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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 433-442, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008494

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are potently cytolytic innate lymphocytes involved in the immune surveillance of tumors and virally infected cells. Although much progress has been made in manipulating the ability of T cells to recognize and eliminate tumors, a comprehensive understanding of NK-cell infiltration into solid tumors, and their amenability to immunomodulation, remains incomplete. This article discusses recent studies showing that urologic tumors are infiltrated by NK cells and that these NK cells are often dysfunctional, but that strategies interfering with inhibitory axes have significant potential to alleviate this dysfunction.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/terapia , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/imunologia
2.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989174

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by excessive inflammation of the lower airways. The balance of protective versus pathological immune responses in COVID-19 is incompletely understood. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are antimicrobial T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, and can also function as innate-like sensors and mediators of antiviral responses. Here, we investigated the MAIT cell compartment in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease, as well as in convalescence. We show profound and preferential decline in MAIT cells in the circulation of patients with active disease paired with strong activation. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses indicated significant MAIT cell enrichment and pro-inflammatory IL-17A bias in the airways. Unsupervised analysis identified MAIT cell CD69high and CXCR3low immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcome. MAIT cell levels normalized in the convalescent phase, consistent with dynamic recruitment to the tissues and later release back into the circulation when disease is resolved. These findings indicate that MAIT cells are engaged in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible involvement in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945643

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as "Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?" and "What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?" Emerging evidences have proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. At immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Estrogênios/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Testosterona/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
4.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934084

RESUMO

Bats are primary reservoirs for multiple lethal human viruses, such as Ebola, Nipah, Hendra, rabies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and, most recently, SARS-CoV-2. The innate immune systems of these immensely abundant, anciently diverged mammals remain insufficiently characterized. While bat genomes contain many endogenous retroviral elements indicative of past exogenous infections, little is known about restrictions to extant retroviruses. Here, we describe a major postentry restriction in cells of the yinpterochiropteran bat Pteropus alecto Primate lentiviruses (HIV-1, SIVmac) were potently blocked at early life cycle steps, with up to 1,000-fold decreases in infectivity. The block was specific, because nonprimate lentiviruses such as equine infectious anemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were unimpaired, as were foamy retroviruses. Interspecies heterokaryons demonstrated a dominant block consistent with restriction of incoming viruses. Several features suggested potential TRIM5 (tripartite motif 5) or myxovirus resistance protein 2 (MX2) protein restriction, including postentry action, cyclosporine sensitivity, and reversal by capsid cyclophilin A (CypA) binding loop mutations. Viral nuclear import was significantly reduced, and this deficit was substantially rescued by cyclosporine treatment. However, saturation with HIV-1 virus-like particles did not relieve the restriction at all. P. alecto TRIM5 was inactive against HIV-1 although it blocked the gammaretrovirus N-tropic murine leukemia virus. Despite major divergence in a critical N-terminal motif required for human MX2 activity, P. alecto MX2 had anti-HIV activity. However, this did not quantitatively account for the restriction and was independent of and synergistic with an additional CypA-dependent restriction. These results reveal a novel, specific restriction to primate lentiviruses in the Pteropodidae and advance understanding of bat innate immunity.IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic suggests that bat innate immune systems are insufficiently characterized relative to the medical importance of these animals. Retroviruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be severe pathogens when they cross species barriers, and bat restrictions corresponding to retroviruses are comparatively unstudied. Here, we compared the abilities of retroviruses from three genera (Lentivirus, Gammaretrovirus, and Spumavirus) to infect cells of the large fruit-eating bat P. alecto and other mammals. We identified a major, specific postentry restriction to primate lentiviruses. HIV-1 and SIVmac are potently blocked at early life cycle steps, but nonprimate lentiviruses and foamy retroviruses are entirely unrestricted. Despite acting postentry and in a CypA-dependent manner with features reminiscent of antiretroviral factors from other mammals, this restriction was not saturable with virus-like particles and was independent of P. alecto TRIM5, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM34, and MX2. These results identify a novel restriction and highlight cyclophilin-capsid interactions as ancient species-specific determinants of retroviral infection.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/imunologia , Gammaretrovirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Lentivirus de Primatas/imunologia , Spumavirus/imunologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Aotidae , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Quirópteros/virologia , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Furões , Gammaretrovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lentivirus de Primatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Spumavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3998, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778730

