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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21679, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndesmotic injuries account for a significant number of ankle injuries. There is no consensus regarding the recommended method of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: METHODS:: This study was performed and reported in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist. The records of 200 patients with ankle fractures who had undergone surgical treatment in our clinics between January 2014 and January 2018 were retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was approved by the institutional review board in the 2nd Hospital of Jilin University. The primary outcome measure was the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale and the Foot Function Index. Secondary outcome measures included visual analog scale score, complications, range of movement of ankle, reoperations, and radiologic outcomes. For statistical comparison of the clinical and radiologic findings between the 2 groups, we used SPSS, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL), statistical software. P Values of < .05 were considered statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis was that the SB technique would achieve better functional outcomes as compared to the syndesmotic screw technique after surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5793).


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/anormalidades , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imobilização/instrumentação , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(15): e642-e650, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732655

RESUMO

Trigger finger (TF) is one of the most common causes of hand disability. Immobilization of TF with a joint-blocking orthosis has been demonstrated to effectively relieve pain and improve function. The efficacy of steroid injections for TF varies based on the number of affected digits and the clinical severity of the condition. Up to three repeat steroid injections are effective in most patients. When conservative interventions are unsuccessful, open surgical release of the A1 pulley effectively alleviates the subjective and objective manifestations of TF and currently remains the benchmark procedure for addressing TF. Although several studies have emerged suggesting that a percutaneous approach may result in improved outcomes, this technique demands a learning curve that may predispose patients to higher risk of procedure-related complications. There is no role for preoperative antibiotics in patients who undergo elective soft-tissue procedures of the hand. WALANT anesthesia has gained popularity because it has been associated with improved patient outcomes and a clear cost savings; however, proper patient selection is critical. Similar to other soft-tissue hand procedures, TF surgery rarely necessitates a postoperative opioid prescription.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Dedo em Gatilho/cirurgia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anestesia Local/economia , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Conservador , Redução de Custos , Mãos/cirurgia , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Injeções Intralesionais , Curva de Aprendizado , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/educação , Dedo em Gatilho/diagnóstico , Dedo em Gatilho/terapia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21250, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given this lack of conclusive outcome data, there are currently no clear guidelines to direct the treatment of displaced distal radius fractures in the elderly. This retrospective clinical trial was performed to compare the outcomes of two methods that were used for the treatment of displaced and unstable distal radial fractures in patients 65 years of age or older: METHODS:: This study was performed and reported in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist. Between January 2017 and May 2018, a total of 184 patients who presented to Huzhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital with distal radius fractures were extracted from the hospital database and evaluated for eligibility. This retrospective cohort study was approved by the institutional review board in our hospital. Outcome measures included Patient-Related Wrist Evaluation score, patient satisfaction, complications, and radiographic outcomes. SPSS software package (version 21.0; SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for all statistical analyses. RESULTS: The hypothesis was that the two groups would achieve similar functional scores and complications in distal radial fractures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5689).


Assuntos
Fraturas do Rádio/terapia , Idoso , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino , Redução Aberta/métodos , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(205): 5-20, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192333

RESUMO

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common injury in basketball, having a difficult therapeutic approach because it requires an extended period of time to be resolved once it appears. Therefore, preventing the onset of this condition seems critical in maintaining athletes' health, and availability to compete. Because reducing training and competition volume in a professional team context is complex, the exercises presented here offer a good option for managing injured players without compromising their availability during the season. However, offseason and preseason periods are key to developing, protecting and strengthening the injured joint and its functionality for the competitive season


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Atletas , Corrida , Imobilização/métodos , Impacto Femoroacetabular/terapia , Basquetebol/lesões , Terapia por Exercício , Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Quadril/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce
7.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176208

RESUMO

Live imaging is a valuable approach for investigating cell biology questions. The Drosophila larva is particularly suited for in vivo live imaging because the larval body wall and most internal organs are transparent. However, continuous live imaging of intact Drosophila larvae for longer than 30 min has been challenging because it is difficult to noninvasively immobilizeimmobilizing larvae for a long time. Here we present a larval mounting method called LarvaSPA that allows for continuous imaging of live Drosophila larvae with high temporal and spatial resolution for longer than 10 hours. This method involves partially attaching larvae to the coverslip using a UV-reactive glue and additionally restraining larval movement using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block. This method is compatible with larvae at developmental stages from second instar to wandering third instar. We demonstrate applications of this method in studying dynamic processes of Drosophila somatosensory neurons, including dendrite growth and injury-induced dendrite degeneration. This method can also be applied to study many other cellular processes that happen near the larval body wall.


