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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370307

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progressive Tinnitus Management (PTM) is an evidence-based interdisciplinary stepped-care approach to improving quality of life for patients with tinnitus. PTM was endorsed by Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Audiology leadership in 2009. Factors affecting implementation of PTM are unknown. We conducted a study to: 1) estimate levels of PTM program implementation in VA Audiology and Mental Health clinics across the country; and 2) identify barriers and facilitators to PTM implementation based on the experiences of VA audiologists and mental health providers. METHOD: We conducted an anonymous, web-based survey targeting Audiology and Mental Health leaders at 144 major VA facilities. Quantitative analyses summarized respondents' facility characteristics and levels of program implementation (full PTM, partial PTM, or no PTM). Qualitative analyses identified themes in factors influencing the implementation of PTM across VA sites. RESULTS: Surveys from 87 audiologists and 66 mental health clinicians revealed that few facilities offered full PTM; the majority offered partial or no PTM. Inductive analysis of the open-ended survey responses identified seven factors influencing implementation of PTM: 1) available resources, 2) service collaboration, 3) prioritization, 4) Veterans' preferences and needs, 5) clinician training, 6) awareness of (evidence-based) options, and 7) perceptions of scope of practice. CONCLUSION: Results suggest wide variation in services provided, a need for greater engagement of mental health providers in tinnitus care, and an interest among both audiologists and mental health providers in receiving tinnitus-related training. Future research should address barriers to PTM implementation, including methods to: 1) improve understanding among mental health providers of their potential role in tinnitus management; 2) enhance coordination of tinnitus-related care between health care disciplines; and 3) collect empirical data on Veterans' need for and interest in PTM, including delivery by telehealth modalities.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais de Veteranos/organização & administração , Zumbido/terapia , Audiologia/organização & administração , Progressão da Doença , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Zumbido/psicologia , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , Veteranos/psicologia
2.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E468-E474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of quality-of-care indicators aiming to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes has been previously described by Cancer Care Ontario. The aim of this study was to assess the quality-of-care indicators in CRC at a referral centre in a developing country and to determine whether improvement occurred over time. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of our prospectively collected database of patients after CRC surgery from 2001 to 2016. We excluded patients who underwent local transanal excision, pelvic exenteration or palliative procedures. We evaluated trends over time using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. RESULTS: A total of 343 patients underwent surgical resection of CRC over the study period. There was improvement of the following indicators over time: the proportion of patients detected by screening (p = 0.03), the proportion of patients with preoperative liver imaging (p = 0.001), the proportion of patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.03), the proportion of patients with pathology reports that indicated the number of lymph nodes examined and the number of positive nodes (p = 0.001), and the proportion of patients with pathology reports describing the details on margin status (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed the feasibility of applying the Cancer Care Ontario indicators for evaluating outcomes in CRC treatment at a single centre in a developing country. Although there was an improvement of some of the quality-of-care indicators over time, policies and interventions must be implemented to improve the fulfillment of all indicators.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(5): 314-319, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197082

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir el proceso de implantación del Sistema Español de Triaje (SET) en los servicios de urgencias de un Sistema Público de Salud. MÉTODO: Estudio multicéntrico, transversal analítico, con 4 cortes temporales (6 meses preimplantación y 3 semestres siguientes) realizado sobre 29 servicios de urgencias de hospitales (SUH) públicos de Andalucía. Se recogió el tipo de hospital, la proporción de uso del SET, de pacientes clasificados según la prioridad, el tiempo de espera para la clasificación (TECLA) y de duración de esta (TICLA); la proporción de pacientes con TECLA menor de 10 min (PTECLA < 10 min) y con TICLA menor de 5 min (Pticla < 5 min); y la proporción de retornos a urgencias en las siguientes 72 horas, de fallecimientos en urgencias y de fugas del SUH. RESULTADOS: Se observó un incremento progresivo del uso del SET durante los sucesivos periodos, una disminución del TECLA y aumento de la PTECLA < 10 min. El TICLA disminuyó no significativamente con aumento de la pTICLA < 5 min. La proporción de fugas se incrementó globalmente y por tipo de hospital a lo largo de los sucesivos períodos. La proporción de fallecimientos en urgencias no se modificó significativamente y la proporción de retornos en las siguientes 72 horas solo se incrementó significativamente en los hospitales de mayor complejidad (p = 0,019). CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de un sistema estructurado de triaje como el SET es un proceso paulatino que requiere la monitorización de indicadores para conocer el impacto que va teniendo sobre la dinámica asistencial del SUH


OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of implementing the Spanish Triage System (SET, in its Spanish abbreviation) in nonspecialist hospital emergency departments (EDs) in the public health service. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study at 4 time cut-points (6 months before implementation and at the end of 1, 2 and 3 semesters afterwards). The study was carried out in 29 public hospital EDs in Andalusia. We recorded the following data: type of hospital, proportion of cases in which the SET was applied, priority classifications assigned on triage, wait time before triage, and duration of the triage process. We also recorded the following proportions: patients waiting less than 10 minutes for the assigned priority, cases with a triage processing time less than 5 minutes, ED revisits within 72 hours, ED deaths, and patients leaving before discharge. RESULTS: We saw SET use increase progressively over the 3 semesters. The mean wait time decreased, and the proportion of patients waiting less than 10 minutes increased. The mean triage processing time tended to decrease nonsignificantly as the proportion of cases triaged in less than 5 minutes rose. The proportion of patients leaving before discharge increased with time; in overall and by hospital type. The proportion of ED deaths did not change significantly, and revisits within 72 hours increased only in more complex hospitals (P = .019). CONCLUSION: Implementing a structured triage approach like SET is a gradual process. Quality indicators must be followed over time so that the impact of a triage system on ED care processes can be assessed


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Triagem/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Espanha , Triagem/métodos , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Estudos Transversais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trained community workers (CWs) successfully deliver health and social services, especially due to greater community acceptance. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and their caregivers (CG) often need support from several sectors. We identified CW, program and referral characteristics that were associated with success of referrals provided to OVC and their CG in Tanzania in a cross-sectoral bi-directional referral system. METHODS: Data for this secondary analysis come from the first two years (2017-2018) of the USAID funded Kizazi Kipya project. Referral success was defined as feedback and service received within 90 days post-referral provision. We analyzed factors that are associated with the referral success of HIV related, education, nutrition, parenting, household economic strengthening, and child protection services among OVC and CG, using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: During the study period, 19,502 CWs in 68 councils provided 146,996 referrals to 132,640 beneficiaries. OVC had much lower referral success for HIV related services (48.1%) than CG (81.2%). Adjusted for other covariates, CW age (26-49 versus 18-25 years, for OVC aOR = 0.83, 95%CI (0.78, 0.87) and CW gender (males versus females, for OVC aOR = 1.12, 95%CI (1.08, 1.16); CG aOR = 0.84, 95%CI (0.78, 0.90)) were associated with referral success. CWs who had worked > 1 year in the project (aOR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.46, 1.58) and those with previous work experience as CW (aOR = 1.57, 95%CI (1.42, 1.74) more successfully referred OVC. Referrals provided to OVC for all other services were more successful compared to HIV referrals, with aORs ranging from 2.99 to 7.22. Longer project duration in the district council was associated with increased referral success for OVC (aOR = 1.16 per month 95%CI 1.15,1.17), but decreased for CG (aOR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.94, 0.97). Referral success was higher for OVC and CGs with multiple (versus single) referrals provided within the past 30 days (aOR = 1.28 95%CI 1.21, 1.36) and (aOR = 1.17, 95%CI (1.06, 1.30)) respectively. CONCLUSION: CW characteristics, referral type and project maturity had different and often contrasting associations with referral success for OVC versus for CG. These findings could help policymakers decide on the recruitment and allocation of CWs in community based multi-sectoral intervention programs to improve referral successes especially for OVC.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (241): 45-61, jul.-sept. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197443

