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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding or gestation in schistosomotic mothers can cause long-term alterations in the immune response of offspring. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) (all classes), the production of cytokines by T and B lymphocytes and macrophages, and the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+-cells in adult offspring born and/or suckled by schistosomotic mothers. METHODS: We harvested splenocytes from offspring born to (BIM), suckled by (SIM), or born to/suckled by (BSIM) schistosomotic mothers and animals from noninfected mothers (Control) at seven-weeks old and cultured them with/without Concanavalin A. HDAC expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and cytokines and membrane markers were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). FINDINGS: Compared to Control, BIM mice showed increased expression of HDAC9 and frequency of CD4+IL-10+-cells. The SIM group had increased expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC10, Sirt2, Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7. The BSIM group only had increased HDAC10 expression. The SIM and BSIM groups exhibited decreased frequencies of CD4+IL-4+-cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+-cells, along with a higher frequency of CD14+IL-10+-cells and an increase in CD45R/B220+IL-10+-cells. The BSIM group also showed a high frequency of CD4+IL10+-cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding induced the expression of HDACs from various classes involved in reducing inflammatory responses. However, gestation enhanced the expression of a single HDAC and breastfeeding or gestation appears to favour multiple IL-10-dependent pathways, but not cells with a regulatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/parasitologia , Aleitamento Materno , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/metabolismo , Baço/química , Animais , Animais Lactentes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Camundongos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez
2.
Nature ; 577(7791): 543-548, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915378

RESUMO

Although maternal antibodies protect newborn babies from infection1,2, little is known about how protective antibodies are induced without prior pathogen exposure. Here we show that neonatal mice that lack the capacity to produce IgG are protected from infection with the enteric pathogen enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by maternal natural IgG antibodies against the maternal microbiota when antibodies are delivered either across the placenta or through breast milk. By challenging pups that were fostered by either maternal antibody-sufficient or antibody-deficient dams, we found that IgG derived from breast milk was crucial for protection against mucosal disease induced by enterotoxigenic E. coli. IgG also provides protection against systemic infection by E. coli. Pups used the neonatal Fc receptor to transfer IgG from milk into serum. The maternal commensal microbiota can induce antibodies that recognize antigens expressed by enterotoxigenic E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae species. Induction of maternal antibodies against a commensal Pantoea species confers protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli in pups. This role of the microbiota in eliciting protective antibodies to a specific neonatal pathogen represents an important host defence mechanism against infection in neonates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Recém-Nascido/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mães , Pantoea/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Simbiose/imunologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants are often assumed to be immune to measles through maternal antibodies transferred during pregnancy and, in many countries, receive their first measles-containing vaccine at 12 to 15 months. Immunity may wane before this time in measles-eliminated settings, placing infants at risk for measles and complications. We investigated humoral immunity to measles in infants <12 months of age in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We selected sera collected at a tertiary pediatric hospital from infants <12 months who were born at ≥37 weeks' gestational age. We excluded infants with conditions that affect antibody levels. We selected ≤25 sera from 8 predetermined age bands and tested them for measles-neutralizing antibody using the plaque-reduction neutralization test. We calculated the proportion immune at each age band, and predictors of infant susceptibility were assessed by using multivariable logistic regression and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of 196 infant sera, 56% (110 of 196) were from boys, and 35% (69 of 196) were from infants with underlying medical conditions. In the first month, 20% (5 of 25) of infants had antibodies below the protective threshold, which increased to 92% (22 of 24) by 3 months. By 6 months, all infants had titers below the protective threshold. In a multivariable analysis, infant age was the strongest predictor of susceptibility (odds ratio = 2.13 for each additional month increase; 95% confidence interval: 1.52-2.97). CONCLUSIONS: Most infants were susceptible to measles by 3 months of age in this elimination setting. Our findings inform important policy discussions relating to the timing of the first dose of measles-containing vaccine and infant postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Ontário , Testes Sorológicos
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 557-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590902

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence has shown that calves can mount an immune response when vaccinated in the face of maternal antibodies (IFOMA), albeit inconsistently and often in ways that differ from seronegative calves or older cattle. Several previous reviews have endeavored to explain bovine neonatal immunology and have documented the issue of vaccinating young calves. However, as preweaning vaccination becomes more common in both beef and dairy production systems, so too has research on the impacts of such vaccination programs. This article aims to briefly review the challenges and opportunities for vaccinating calves IFOMA.


