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3.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 791-798, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539336

RESUMO

In the United States, undocumented residents face unique barriers to healthcare access that render them disproportionately dependent on the emergency department (ED) for care. Consequently, ED providers are integral to the health of this vulnerable population. Yet special considerations, both clinical and social, generally fall outside the purview of the emergency medicine curriculum. This paper serves as a primer on caring for undocumented patients in the ED, includes a conceptual framework for immigration as a social determinant of health, reviews unique clinical considerations, and finally suggests a blueprint for immigration-informed emergency care.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Anthropol Med ; 26(3): 280-295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550907

RESUMO

As immigration and health policy continue to be contentious topics globally, anthropologists must examine how policy creates notions of health-related deservingness, which may have broad consequences. This paper explores hidden relationships between immigration enforcement laws and the most recent health reform law in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which excludes immigrants from certain types of health services. Findings in this paper show how increasingly harsh immigration enforcement efforts provide health facilities a 'license to discriminate' against undocumented immigrants, resulting in some facilities 'dumping' undocumented patients or unlawfully transferring them from one hospital to another. Due to changes made through the ACA, patient dumping disproportionately complicates public hospitals' financial viability and may have consequences on public facilities' ability to provide care for all indigent patients. By focusing on the converging consequences of immigrant policing and health reform, findings in this paper ultimately show that examining deservingness assessments and how they become codified into legislation, which I call 'deservingness projects', can reveal broader elements of state power and demonstrate how such power extends beyond targeted populations. Exercises of state power can thus have 'spillover effects' that harm numerous vulnerable populations, highlighting the importance of medical anthropology in documenting the broad, hidden consequences of governmental actions that construct populations as undeserving of social services.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hispano-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transferência de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Médica , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/etnologia
5.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1171-1176, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318585

RESUMO

There has been a burst of research on immigrant health in the United States and an increasing attention to the broad range of state and local policies that are social determinants of immigrant health. Many of these policies criminalize immigrants by regulating the "legality" of their day-to-day lives while others function to integrate immigrants through expanded rights and eligibility for health care, social services, and other resources.Research on the health impact of policies has primarily focused on the extremes of either criminalization or integration. Most immigrants in the United States, however, live in states that possess a combination of both criminalizing and integrating policies, resulting in distinct contexts that may influence their well-being.We present data describing the variations in criminalization and integration policies across states and provide a framework that identifies distinct but concurrent mechanisms of deportability and inclusion that can influence health. Future public health research and practice should address the ongoing dynamics created by both criminalization and integration policies as these likely exacerbate health inequities by citizenship status, race/ethnicity, and other social hierarchies.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1179-1183, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318598

RESUMO

A successful quarantine requires a high rate of compliance by individuals with potential exposure to a communicable disease.Many individuals would be reluctant to comply with a quarantine because they fear that contact with government officials will place them in legal, personal, or economic jeopardy. These include undocumented immigrants and individuals with a substance use disorder. For a quarantine to succeed, individuals must be granted temporary immunity from arrest, deportation, or similar adverse consequences, but doing so will be politically unpopular.We argue that public health considerations must take precedence over politics in protecting the health of the public.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente , Política , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(1): 24-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358825

RESUMO

Unauthorized immigration is one of the most contentious policy issues in the United States. In an attempt to curb unauthorized migration, many states have considered restrictive laws intended to make life so difficult for unauthorized immigrants that they would choose to leave the country. Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, enacted in 2010, was a pioneering example of these efforts. Using population-level natality data and causal inference methods, we examined the effect of SB1070 on infants exposed before birth in Arizona. Prenatal exposure to the bill resulted in lower birth weight among Latina immigrant women, but not among US-born white, black, or Latina women. The decline in birth weight resulted from exposure to the bill being signed into law, rather than from its (limited) implementation. The findings indicate that the threat of a punitive law, even in the absence of implementation, can have a harmful effect on the birth outcomes of the next generation.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Arizona/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Homosex ; 66(6): 715-734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336701

RESUMO

Centering the experiences of 31 undocuqueer immigrants, this study seeks to understand the ways that undocuqueer immigrants negotiate the boundaries of social performance by revealing or concealing their gender, sexuality, and immigration status. Findings of this study reveal how, in order to avoid the constant threat of rejection (both legal and social), undocuqueer immigrants engage visibility schemas and make strategic decisions about coming out of the shadows and the closet across different contexts. Undocuqueer immigrants' narratives reveal the ways the closet resembles the shadows in that both provide protection from the outside world, yet neither are considered suitable places for sustaining life. This study raises implications for both research and policy by considering how the intersection of gender, sexuality, and immigration status nullifies neoliberal narratives of coming out as an empowering process and illustrating the uneven landscapes of social acceptance and political control that undocuqueer immigrants must negotiate.