Assuntos
Drosophila/citologia , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imobilização/métodos , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Animais , Dendritos/metabolismo , Dendritos/patologia , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Larva/citologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurônios/citologia
8.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 140(5): 651-663, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193679

RESUMO

Although the literature generally agrees that displaced distal radius fractures require surgery, no single consensus exists concerning the length of immobilization and type of post-operative physiotherapeutic rehabilitation program. Palmar locking plate fixation represents a very stable fixation of the distal radius, and was assessed biomechanically in various studies. Surprisingly, most authors report additional immobilization after plate fixation. One reason might be due to the pain caused during active wrist mobilization in the early post-operative stages or secondly to protect the osteosynthesis in the early healing stages preventing secondary loss of reduction. This article addresses the biomechanical principles, current available evidence for early mobilization/immobilization and impact of physiotherapy after operatively treated distal radius fractures.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas/reabilitação , Imobilização/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Fraturas do Rádio/reabilitação , Placas Ósseas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Articulação do Punho/fisiopatologia
9.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 48-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888371

RESUMO

AIMS: Distal radial fractures are the most common fracture sustained by the adult population. Most can be treated using cast immobilization without the need for surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a definitive trial comparing the commonly used fibreglass cast immobilization with an alternative product called Woodcast. Woodcast is a biodegradable casting material with theoretical benefits in terms of patient comfort as well as benefits to the environment. METHODS: This was a multicentre, two-arm, open-label, parallel-group randomized controlled feasibility trial. Patients with a fracture of the distal radius aged 16 years and over were recruited from four centres in the UK and randomized (1:1) to receive a Woodcast or fibreglass cast. Data were collected on participant recruitment and retention, clinical efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability. RESULTS: Over an eight-month period, 883 patients were screened, 271 were found to be eligible, and 120 were randomized. Patient-reported outcome measures were available for 116 (97%) of participants at five weeks and 99 (83%) at three months. Clinical outcomes and patient acceptability were similar between the two interventions and no serious adverse events were reported in either intervention arm. CONCLUSION: Both interventions were deemed efficacious and safe in the cohort studied. This study showed that a definitive study comparing Woodcast and fibreglass was feasible in terms of patient recruitment and retention. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):48-54.


Assuntos
Moldes Cirúrgicos , Imobilização/instrumentação , Fraturas do Rádio/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Madeira , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18883, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977895

RESUMO

To elucidate whether nonsurgical treatment for Preiser disease is effective.Eight patients with Preiser disease (median age 59 [47-69] years) underwent nonsurgical treatment (median symptom-onset-to-treatment interval 8 [9-180] months). At presentation, 7 patients complained of constant pain and 1 of motion-related pain. Pain restricted wrist range of motion (median modified Mayo wrist score [MMWS] 17.5 [range 10-30]). Radiography revealed stages 1 to 3 disease (Herbert-Lanzetta classification). Median scapholunate angle was 62° (54°-75°), with 3 wrists suffering dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI). Magnetic resonance imaging showed (Kalainov criteria) 4 stage 1 wrists (complete necrosis) and 4 stage 2 (incomplete necrosis). Two had concomitant Kienböck disease. All patients underwent nonsurgical treatment (ie, oral pain killer, immobilization, rest) and were monitored via radiographic and clinical evaluations. Scapholunate angles and the scaphoid area reduction ratio were calculated using radiography. Response criteria were the patients' subjective and objective status. Endpoint was the time from start of non-surgical to surgical treatment.Immobilization lasting 0 to 24 months (median 1.8 months) did not relieve their symptoms. Follow-up radiography showed that the disease stage had progressed in 5 of 8 wrists, with 5 wrists having DISI. The median area reduction ratio of the scaphoid was 11% (4%-52%) on anteroposterior views and 4% (-23% to 17%) on lateral views. Compared with the contralateral wrist, the median wrist flexion-extension arc was 61% (50%-79%) and the median grip strength 39%. Median MMWS score was 17.5 (10-25) - poor in 6 of 8 patients. Surgery was thus necessary in all patients.Nonsurgical treatment for Preiser disease did not improve subjective or objective outcomes and did not prevent deterioration of radiographic findings.Type of study/level of evidence: Therapeutic, Level V.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Osteonecrose/terapia , Osso Escafoide , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteonecrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Falha de Tratamento
11.
J Knee Surg ; 33(1): 15-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562834