RESUMO

Allergic asthma is a leading chronic disease associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR). Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a potent source of T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines that promote AHR and lung inflammation. As the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitory axis regulates a variety of immune responses, here we investigate PD-1 function in pulmonary ILC2s during IL-33-induced airway inflammation. PD-1 limits the viability of ILC2s and downregulates their effector functions. Additionally, PD-1 deficiency shifts ILC2 metabolism toward glycolysis, glutaminolysis and methionine catabolism. PD-1 thus acts as a metabolic checkpoint in ILC2s, affecting cellular activation and proliferation. As the blockade of PD-1 exacerbates AHR, we also develop a human PD-1 agonist and show that it can ameliorate AHR and suppresses lung inflammation in a humanized mouse model. Together, these results highlight the importance of PD-1 agonistic treatment in allergic asthma and underscore its therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Células Th2/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): R133-R147, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755992

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has generated an explosion of interest both in the mechanisms of infection leading to dissemination and expression of this disease, and in potential risk factors that may have a mechanistic basis for disease propagation or control. Vitamin D has emerged as a factor that may be involved in these two areas. The focus of this article is to apply our current understanding of vitamin D as a facilitator of immunocompetence both with regard to innate and adaptive immunity and to consider how this may relate to COVID-19 disease. There are also intriguing potential links to vitamin D as a factor in the cytokine storm that portends some of the most serious consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, cardiac and coagulopathic features of COVID-19 disease deserve attention as they may also be related to vitamin D. Finally, we review the current clinical data associating vitamin D with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a putative clinical link that at this time must still be considered hypothetical.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunocompetência/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Defensinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008760, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790753

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) remain a significant global health burden. Activation of the innate immune response is important for controlling early virus replication and spread. It is unclear how early IAV replication events contribute to immune detection. Additionally, while many cell types in the lung can be infected, it is not known if all cell types contribute equally to establish the antiviral state in the host. Here, we use single-cycle influenza A viruses (scIAVs) to characterize the early immune response to IAV in vitro and in vivo. We found that the magnitude of virus replication contributes to antiviral gene expression within infected cells prior to the induction of a global response. We also developed a scIAV that is only capable of undergoing primary transcription, the earliest stage of virus replication. Using this tool, we uncovered replication stage-specific responses in vitro and in vivo. Using several innate immune receptor knockout cell lines, we identify RIG-I as the predominant antiviral detector of primary virus transcription and amplified replication in vitro. Through a Cre-inducible reporter mouse, we used scIAVs expressing Cre-recombinase to characterize cell type-specific responses in vivo. Individual cell types upregulate unique sets of antiviral genes in response to both primary virus transcription and amplified replication. We also identified antiviral genes that are only upregulated in response to direct infection. Altogether, these data offer insight into the early mechanisms of antiviral gene activation during influenza A infection.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Cães , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/patologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008718, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797103

RESUMO

APOBEC3 enzymes are innate immune effectors that introduce mutations into viral genomes. These enzymes are cytidine deaminases which transform cytosine into uracil. They preferentially mutate cytidine preceded by thymidine making the 5'TC motif their favored target. Viruses have evolved different strategies to evade APOBEC3 restriction. Certain viruses actively encode viral proteins antagonizing the APOBEC3s, others passively face the APOBEC3 selection pressure thanks to a depleted genome for APOBEC3-targeted motifs. Hence, the APOBEC3s left on the genome of certain viruses an evolutionary footprint. The aim of our study is the identification of these viruses having a genome shaped by the APOBEC3s. We analyzed the genome of 33,400 human viruses for the depletion of APOBEC3-favored motifs. We demonstrate that the APOBEC3 selection pressure impacts at least 22% of all currently annotated human viral species. The papillomaviridae and polyomaviridae are the most intensively footprinted families; evidencing a selection pressure acting genome-wide and on both strands. Members of the parvoviridae family are differentially targeted in term of both magnitude and localization of the footprint. Interestingly, a massive APOBEC3 footprint is present on both strands of the B19 erythroparvovirus; making this viral genome one of the most cleaned sequences for APOBEC3-favored motifs. We also identified the endemic coronaviridae as significantly footprinted. Interestingly, no such footprint has been detected on the zoonotic MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses. In addition to viruses that are footprinted genome-wide, certain viruses are footprinted only on very short sections of their genome. That is the case for the gamma-herpesviridae and adenoviridae where the footprint is localized on the lytic origins of replication. A mild footprint can also be detected on the negative strand of the reverse transcribing HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HBV viruses. Together, our data illustrate the extent of the APOBEC3 selection pressure on the human viruses and identify new putatively APOBEC3-targeted viruses.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Genoma Viral/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Coronaviridae/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Immunity ; 53(3): 487-495, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853545

RESUMO

Men present more frequently with severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are at higher risk for death. The underlying mechanisms for these differences between female and male individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are insufficiently understood. However, studies from other viral infections have shown that females can mount stronger immune responses against viruses than males. Emerging knowledge on the basic biological pathways that underlie differences in immune responses between women and men needs to be incorporated into research efforts on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and pathology to identify targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing antiviral immune function and lung airway resilience while reducing pathogenic inflammation in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
11.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L603-L619, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783615