Assuntos
Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Gravidez , Vacinação/métodos
5.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 313-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571732

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers with 2 doses of a killed-virus (KV) vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) on the serum concentrations of antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 in heifers and their calves and on the IgG concentration in the calves. Of the 47 pregnant beef heifers selected, 26 received 2 doses of the vaccine at 6.5 to 8 mo of gestation (at pregnancy check), and 21 received 2 doses of saline. The mean log2 serum titers of neutralizing antibody against BoHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 before vaccination did not differ significantly between the treatment groups; however, at calving all 3 mean titers were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated heifers than in the control heifers. At 24 h after birth the mean serum IgG levels in the calves did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, at 30.18 and 32.28 g/L, respectively (P < 0.05); however, the mean log2 serum titers of antibody to all 3 viruses were greater in the calves nursing colostrum from the vaccinated heifers than in the calves nursing colostrum from the nonvaccinated heifers and significantly so for BoHV-1 and BVDV-1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Thus, late-gestation vaccination of beef heifers could result in a greater and more consistent deposition of specific antibodies in colostrum, reducing the variability of initial titers in calves and increasing the duration of maternal immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 84, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640807

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Paridade , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
7.
Vet J ; 251: 105348, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492388

RESUMO

This study examined the long-term effects of failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT; diagnosed at 1-8 days of age) on subsequent milk production, growth, reproduction, and lactation performance in dairy heifers from 12 to 36 months of age. A total of 34 farms from the Waikato and Canterbury regions of New Zealand were enrolled in 2015. Each farm was visited on three occasions during the seasonal calving period (early, middle, and late). Blood samples were collected at each visit from 20 replacement heifer calves aged between 1 and 7 days to test for FPT. These heifers (n=1879) were monitored from birth until the end of their first lactation. From 12 months of age onwards, animals were weighed at 15 and 22 months, pregnancy tested 100 days following their first mating, and milk was sampled between 3-4 times during their first lactation to determine milk volume and milk component yields. Farmers recorded any mortality events. FPT had no effect on the odds of mortality from 12 to 22 months (P=0.57) and 12 to 34 months of age (P=0.44). There was no difference in bodyweight at 15 months (P=0.17) and 22 months of age (P=0.95), no significant difference in the odds of being diagnosed pregnant (OR 1.44; 95% CI 0.82-2.69), and no effect on milk solids (fat plus protein) yields (P=0.67). No associations were observed between serum total protein (STP) concentration and milk solids yields (P=0.22) and any other milk parameters. The data from this study indicate that FPT did not adversely affect productivity, performance, or mortality beyond 12 months of age in heifers reared in pasture-based systems.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lactação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Bovinos/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Leite , Mortalidade , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez
8.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 995-1006, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373211

RESUMO

Safety and efficacy of vaccinations during pregnancy have been a matter of debate. In the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, a growing body of research has emerged, which points toward the importance of adhering to influenza vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. The same applies for vaccination against pertussis. Some vaccines (e.g., live attenuated) are still contraindicated during pregnancy. However, data indicate that these vaccines do not result in fetal impairment when administered accidentally during pregnancy. In the following, we provide a review on vaccination-related safety and efficacy aspects in pregnant women, shedding some light on potential barriers that stymie vaccination uptake among pregnant women and introducing strategies to overcome these barriers.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez/imunologia , Gestantes , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/imunologia
9.
N Z Vet J ; 67(6): 277-286, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401943