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a rabbit model of knee contracture in extension and investigate the natural history of motion loss and time-dependent changes in the joint capsule after immobilization. We immobilized the unilateral knee joints of 32 rabbits by maintaining the knee joint in a plaster cast at full extension. Eight rabbits were euthanized at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after casting, respectively, and the lower extremities were disarticulated at the hip joint. Eight control group rabbits that did not undergo immobilization were also examined. We assessed the progression of joint contracture by measuring the joint range of motion, evaluating the histologic alteration of the capsule, and assessing the mRNA levels of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the anterior and posterior joint capsules. After 2 weeks of joint immobilization, the knee joint range of motion was limited, the synovial membrane of the suprapatellar and posterior joint capsules was thickened, the collagen deposition was increased, and the mRNA levels of TGF-ß1 were elevated in the anterior and posterior joint capsules. These changes progressed rapidly until 6 weeks of immobilization and may advance slowly after 6 weeks. Joint contracture developed at the early stage of immobilization and progressed over time. The changes in the anterior and posterior joint capsules after joint immobilization may contribute to the limitation in flexion. The elevated mRNA expression of TGF-ß1 may be related to joint capsule fibrosis and may be one of the causes of joint contracture.


Assuntos
Fibrose/patologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/efeitos adversos , Membro Posterior/patologia , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Cápsula Articular/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/análise , Animais , Artrometria Articular , Moldes Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/biossíntese , Contratura/etiologia , Contratura/metabolismo , Contratura/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Imobilização/métodos , Cápsula Articular/química , Cápsula Articular/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Coelhos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Membrana Sinovial/química , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(1): 60-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029523