RESUMO

Los Programas de Primeros Episodios Psicóticos (PEP), también conocidos como Programas de Atención Específica al Trastorno Psicótico Incipiente (PAE-TPI), se han implementado en diferentes países con la intención de realizar una intervención precoz de pacientes con un primer episodio psicótico o en riesgo de desarrollar una psicosis. En este documento se realiza un visión personal de la implementación de un equipo multidisciplinar para implementar el PAE-TPI del Parc Taulí (Sabadell), que contó con una primera fase sin financiación específica (2015-2017) que consistió en una reorganización de recursos humanos, seguido de una segunda fase con financiación (2018 en adelante) que permitió disponer de un equipo con una mayor dotación con profesionales a dedicación exclusiva. La implementación de una atención específica en el Parc Taulí permitió objetivar una mejoría en variables clínicas respecto a la atención estándar: reducción de la duración de la psicosis no tratada (DUP), menor necesidad de ingreso al inicio de la enfermedad, uso de menores dosis de antipsicótico y una mejoría de la recuperación funcional. Finalmente se realiza una reflexión personal sobre los retos y perspectivas de futuro de los Programas PAE-TPI


First episode psychosis (FEP) program mes have been implemented in diffe rent countries. They address the early intervention of patients with a FEP or at risk of developing psychosis. This docu ment provides a personal view of the im plementation of a multidisciplinary team that developed the FEP programme of Parc Taulí (Sabadell), which had a first sta ge without specific funding (2015-2017) that consisted of a reorganization of hu man resources, followed by a second stage with specific funding (2018 onwards) that allowed to have a team with a greater dedi cation of professionals involved in the pro gramme. The implementation of a specific care at the Parc Taulí allowed to objectify an improvement in clinical variables when compared to standard care: reduction of the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), less need for admission at the onset of the di sease, use of lower doses of antipsychotic drugs and an improvement of functional recovery. Finally, a personal view is carried out on the challenges and future directions of FEP Programmes


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtornos Psicóticos/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Médica Precoce/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência ao Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745081

RESUMO

In line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the target for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), state level initiatives to promote health with "no-one left behind" are underway in India. In Kerala, reforms under the flagship Aardram mission include upgradation of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) to Family Health Centres (FHCs, similar to the national model of health and wellness centres (HWCs)), with the proactive provision of a package of primary care services for the population in an administrative area. We report on a component of Aardram's monitoring and evaluation framework for primary health care, where tracer input, output, and outcome indicators were selected using a modified Delphi process and field tested. A conceptual framework and indicator inventory were developed drawing upon literature review and stakeholder consultations, followed by mapping of manual registers currently used in PHCs to identify sources of data and processes of monitoring. The indicator inventory was reduced to a list using a modified Delphi method, followed by facility-level field testing across three districts. The modified Delphi comprised 25 participants in two rounds, who brought the list down to 23 approved and 12 recommended indicators. Three types of challenges in monitoring indicators were identified: appropriateness of indicators relative to local use, lack of clarity or procedural differences among those doing the reporting, and validity of data. Further field-testing of indicators, as well as the revision or removal of some may be required to support ongoing health systems reform, learning, monitoring and evaluation.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias de Ginástica/organização & administração , Academias de Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how to integrate the "best" practice into nursing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. A steering group for clinical evidence implementation (EI) was established to conduct pre-implementation baseline surveys, a thorough analysis of the evidence, and an analysis of the survey results. The hindering and enabling factors associated with the clinical implementation of the evidence were analysed based on the three core elements of i-PARIHS, to formulate the clinical implementation plan for VTE nursing evidence. On-site expert reviews and focus group interviews were used to evaluate the feasibility of the draft plan, make adjustments, and finalize the evidence-based practice plan, which was then put into practice and evaluated. RESULTS: A new nursing process, a health education manual and a nursing quality checklist on VTE has been established and proved to be appropriate through the implementation. Compliance with evidence related to VTE nursing increased significantly in the two units, with better compliance in unit B than unit A. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores for VTE nursing increased substantially in both nurses and patients. CONCLUSION: The EI programme of incorporating the "best" evidence on VTE nursing into clinical practice using the i-PARIHS framework demonstrated feasibility, appropriateness and effectiveness and could serve as a reference.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780775