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to critically assess the test characteristics and practicality of published data on direct and indirect tests for diagnosing failure of transfer of passive immunity (FPT) in dairy calves in New Zealand, to provide recommendations for veterinary practitioners, and to examine the recommended sample size for assessing herd-level prevalence of FPT and the confidence in the results obtained. The definition of FPT is based on measurement of concentrations of IgG in serum of neonatal calves after colostrum intake. The gold standard method for measurement of concentrations of IgG is radial immunodiffusion. However its cost, requirements for laboratory equipment, and the time taken to obtain results have meant that alternative tests have been developed. The turbidimetric immunoassay and ELISA also directly measure concentrations of IgG. Indirect tests include measurement of concentrations of total proteins (TP) in the laboratory or using a refractometer, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, and the zinc sulfate turbidity (ZST) test. Of the indirect tests, measurement of concentrations of TP in the laboratory or using a refractometer combine high specificity and sensitivity with a consistent association with concentrations of IgG in calves between 1-7 days of age. Using a refractometer is less accurate than direct measurement in a laboratory, but is still a suitable test if low cost and speed are important. Although GGT activity is strongly associated with concentrations of IgG in serum, the relationship varies with time after birth. Therefore the target thresholds change with time, increasing error compared to the measurement of concentrations of TP in serum. Similarly, factors other than total concentrations of IgG have a significant effect on the association with ZST test, complicating interpretation. Thus, when direct measurement of concentrations of IgG is not feasible, the recommendation is that concentrations of TP in serum should be used as the diagnostic test for diagnosis of FPT, providing calves are not dehydrated. Using a sample size of 12 calves is suitable for estimating whether the herd-level prevalence of FPT is <20% or >20%, if there are no calves or >5 calves diagnosed with FPT, respectively, but is limited in diagnostic confidence when 1-4 calves test positive. Diagnostic interpretation can be significantly improved if tests of FPT are used alongside information on the likely risk of FPT on the tested farm.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Nova Zelândia
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 60-66, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442895

RESUMO

Maternal antibody transmission via placenta and breastmilk are known to confer protection in infants. In this study, we investigated the maternal immunity transmission in pups delivered by rats infected with Trichinella spiralis and assessed the resulting resistance against subsequent parasitic infection. Our results revealed that parasite-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were present in pups prior to breastmilk ingestion (pre-milk), in which IgG and IgG1 antibodies persisted until week 8 after birth while parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies only lasted until week 4. After weaning on week 3, pups delivered by T. spiralis-infected dam and subsequently challenge-infected (immune-challenge) were found to possess higher mucosal IgG antibodies than control groups, whereas mucosal IgA levels were not significantly different across all groups. T. spiralis excretory-secretory antigen was discovered to react with pup sera until week 8, correlating with the resistance against parasitic infection which is represented by lessened worm burden. Upon T. spiralis infection at weeks 3 and 8, lower levels of eosinophil responses were detected in immune-challenge pups compared to naïve-challenge pups, indicating correlates of resistances in which ADCC may be involved. Findings from the present study demonstrate that resistances against T. spiralis infection in pups can be acquired by maternally-derived IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody transmission through the placenta and breastmilk from T. spiralis-infected dam, which lasts until week 8.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Leite/imunologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Ratos
11.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 217: 109881, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450164