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess whether spinal immobilization with long back board (LBB) and semi-rigid cervical collar (CC) at 20° instead of 0° conserves pulmonary functions in obese volunteers, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio. METHODS: The study included adult volunteer subjects with android-type obesity who were otherwise healthy. First, pulmonary functions were tested in a seated position to obtain baseline levels, than volunteers were immobilized with LBB and CC at 0-degree and measurements repeated at 0th and 30th minute of immobilization. Next day, same procedures were repeated with the trauma board at 20-degree. Changes over time in FEV1, FVC values and FEV1/FVC ratios during spinal immobilization at 0° and 20° were compared to baseline levels. RESULTS: Study included 30 volunteers. Results showed a significant decline in all values for both situations following spinal immobilization (p < .001). We also compared the decrease over time in those values (ΔFEV1, ΔFVC, and ΔFEV1/FVC ratio) during spinal immobilization at 0° and 20°. The decrease in pulmonary functions was similar in both groups (p > .05). CONCLUSION: The present findings confirm that spinal immobilization reduces pulmonary functions in obese volunteers, and that 20-degree immobilization has no conservative effect on these values when compared to the traditional 0-degree immobilization. It may be that 20° is insufficient to decrease the negative effect of abdominal obesity on pulmonary functions.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Imobilização/métodos , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Coluna Vertebral , Espirometria
13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190595, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate patient positioning is crucial in particle therapy due to the geometrical selectivity of particles. We report and discuss the National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) experience in positioning accuracy and stability achieved with solid thermoplastic masks fixed on index base plates and assessed by daily orthogonal X-ray imaging. METHODS: Positioning data were retrospectively collected (between 2012 and 2018) and grouped according to the treated anatomical site. 19696 fractions of 1325 patients were evaluated.The study was designed to assess:(i) the number of fractions in which a single correction vector was applied(SCV);(ii) the number of fractions in which further setup verification was performed (SV);(iii) the number of fractions in which SV lead to an additional correction within (MCV<5min) or after (MCV>5min) 5 minutes from the first setup correction;(iv) the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) error components of the correction vectors applied. RESULTS: A SCV was applied in 71.5% of fractions, otherwise SV was required. In 30.6% of fractions with SV, patient position was not further revised. In the remaining fractions, MCV<5min and MCV>5min were applied mainly in extracranial and cranial sites respectively.Interfraction Σ was ≤ 1.7 mm/0.7° and σ was ≤ 1.2 mm/0.6° in cranial sites while in extracranial sites Σ was ≤ 5.5 mm/0.9° and σ was ≤4.4 mm/0.9°. Setup residuals were submillimetric in all sites. In cranial patients, maximum intrafractional Σ was 0.8 mm/0.4°. CONCLUSION: This report extensively quantifies inter- and intrafraction setup accuracy on an institutional basis and confirms the need of image guidance to fully benefit from the geometrical selectivity of particles. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The reported analysis provides a board institutional data set on the evaluation of patient immobilization and bony anatomy alignment for several particle therapy clinical indications.


Assuntos
Imobilização/instrumentação , Máscaras , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia/prevenção & controle , Institutos de Câncer , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Incerteza
14.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 185-193, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recurrent or previously irradiated head and neck cancers (HNC) are therapeutically challenging and may benefit from high-dose, highly accurate radiation techniques, such as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Here, we compare set-up and positioning accuracy across HNC subsites to further optimize the treatment process and planning target volume (PTV) margin recommendations for head and neck SABR. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We prospectively collected data on 405 treatment fractions across 79 patients treated with SABR for recurrent/previously irradiated HNC. First, interfractional error was determined by comparing ExacTrac x-ray to the treatment plan. Patients were then shifted and residual error was measured with repeat x-ray. Next, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was compared with ExacTrac for positioning agreement, and final shifts were applied. Lastly, intrafractional error was measured with x-ray before each arc. Results were stratified by treatment site into skull base, neck/parotid, and mucosal. RESULTS: Most patients (66.7%) were treated to 45 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 21-47.5 Gy in 3-5 fractions). The initial mean ± standard deviation interfractional errors were -0.2 ± 1.4 mm (anteroposterior), 0.2 ± 1.8 mm (craniocaudal), and -0.1 ± 1.7 mm (left-right). Interfractional 3-dimensional vector error was 2.48 ± 1.44, with skull base significantly lower than other sites (2.22 vs 2.77; P = .0016). All interfractional errors were corrected to within 1.3 mm and 1.8°. CBCT agreed with ExacTrac to within 3.6 mm and 3.4°. CBCT disagreements and intrafractional errors of >1 mm or >1° occurred at significantly lower rates in skull base sites (CBCT: 16.4% vs 50.0% neck, 52.0% mucosal, P < .0001; intrafractional: 22.0% vs 48.7% all others, P < .0001). Final PTVs were 1.5 mm (skull base), 2.0 mm (neck/parotid), and 1.8 mm (mucosal). CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck SABR PTV margins should be optimized by target site. PTV margins of 1.5 to 2 mm may be sufficient in the skull base, whereas 2 to 2.5 mm may be necessary for neck and mucosal targets. When using ExacTrac, skull base sites show significantly fewer uncertainties throughout the treatment process, but neck/mucosal targets may require the addition of CBCT to account for positioning errors and internal organ motion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia , Idoso , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Parotídeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Parotídeas/radioterapia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/radioterapia
15.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 231, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the intrafractional accuracy of a frameless thermoplastic mask used for head immobilization during stereotactic radiotherapy. Non-invasive masks cannot completely prohibit head movements. Previous studies attempted to estimate the magnitude of intrafractional inaccuracy by means of pre- and postfractional measurements only. However, this might not be sufficient to accurately map also intrafractional head movements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intrafractional deviation of mask-fixed head positions was measured in five patients during a total of 94 fractions by means of close-meshed repeated ExacTrac measurements (every 1.4 min) conducted during the entire treatment session. A median of six (range: 4 to 11) measurements were recorded per fraction, delivering a dataset of 453 measurements. RESULTS: Random errors (SD) for the x, y and z axes were 0.27 mm, 0.29 mm and 0.29 mm, respectively. Median 3D deviation was 0.29 mm. Of all 3D intrafractional motions, 5.5 and 0.4% exceeded 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively. A moderate correlation between treatment duration and mean 3D displacement was determined (rs = 0.45). Mean 3D deviation increased from 0.21 mm (SD = 0.26 mm) in the first 2 min to a maximum of 0.53 mm (SD = 0.31 mm) after 10 min of treatment time. CONCLUSION: Pre- and post-treatment measurement is not sufficient to adequately determine the range of intrafractional head motion. Thermoplastic masks provide both reliable interfractional and intrafractional immobilization for image-guided stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy. Greater positioning accuracy may be obtained by reducing treatment duration (< 6 min) and applying intrafractional correction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03896555, Registered 01 April 2019 - retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Cabeça , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Imobilização/instrumentação , Posicionamento do Paciente/instrumentação , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imobilização/métodos , Máscaras , Movimento , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
16.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4S): S87-S99, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780084