RESUMO

Ghana Health Service (GHS) has strengthened community-based surveillance (CBS) to facilitate early detection and rapid reporting of health events of all origins. Since June 2017, GHS has employed an event-based surveillance approach at the community level in a phased manner. CBS coverage has broadened from 2 to 30 districts across Ghana. Through this effort, capacity was built across all administrative levels in these districts to detect, report, triage, and verify signals, and to perform risk assessment and investigate events. Data were collected and analyzed during an evaluation of initial 2-district implementation in March 2018 and during expanded 30-district implementation in March 2019. Between September 2018 and March 2019, 317 health events were detected through CBS. These events included vaccine-preventable disease cases, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks, clusters of unexpected animal deaths, and foodborne illness clusters. Eighty-nine percent of the 317 events were reported to district-level public health staff within 24 hours of detection at the community level, and 87% of all detected events were responded to within 48 hours of detection. CBS detected 26% of all suspected vaccine-preventable disease cases that were reported from implementing districts through routine disease surveillance. GHS strengthened CBS in Ghana to function as an early warning system for health events of all origins, advancing the Global Health Security Agenda.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Gana , Humanos , Governo Local , Medição de Risco/métodos
9.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(8): 632-642, ago. 2020. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6254

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Se sabe muy poco del impacto que las redes de atención del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST) tienen en la población. El objetivo de este estudio es averiguar si el PROGALIAM (Programa Gallego de Atención al Infarto Agudo de Miocardio) mejoró la supervivencia en la zona norte de Galicia. MÉTODOS: Se recogieron todos los eventos codificados como IAMCEST entre 2001 y 2013. Se identificó a 6.783 pacientes, divididos en 2 grupos: pre-PROGALIAM (2001-2005), 2.878 pacientes, y PROGALIAM (2006-2013), 3.905 pacientes. RESULTADOS: En la etapa pre-PROGALIAM, la mortalidad ajustada a 5 años fue superior tanto en la población total (HR=1,22; IC95%, 1,14-1,29; p < 0,001), como en cada una de las áreas (A Coruña, HR=1,12; IC95%, 1,02-1,23; p = 0,02; Lugo, HR=1,34; IC95%, 1,2-1,49; p <0,001, y Ferrol, HR=1,23; IC95%, 1,1-1,4; p = 0,001). Antes del PROGALIAM, la mortalidad a 5 años en las áreas de Lugo (HR=0,8; IC95%, 0,67-0,95; p = 0,02) y Ferrol (HR=0,75; IC95%, 0,64-0,88; p = 0,001) era superior que en A Coruña. Estas diferencias desaparecieron tras el desarrollo de la red (Lugo comparado con A Coruña, HR=0,88; IC95%, 0,72-1,06; p = 0,18; Ferrol comparado con A Coruña, HR=1,04; IC95%, 0,89-1,22; p = 0,58. CONCLUSIONES: El desarrollo del PROGALIAM en el área norte de Galicia disminuyó la mortalidad e incrementó la equidad de los pacientes con IAMCEST tanto en general como en cada una de las áreas donde se implantó


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the impact of networks for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care on the population. The objective of this study was to determine whether the PROGALIAM (Programa Gallego de Atención al Infarto Agudo de Miocardio) improved survival in northern Galicia. METHODS: We collected all events coded as STEMI between 2001 and 2013. A total of 6783 patients were identified and divided into 2 groups: pre-PROGALIAM (2001-2005), with 2878 patients, and PROGALIAM (2006-2013), with 3905 patients. RESULTS: In the pre-PROGALIAM period, 5-year adjusted mortality was higher both in the total population (HR, 1.22, 95%CI, 1.14-1.29; P <.001) and in each area (A Coruña: HR, 1.12; 95%CI, 1.02-1.23; P=.02; Lugo: HR, 1.34; 95%CI, 1.2- 1.49; P <.001 and Ferrol: HR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.1-1.4; P=.001). Before PROGALIAM, 5-year adjusted mortality was higher in the areas of Lugo (HR, 1.25; 95%CI, 1.05-1.49; P=.02) and Ferrol (HR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.13-1.55; P=.001) than in A Coruña. These differences disappeared after the creation of the STEMI network (Lugo vs A Coruña: HR, 0.88; 95%CI, 0.72-1.06; P=.18, Ferrol vs A Coruña: HR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.89-1.22; P=.58. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with STEMI, the creation of PROGALIAM in northern Galicia decreased mortality and increased equity in terms of survival both overall and in each of the areas where it was implemented