RESUMO

Vaccination against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in pregnant cows is crucial to produce greater immunity in new born calves, especially in late gestation, as this directly affects neonatal immunity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how late gestation FMD vaccination of pregnant cows affects the maternally derived antibodies in their offspring. Pregnant cows were vaccinated with and without booster vaccination during the 3rd months (early gestation vaccination, EGV) or the 6.5th months (late gestation vaccination, LGV). Their offspring were investigated for passive immunity transfer, maternal antibody duration, and the first vaccination age of calves (when the maternal antibody has waned sufficiently to allow the first vaccination). Antibody titers were analyzed by a virus neutralization test (VNT). A digital Brix refractometer (% Brix) was used to estimate passive antibody transfer efficiency measuring total protein (TP) content of calf blood sera and also colostrum IgG content. Two linear mixed effects models were fitted: one for the antibody titer values of the dams, and the other for the antibody titer values of calves before the vaccination. A marginal fixed effects model was also fitted to explore the effects of the dam titers on the antibody titers of the calves after their vaccinations. As a result, the average neutralizing antibody titers did not differ between the EGV and LGV groups nor were any differences detected between dams that received a booster and those that were not boosted. However, the LGV calves' mean maternally derived antibody titers were significantly higher (p-values = 0.0001 for both groups) and the duration was longer than that of the EGV calves (120 days in LGV, 60 days in EGV, p < 0.05). Since no statistical difference was found between the titers of either group of dams at the beginning of the experiment and parturition, it does not appear that the higher VN titers in LGV calves compared to titers in EGV are directly related to the circulating antibody levels in the dams. Furthermore, the TP value (% Brix) of calf blood sera was higher than>8.4% in both calf groups (9.3 ±â€¯0.33 in LGV and 8.6 ±â€¯0.40 in EGV, p > 0.05) indicating that passive immunity transfer had occurred for both groups. In addition, we found that the % Brix mean colostrum IgG content of the LGV (25.8 ±â€¯1.30) was higher than the EGV (21.8 ±â€¯0.58) dams (p < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation found between the colostrum density of LGV dams and TP (% Brix) value of their offspring (r = 0.73, p < 0.01). Our results show that vaccination during the late gestation period increased the colostrum IgG content of dams of LGV in addition to the maternally derived antibody duration and potentially provided greater protection of the offspring.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Colostro/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/métodos
12.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(4): 241-253, jul.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023526

RESUMO

Introduction: Neural development is an enormously complex and dynamic process. From very early in brain development 'immune cells' play a key role in a number of processes including the formation and refinement of neural circuits, as well as sexual differentiation. There is a growing body of evidence that the immune system also plays an important role in the pathobiology of several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Objective: The goal of this article is to review the currently available data concerning the role of the 'immune system' in normal brain development, as well as its role in the pathobiology of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Methodology: We conducted a traditional literature search using PubMed and recent special issues of journals to locate relevant review articles. Results: The cellular and molecular processes that make up our 'immune system' are crucial to normal brain development and the formation and maintenance of neural circuits. It is also increasingly evident that the immune system and neuroinflammation play important roles in the pathobiology of at least a subset of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome and mood disorders, such as depression, as well as autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging evidence also points to the importance of the 'gut-brain axis' and an individual's microbiome, which can impact an individual's somatic and mental well-being. Conclusions: There are multidirectional interconnections across multiple biological systems in our brains and bodies that are mediated in part by the immune system. At present, however, the 'promise' of this field remains greater than the 'deliverables'. Time will tell whether novel interventions will be developed that will make a positive difference in the care of our patients. It is also possible that valid biomarkers will emerge that will guide a more personalized approach to treatment.


Introdução: O desenvolvimento neural é um processo extremamente complexo e dinâmico. Tao pronto se inicia o desenvolvimento do cérebro, as "células imunológicas" desempenham um papel fundamental em vários processos, incluindo a formação e aperfeiçoamento de circuitos neurais, bem como a diferenciação sexual. Há um crescente corpo de evidências de que o sistema imunológico também desempenha um papel importante na fisiopatologia de diversos transtornos neurodesenvolvimentais e neuropsiquiátricos. Objetivo: O objetivo deste artigo é revisar os dados atualmente disponíveis sobre o papel do "sistema imunológico" em relação ao desenvolvimento normal do cérebro, bem como a fisiopatogenia dos transtornos de neurodesenvolvimento e neuropsiquiátricos. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica tradicional para localizar artigos de revisão relevantes. Resultados: Os processos celulares e moleculares que compõem o nosso "sistema imunológico" são cruciais para o desenvolvimento normal do cérebro e a formação e manutenção de circuitos neurais. É cada vez mais evidente que o sistema imunológico e neuroinflamação desempenham papéis importantes na etiopatogenia de pelo menos um subconjunto de indivíduos com autismo, esquizofrenia, transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, síndrome de Tourette, depressão e transtornos do humor, bem como distúrbios autoimunes e neurodegenerativos. Evidências emergentes também apontam para a importância do eixo intestino-cerebral e do microbioma de um indivíduo em relação à sua saúde e bem-estar somático e mental. Conclusões: Existem interconexões multidirecionais entre múltiplos sistemas biológicos em nossos cérebros e corpos que são mediados em parte pelo sistema imunológico. No momento, no entanto, a "promessa" desse campo continua sendo maior do que os "resultados finais". O tempo dirá se novas intervenções serão desenvolvidas que farão uma diferença positiva no cuidado de nossos pacientes. Também é possível que surjam biomarcadores válidos que orientarão uma abordagem mais personalizada ao tratamento.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Neuroimunomodulação , Síndrome de Tourette , Microglia , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Esquizofrenia , Estresse Psicológico , Citocinas , Depressão , Alergia e Imunologia
13.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(4): 288-295, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307216