Assuntos
Autorrevelação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Imigrantes Indocumentados/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Pública , Distância Social , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Policy Anal Manage ; 38(1): 11-40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572410

RESUMO

Tougher immigration enforcement was responsible for 1.8 million deportations between 2009 and 2013 alone--many of them were fathers of American children. We exploit the geographic and temporal variation in the escalation of interior immigration enforcement to assess its impact on the structure of families to which many of the deported fathers of U.S.-born children belonged. We find that the average increase in immigration enforcement during the 2005 to 2015 period has raised by 19 percent the likelihood that Hispanic U.S.-born children might live without their parents in households headed by naturalized relatives or friends unthreatened by deportation. Likewise, the same increase in immigration enforcement has raised by 20 percent these children's propensity to live with likely undocumented mothers who report their spouses as being absent--a reasonable finding given that most children with a likely undocumented father have undocumented mothers. Given the negative consequences of being raised by a single parent or without parents, plus the parallel increase in interior immigration enforcement, gaining a better understanding of the collateral damage of heightened enforcement on the families to which these children belong is well warranted.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Separação da Família , Hispano-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicologia da Criança , Características de Residência , Pais Solteiros , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos
14.
Tort Trial Insur Pract Law J ; 53(2): 703-39, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024663

RESUMO

This survey reviews significant statutory developments and appellate court decisions addressing workers' compensation issues for the period from October 2016 through September 2017. Workers' compensation systems are state statutory programs; the direct effect of statutes and precedents outside of their state of origin is limited. Nevertheless, compensation principles and laws have much in common among states and much can be learned from studying how legislatures and courts of other jurisdictions have treated similar issues. It is notable that when state courts cannot adjudicate an issue based solely upon a statute's plain language, and no precedent of the jurisdiction is determinative, they often consider authority from other states. Given the state-based character of compensation laws, not all of the cases discussed here can be considered to be landmark decisions, but they are significant for what they can teach lawyers and judges about how workers' compensation laws are structured and interpreted.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Responsabilidade Legal , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/legislação & jurisprudência , Intoxicação Alcoólica , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Racismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
18.
Demography ; 55(3): 1147-1193, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785525

RESUMO

The expansion of U.S. immigration enforcement from the borders into the interior of the country and the fivefold increase in immigration detentions and deportations since 1995 raise important questions about how the enforcement of immigration law is spatially patterned across American communities. Focusing on the practice of immigration detention, the present study analyzes the records of all 717,160 noncitizens detained by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in 2008 and 2009-a period when interior enforcement was at its peak-to estimate states' detention rates and examine geographic variation in detention outcomes, net of individual characteristics. Findings reveal substantial state heterogeneity in immigration detention rates, which range from approximately 350 detentions per 100,000 noncitizens in Connecticut to more than 6,700 detentions per 100,000 noncitizens in Wyoming. After detainment, individuals' detention outcomes are geographically stratified, especially for detainees eligible for pretrial release. These disparities indicate the important role that geography plays in shaping individuals' chances of experiencing immigration detention and deportation.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 71(4): 488-494, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198642

RESUMO

The care of dialysis-dependent undocumented immigrants exemplifies a problem at the crux of 2 US national agendas: immigration and health care reform. Undocumented immigrants represent 3% of the US population and 27% of the uninsured, and an estimated 6,500 individuals are dialysis dependent. With no uniform national policy, an estimated 30% to 50% of these individuals receive treatment only in life-threatening situations (emergent dialysis). Since 2005, about 400 undocumented immigrants have received a kidney transplant (>70% living). Although the Affordable Care Act specifically excluded noncitizens, its policies have indirectly allowed more than 200 individuals to purchase insurance from a health insurance exchange and transition from emergent to thrice-weekly hemodialysis. Under the Trump administration, uncertainties with health care plans, threats of deportation, and rescinding of policies such as sanctuary city status are bound to result in unforeseen challenges for this vulnerable population. Global variation in the care accessible to migrants, refugees, undocumented immigrants, and asylum seekers argues for the need for a framework to transform advocacy into public policy to improve the lives of patients with kidney disease worldwide. Access to nonemergent dialysis is humane and cost-effective; it deserves to be espoused and advocated by leading medical organizations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Diálise Renal/métodos , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Morbidade/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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