RESUMO

Respiratory cilia are the driving force of the mucociliary escalator, working in conjunction with secreted airway mucus to clear inhaled debris and pathogens from the conducting airways. Respiratory cilia are also one of the first contact points between host and inhaled pathogens. Impaired ciliary function is a common pathological feature in patients with chronic airway diseases, increasing susceptibility to respiratory infections. Common respiratory pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, have been shown to target cilia and/or ciliated airway epithelial cells, resulting in a disruption of mucociliary clearance that may facilitate host infection. Despite being an integral component of airway innate immunity, the role of respiratory cilia and their clinical significance during airway infections are still poorly understood. This review examines the expression, structure, and function of respiratory cilia during pathogenic infection of the airways. This review also discusses specific known points of interaction of bacteria, fungi, and viruses with respiratory cilia function. The emerging biological functions of motile cilia relating to intracellular signaling and their potential immunoregulatory roles during infection will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Cílios/metabolismo , Fungos/imunologia , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Vírus/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Muco/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745117

RESUMO

Production of IFN-γ is a key innate immune mechanism that limits replication of intracellular bacteria such as Francisella tularensis (Ft) until adaptive immune responses develop. Previously, we demonstrated that the host cell types responsible for IFN-γ production in response to murine Francisella infection include not only natural killer (NK) and T cells, but also a variety of myeloid cells. However, production of IFN-γ by mouse dendritic cells (DC) is controversial. Here, we directly demonstrated substantial production of IFN-γ by DC, as well as hybrid NK-DC, from LVS-infected wild type C57BL/6 or Rag1 knockout mice. We demonstrated that the numbers of conventional DC producing IFN-γ increased progressively over the course of 8 days of LVS infection. In contrast, the numbers of conventional NK cells producing IFN-γ, which represented about 40% of non-B/T IFN-γ-producing cells, peaked at day 4 after LVS infection and declined thereafter. This pattern was similar to that of hybrid NK-DC. To further confirm IFN-γ production by infected cells, DC and neutrophils were sorted from naïve and LVS-infected mice and analyzed for gene expression. Quantification of LVS by PCR revealed the presence of Ft DNA not only in macrophages, but also in highly purified, IFN-γ producing DC and neutrophils. Finally, production of IFN-γ by infected DC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Notably, IFN-γ production patterns similar to those in wild type mice were observed in cells derived from LVS-infected TLR2, TLR4, and TLR2xTLR9 knockout (KO) mice, but not from MyD88 KO mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the pivotal roles of DC and MyD88 in IFN-γ production and in initiating innate immune responses to this intracellular bacterium.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Tularemia/microbiologia
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760121

RESUMO

Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the γ-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Replicação Viral
14.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 93(1): 60.e1-60.e7, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189679

RESUMO

El nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) productor de síndrome respiratorio agudo severo surge en Wuhan, China, en diciembre de 2019. Genera la denominada enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) y ha llevado a la declaración de emergencia de salud pública global a la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Este nuevo virus SARS-CoV-2 podría compartir características y respuesta inmune a las descritas para otros coronavirus. Dada su actividad sobre la vía del interferón y el modo en el que disregula la inmunidad innata, el uso de tratamientos dirigidos a modular o contener esta pueden ser de interés. Se realiza una revisión narrativa de la evidencia actual acerca de la inmunidad sobre coronavirus y su aplicabilidad para SARS-CoV-2. Se describe también la fisiopatogenia y la actividad leucocitaria subyacente, con intención de clarificar la posible utilidad de biomarcadores inflamatorios y el desarrollo de tratamientos personalizados


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome emerges in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It produces the aforementioned disease due to coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), and has led to a declaration of a world public health emergency by the World Health Organisation. This new SARS-CoV-2 virus could share characteristics and an immune response similar to those described for other coronavirus. Given its activity on the interferon pathway, and the manner in which it dysregulates innate immunity, the use of treatments directed at modulating or containing this could be of interest. A narrative review was made of the current evidence about immunity against coronavirus and its applicability to SARS-CoV-2. The physiopathogenesis is also described, along with the underlying leucocyte activity, with the intention of clarifying the possible usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers and the development of personalised treatments


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Pandemias , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia
15.
Int J Immunogenet ; 47(4): 319-323, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654378

RESUMO

Susceptibility to viral infection, development of immunity, response to treatment and patient clinical outcomes are all under the control of heritable factors in the host. In the context of the current SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, this review considers existing immunogenetic knowledge of virus-immune system interactions. A major focus is to highlight areas in which work is required in order to improve understanding of antiviral immune responses and to move towards improved patient management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Virus Res ; 287: 198094, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730781