RESUMO

The Wilderness Medical Society reconvened an expert panel to update best practice guidelines for spinal cord protection during trauma management. This panel, with membership updated in 2018, was charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of the injured or potentially injured spine in wilderness environments. Recommendations are made regarding several parameters related to spinal cord protection. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance the benefits and risks/burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. Key recommendations include the concept that interventions should be goal oriented (spinal cord/column protection in the context of overall patient and provider safety) rather than technique oriented (immobilization). This evidence-based, goal-oriented approach does not support the immobilization of suspected spinal injuries via rigid collars or backboards.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Medicina Selvagem/normas , Humanos , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Medicina Selvagem/métodos
17.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(4): 412-416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To compare the effectiveness of a molded fleece jacket with that of a standard cervical collar at limiting movement of the cervical spine in 3 different directions. METHODS: This is a prospective study using 24 healthy volunteers to measure cervical flexion/extension, rotation, and lateral flexion with both the fleece collar and the standard cervical collar. A hand-held goniometer was used for measurements. The results were then analyzed for the 3 independent movements using a noninferiority test. RESULTS: The fleece collar was determined to be noninferior at limiting the designated motions. Comfort was greater while wearing the improvised fleece collar. CONCLUSIONS: Our small study demonstrated that mountain travelers and rescuers may be able to use an improvised fleece jacket collar in place of a standard collar if spine trauma is suspected after a backcountry accident. Further research should examine different types of improvised collars, their ability to remain in place over extended evacuations, and when to apply collars to backcountry patients.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Desenho de Equipamento , Imobilização/instrumentação , Imobilização/métodos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Contenções , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(5): 624-627, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606806

