardiac. The latter included valvular disease in 29%, transient cardiomyopathies in 26% and dysrhythmias in 16%. Conclusion: IPE was more likely in middle-aged females, in experienced divers, and during ascent or after surfacing. Commonly reported associations such as exertion, stress, cold exposure, negative inspiratory pressure, hypertension, overhydration, tight wetsuit, aspiration and certain medications were identified. This series supports the hypothesis that the elderly IPE subjects are likely to have comorbidities and be susceptible to IPE recurrences and fatalities unless the contributing factors can be identified and addressed.


Assuntos
Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Autopsia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Mergulho/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Imersão/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oceania , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Edema Pulmonar/mortalidade , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Água do Mar , Adulto Jovem
19.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 611-618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683358

RESUMO

Background: Immersion can cause immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) in previously healthy subjects. We performed a case-control study to better identify IPE risk factors. Methods: We prospectively included recreational scuba divers who had presented signs of IPE and control divers who were randomly chosen among diving members of the French Underwater Federation. We sent an anonymous questionnaire to each diver, with questions on individual characteristics, as well as the conditions of the most recent dive (controls) or the dive during which IPE occurred. Univariate logistic regressions were performed for each relevant factor. Then, multivariate logistic regression was performed. Results: Of the 882 questionnaires sent, 480 (54%) were returned from 88 cases (90%) and 392 control divers (50%). Multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors associated with IPE: being aged over 50 years ((OR) 3.30, (95%CI) 1.76-6.19); female sex (OR 2.20, 95%CI 1.19-4.08); non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake before diving (OR 24.32, 95%CI 2.86-206.91); depth of dive over 20 m (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.07-3.74); physical exertion prior to or during the dive (OR 5.51, 95%CI 2.69-11.28); training dive type (OR 5.34, 95%CI 2.62-10.86); and daily medication intake (OR 2.79, 95%CI 1.50-5.21); this latter factor appeared to be associated with hypertension in the univariate analysis. Conclusion: To reduce the risk of experiencing IPE, divers over 50 years of age or with hypertension, especially women, should avoid extensive physical effort, psychological stress, deep dives and NSAID intake before diving.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Imersão/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esforço Físico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recreação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Midwifery ; 79: 102554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing the use of birth pools. DESIGN: Online discussion groups and semi-structured interviews, analysed thematically. SETTING: United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 85 women and 21 midwives took part in online discussion groups; 14 medical staff participated in interviews. FINDINGS: Factors influencing the use of birth pools were grouped into three overarching categories: resources, unit culture and guidelines, and staff endorsement. Resources encompassed pool availability, efficiency of pool use and availability of waterproof cardiotocograph equipment. Unit culture and guidelines related to eligibility criteria for pool use, medicalisation of birth and differences between midwifery-led and obstetric-led care. Staff endorsement encompassed attitudes towards pool use. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Accessibility of birth pools was often limited by eligibility criteria. While midwifery-led units were generally supportive of pool use, obstetric-led units were described as an over-medicalised environment in which pool use was restricted and relied on maternal request. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Midwives can improve women's access to birth pools by providing information antenatally and proactively offering this as an option in labour. Maternity units should work to implement evidence-based guidelines on pool use, increase pool availability (even where there appears to be low demand), and enhance awareness amongst medical staff of the benefits of water immersion.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Imersão , Trabalho de Parto , Tocologia , Mães , Preferência do Paciente , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Corpo Clínico , Enfermeiras Obstétricas , Gravidez , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
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