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Reperfusão Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify health systems-level barriers to treatment for women who screened positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in a cervical cancer prevention program in Kenya. METHODS: In a trial of implementation strategies for hrHPV-based cervical cancer screening in western Kenya in 2018-2019, women underwent hrHPV testing offered through community health campaigns, and women who tested positive were referred to government health facilities for cryotherapy. The current analysis draws on treatment data from this trial, as well as two observational studies that were conducted: 1) periodic assessments of the treatment sites to ascertain availability of resources for treatment and 2) surveys with treatment providers to elicit their views on barriers to care. Bivariate analyses were performed for the site assessment data, and the provider survey data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Seventeen site assessments were performed across three treatment sites. All three sites reported instances of supply stockouts, two sites reported treatment delays due to lack of supplies, and two sites reported treatment delays due to provider factors. Of the 16 providers surveyed, ten (67%) perceived lack of knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer as the main barrier in women's decision to get treated, and seven (47%) perceived financial barriers for transportation and childcare as the main barrier to accessing treatment. Eight (50%) endorsed that providing treatment free of cost was the greatest facilitator of treatment. CONCLUSION: Patient education and financial support to reach treatment are potential areas for intervention to increase rates of hrHPV+ women presenting for treatment. It is also essential to eliminate barriers that prevent treatment of women who present, including ensuring adequate supplies and staff for treatment.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crioterapia/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230332, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP) and multi-resistant pneumococci have been prevalent in Iceland since early nineties, mainly causing problems in treatment of acute otitis media. The 10-valent protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) was introduced into the childhood vaccination program in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) in Iceland 2011-2017. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All pneumococcal isolates identified at the Landspítali University Hospital in 2011-2017, excluding isolates from the nasopharynx and throat were studied. Susceptibility testing was done according to the EUCAST guidelines using disk diffusion with chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and oxacillin for PNSP screening. Penicillin and ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured for oxacillin resistant isolates using the E-test. Serotyping was done using latex agglutination and/or multiplex PCR. The total number of pneumococcal isolates that met the study criteria was 1,706, of which 516 (30.2%) were PNSP, and declining with time. PNSP isolates of PHiD-CV vaccine serotypes (VT) were 362/516 (70.2%) declining with time, 132/143 (92.3%) in 2011 and 17/54 (31.5%) in 2017. PNSP were most commonly of serotype 19F, 317/516 isolates declining with time, 124/143 in 2011 and 15/54 in 2017. Their number decreased in all age groups, but mainly in the youngest children. PNSP isolates of non PHiD-CV vaccine serotypes (NVT) were 154/516, increasing with time, 11/14, in 2011 and 37/54 in 2017. The most common emerging NVTs in 2011 and 2017 were 6C, 1/143 and 10/54 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PNSP of VTs have virtually disappeared from children with pneumococcal diseases after the initiation of pneumococcal vaccination in Iceland and a clear herd effect was observed. This was mainly driven by a decrease of PNSP isolates belonging to a serotype 19F multi-resistant lineage. However, emerging multi-resistant NVT isolates are of concern.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otite Média , Resistência às Penicilinas , Faringe/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sorotipagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myanmar adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) Package for Essential Non-Communicable Disease Interventions (PEN) in 20 pilot townships in 2017. This study was conducted to assess the implementation of PEN, its effectiveness and understand the facilitators and barriers in its implementation. METHODS: Mixed methods design involving a quantitative component (retrospective study analysing both aggregate and individual patient data from PEN project records; cross-sectional facility survey using a structured checklist) and a descriptive qualitative component. RESULTS: A total of 152,446 individuals were screened between May 2017-December 2018 comprising of current smokers (17.5%), tobacco chewers (26.3%), Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 (30.6%), raised blood pressure i.e. ≥ 140/90 mmHg (35.2%) and raised blood sugar i.e. Random Blood Sugar >200 mg/dl, Fasting Blood Sugar >126 mg/dl (17.1%). Nearly 14.8% of those screened had Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score ≥20%, 34.6% had CVD risk not recorded. Of 663 patients registered with diabetes and/or hypertension in 05 townships, 27 (4.1%) patients made three follow-up visits after the baseline visit, of whom, CVD risk assessment, systolic blood pressure and blood sugar measurement was done in all visits in 89.0%, 100.0% and 78.0% of cases respectively. Health facility assessment showed 64% of the sanctioned posts were filled; 90% of those appointed been trained in PEN; key essential medicines for PEN were available in half of the facilities surveyed. Confidence of the health care staff in managing common NCD and perceived benefits of the project were some of the strengths. CONCLUSION: High loss to follow up, poor recording of CVD risk score, lack of essential medicines and equipments were the key challenges identified that need to be addressed before further expansion of PEN project to other townships.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15: 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921327