RESUMO

The past century has witnessed major advances in the control of many infectious diseases, yet outbreaks and epidemics caused by (re-) emerging RNA viruses continue to pose a global threat to human health. As illustrated by the global COVID19 pandemic, high healthcare costs, economic disruption and loss of productivity reinforce the unmet medical need to develop new antiviral strategies to combat not only the current pandemic but also future viral outbreaks. Pivotal for effective anti-viral defense is the innate immune system, a first line host response that senses and responds to virus infection. While molecular details of the innate immune response are well characterized, this research field is now being revolutionized with the recognition that cell metabolism has a major impact on the antiviral and inflammatory responses to virus infections. A detailed understanding of the role of metabolic regulation with respect to antiviral and inflammatory responses, together with knowledge of the strategies used by viruses to exploit immunometabolic pathways, will ultimately change our understanding and treatment of pathogenic viral diseases. INITIATE is a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Innovative Training Network (MSCA-ITN), with the goal to train 15 early stage PhD researchers (ESRs) to become experts in antiviral immunometabolism (https://initiate-itn.eu/). To this end, INITIATE brings together a highly complementary international team of academic and corporate leaders from 7 European countries, with outstanding track records in the historically distinct research fields of virology, immunology and metabolism. The ESRs of INITIATE are trained in these interdisciplinary research fields through individual investigator-driven research projects, specialized scientific training events, workshops on academia-industry interactions, outreach & communication. INITIATE will deliver a new generation of creative and entrepreneurial researchers who will be able to face the inevitable future challenges in combating viral diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Educação Médica/métodos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655581

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune responders critical for viral clearance and immunomodulation. Despite their vital role in viral infection, the contribution of NK cells in fighting SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been directly investigated. Insights into pathophysiology and therapeutic opportunities can therefore be inferred from studies assessing NK cell phenotype and function during SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. These studies suggest a reduction in circulating NK cell numbers and/or an exhausted phenotype following infection and hint toward the dampening of NK cell responses by coronaviruses. Reduced circulating NK cell levels and exhaustion may be directly responsible for the progression and severity of COVID-19. Conversely, in light of data linking inflammation with coronavirus disease severity, it is necessary to examine NK cell potential in mediating immunopathology. A common feature of coronavirus infections is that significant morbidity and mortality is associated with lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from an exaggerated immune response, of which NK cells are an important component. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how NK cells respond in both early and late coronavirus infections, and the implication for ongoing COVID-19 clinical trials. Using this immunological lens, we outline recommendations for therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 in clearing the virus while preventing the harm of immunopathological responses.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
18.
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713862

RESUMO

The two biological evidences to endorse the antiviral activity of RNA interference (RNAi) are biogenesis of viral-siRNA (v-siRNA) by the host and encoding of RNAi-suppressor protein by viral genome. It has been recently established that mammals and mammalian cell lines mount antiviral RNAi to defend themselves against the invading viruses. The large part of viral pathogenicity is also due to the RNAi suppressor proteins. In this context it is only natural to ask what kinds of RNAi suppressors are encoded by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the central character of the present pandemic. The following mini review addresses this question.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pandemias , Células Vero
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(11): 1900-1901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alarms have been raised that COVID-19 may disproportionately affect certain populations with substance use disorders, particularly Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), however warnings have largely focused on social risks such as reduced availability of services. Objectives: This commentary highlights three plausible biological mechanisms for potentially worsened outcomes in patients with OUD who contract COVID-19. Results: Opioid-related respiratory depression may amplify risks of hypoxemia from COVID-19 viral pneumonia. Complex opioid immune modulation may impact host response to COVID-19, though the effect direction and clinical significance are unclear. Drug-drug interactions may affect individuals with OUD who are co-administered medications for OUD and medications for COVID-19, particularly due to cardiac adverse effects. Conclusions/Importance: There are plausible biological mechanisms for potentially worsened outcomes in patients with OUD who contract COVID-19; these mechanisms require further study, and should be considered in individuals with OUD.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Metadona/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
20.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669287

RESUMO

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified extensive induction and activation of multiple immune lineages, including T cell activation, oligoclonal plasmablast expansion, and Fc and trafficking receptor modulation on innate lymphocytes and granulocytes, that distinguished severe COVID-19 cases from healthy donors or SARS-CoV-2-recovered or moderate severity patients. We found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to be a prognostic biomarker of disease severity and organ failure. Our findings demonstrate broad innate and adaptive leukocyte perturbations that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Seleção Clonal Mediada por Antígeno/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
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