RESUMO

We studied the effect of LPS on the state of stress-marker organs in rats at various periods after a single exposure to long-term stress on the model of 24-h immobilization. The animals were intraperitoneally injected with LPS in a dose of 100 µg/kg immediately after the negative emotiogenic exposure. Changes in physiological parameters were evaluated 3 h, 1 day, and 8 days after immune stimulation. Acute stress was accompanied by a decrease in the weight of the thymus during all stages of the post-stress period. An increase in the relative weight of theadrenal glands in animals under these conditions was observed only on day 8 after restraint stress. The induction of immune reactions due to systemic treatment with LPS was shown to prevent involution of the spleen in the late stage after a single exposure to long-term stress (day 8). Hypertrophy of the adrenal glands, which serves as one of the typical reactions of mammals to negative emotiogenic factors, was not revealed during the post-stress period after antigenic stimulation. These data hold much promise for the development of new approaches to the use of immunoactive substances to prevent or reduce the severity of physiological changes after emotiogenic loads.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Imobilização/métodos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Timo/fisiopatologia
19.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(19): 1750-1760, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes and risk factors for neurological deficits in pediatric patients with an os odontoideum are unclear. METHODS: We reviewed the data for 102 children with os odontoideum who were managed at 11 centers between 2000 and 2016 and had a minimum duration of follow-up of 2 years. Thirty-one children had nonoperative treatment, and 71 underwent instrumented posterior cervical spinal arthrodesis for the treatment of C1-C2 instability. Nonoperative treatment consisted of observation (n = 29) or immobilization with a cervical collar (n = 1) or halo body jacket (n = 1). Surgical treatment consisted of atlantoaxial (n = 50) or occipitocervical (n = 21) arthrodesis. One patient also underwent transoral odontoidectomy. RESULTS: Thirty children (29%) presented with neurological deficits, 28 of whom had radiographic atlantoaxial instability (atlantoaxial distance >5 mm) or limited space (≤13 mm) available for the spinal cord (risk ratio, 7.8 [95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 31] compared with children with no radiographic risk factors). The 27 children without neurological deficits or atlantoaxial instability at presentation underwent nonoperative treatment and remained asymptomatic. Of the initial nonoperative cohort, one child developed atlantoaxial instability, and another had a persistent neurological deficit; both children underwent spinal arthrodesis during the study period. One child with cervical instability declined surgery and remained asymptomatic. Spinal fusion occurred in 68 patients in the surgical group by the end of the study period (mean, 3.7 years; range, 2.0 to 11.8 years). Surgical complications occurred in 21 children, including nonunion in 12, new neurological deficits in 4, cerebrospinal fluid leak in 2, symptomatic instrumentation requiring removal 2, and vertebral artery injury in 1. Nine children underwent revision surgery. In the surgical group, Japanese Orthopaedic Association neurological function scores improved significantly from preoperatively to the latest follow-up for the upper extremities (p = 0.026) and lower extremities (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing a neurological deficit was strongly associated with atlantoaxial instability and limited space available for the spinal cord in children with os odontoideum. Nonoperative treatment was safe for asymptomatic patients without atlantoaxial instability. Spinal arthrodesis resolved the neurological deficits of children with symptomatic os odontoideum. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial/cirurgia , Vértebra Cervical Áxis/anormalidades , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adolescente , Articulação Atlantoaxial/lesões , Vértebra Cervical Áxis/cirurgia , Braquetes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Lactente , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Cervicalgia/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e7, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368316

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to gain better insight into factors associated with the capture-related mortality rate in cheetahs. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to zoo and wildlife veterinarians through the Species Survival Plan Programme and European Endangered Species Programme coordinators and via the 'Wildlife VetNet' Google group forum. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions relating to the veterinarians' country of residence and experience, the medicine combinations used, standard monitoring procedures, capture-related complications and mortalities experienced in this species under different capture conditions. In addition, necropsy data from the national wildlife disease database of the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa were examined for cases where anaesthetic death was listed as the cause of death in cheetahs. A total of 75 veterinarians completed the survey, with 38 from African countries and a combined total of 37 from Europe, the United States (US) and Asia. Of these, 24% (n = 18/75) had experienced at least one capture-associated cheetah mortality, with almost all of the fatalities (29/30) reported by veterinarians working in Africa. A lack of anaesthetic monitoring and the absence of supplemental oxygen were shown to be significant risk factors for mortality. Hyperthermia, likely to be associated with capture stress, was the most common reported complication (35%). The results suggest that free-ranging rather than habituated captive cheetahs are particularly at risk of dying during immobilisation and transport. The capture-related fatalities in this species do not appear to be associated with either the veterinarian's level of clinical experience or the immobilisation agents used.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/veterinária , Mortalidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Autopsia/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/métodos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tranquilizantes/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários
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