RESUMO

Background: Breastfeeding is a critical, evidence-based intervention that addresses malnutrition, improves early childhood development outcomes, and influences long-term maternal and infant health by reducing the non-communicable disease risk. Scaling up breastfeeding is an indisputably strong action countries can take to prevent suboptimal maternal and infant health outcomes. The Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly (BBF) initiative assists countries with scaling up breastfeeding policy and programs. BBF has been successfully implemented within Latin America, Africa, Europe and South-East Asian regions. This study assessed its application in Samoa. Methods: In 2018, BBF was implemented in Samoa by a 20 member committee of breastfeeding experts who participated in collecting and utilizing national level data to score the degree of friendliness of Samoa's breastfeeding environment, identify gaps, and propose policy recommendations to address those gaps. This eight-month process resulted in a public event where priority recommendations were widely disseminated to decision makers and actions agreed upon. Results: The total BBF Index score for Samoa was 1.6 out of 3.0, indicating a moderate breastfeeding friendly environment for scaling up policies and programs that protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. Gear total scores indicated that seven of the eight gears were moderately strong within Samoa, while the eighth gear, funding and resources, was weakest in strength. Six prioritized recommendations emerged: 1) development and implementation of a National Breastfeeding Policy and Strategic Action Plan; 2) strengthening monitoring and evaluation of all breastfeeding activities; 3) ratifying the International Labour Organization's Maternity Protection Convention 2000 (No 183); 4) identifying high-level advocates to champion and serve as role models for breastfeeding; 5) creation of a national budget line for breastfeeding activities; and 6) hiring of a national breastfeeding coordinator and trainer. Decision makers demonstrated commitment by signing the breastfeeding policy for hospitals ahead of the BBF dissemination meeting and electing to move forward with establishing lactation rooms within government ministries. Conclusion: Implementation of BBF in Samoa yielded important policy recommendations that will address current gaps in national level breastfeeding support. The BBF consultation process can be successfully applied to other countries within the Western Pacific region in order to strengthen their breastfeeding programs.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fortalecimento Institucional , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Samoa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(2): e13252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may cause CMV disease. To optimize the implementation of existing prevention strategies, the Management of Post-transplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) program was developed. Two key performances of MATCH (diagnosing CMV infection at low viral load (VL) and before the onset of CMV disease) were assessed prior to, during and after the implementation of MATCH. METHODS: The MATCH program included a personalized surveillance plan, prophylaxis and preemptive therapy determined by the recipient's risk of CMV infection. The plan was composed through predefined algorithms and implemented through harvesting of real-time data from medical records. Risk of CMV disease was compared for recipients transplanted during and after vs prior to the implementation of MATCH. Lung and non-lung transplants were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 593, 349, 520, and 360 SOT recipients were transplanted before (2007-2010), during (2011-2012), early after (2013-2015), and late after (2016-2017) implementation of MATCH with an observed reduction of diagnostic VL (P < .001) over time. Risk of CMV disease was reduced among non-lung transplant recipients transplanted during (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] 0.15 [0.04-0.54], P = .003), early after (aHR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P = .003), and late after (aHR 0.17 [0.06-0.52], P = .002) compared with prior to MATCH. No significant change was observed among lung transplants. CONCLUSION: Implementation of CMV preventive strategies through MATCH was associated with a reduced risk of CMV disease among non-lung transplant recipients. Furthermore, the limitations of VL as a sole indicator for CMV disease in lung transplants were emphasized.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais/normas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral
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