RESUMO

Understanding maternal dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibody kinetics in infants remains timely to develop a safe and effective childhood immunization. This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and persistence of maternal antibody titers against DENV serotypes 1 to 4 in 139 Thai infants at 2, 6, and 7 months of age, using serum samples collected in a vaccination trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT00197275). Neutralizing antibodies against all 4 DENV serotypes were detected in 87.8% and 22.9% of infants at 2 and 7 months, respectively. At 2 months, DENV-4 neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers were notably lower (80) compared with DENV-1 to DENV-3 (277-471). Our results corroborate previous findings that DENV-1 to DENV-4 maternal antibodies persist at 7 months despite titers decrease from 2 months onwards. As persisting maternal antibodies may inhibit immune responses in DENV-vaccinated infants, a comprehensive understanding of DENV antibody kinetics is required in the perspective of vaccine development for infants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorogrupo , Tailândia
14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336756

RESUMO

Antenatal milk anti-influenza antibodies may provide additional protection to newborns until they are able to produce their own antibodies. To evaluate the relative abundance of milk, we studied the antibodies specific to influenza A in feeds and gastric contents and stools from preterm infants fed mother's own breast milk (MBM) and donor breast milk (DBM). Feed (MBM or DBM) and gastric contents (MBM or DBM at 1 h post-ingestion) and stool samples (MBM/DBM at 24 h post-ingestion) were collected, respectively, from 20 preterm (26-36 weeks gestational age) mother-infant pairs at 8-9 days and 21-22 days of postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for anti-H1N1 hemagglutinin (anti-H1N1 HA) and anti-H3N2 neuraminidase (anti-H3N2 NA) specificity across immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes. The relative abundance of influenza A-specific IgA in feeds and gastric contents were higher in MBM than DBM at 8-9 days of postnatal age but did not differ at 21-22 days. Anti-influenza A-specific IgM was higher in MBM than in DBM at both postnatal times in feed and gastric samples. At both postnatal times, anti-influenza A-specific IgG was higher in MBM than DBM but did not differ in gastric contents. Gastric digestion reduced anti-H3N2 NA IgG from MBM at 21-22 days and from DBM at 8-9 days of lactation, whereas other anti-influenza A antibodies were not digested at either postnatal times. Supplementation of anti-influenza A-specific antibodies in DBM may help reduce the risk of influenza virus infection. However, the effective antibody dose required to induce a significant protective effect remains unknown.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A/química , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina M/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Leite Humano/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Fezes/química , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mães
15.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 162-170, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255495

RESUMO

The puppy, born without immunoglobulins G (IgG), acquires a passive systemic immunity thanks to colostrum intake during the two first days of life. The quality of passive immune transfer (i.e. blood IgG concentration at two days of age), highly variable between litters and between puppies within litters, depends mainly on the time elapsed between birth and ingestion of colostrum, with limited influence of colostrum IgG concentration. Deficit in passive immune transfer, impacting puppy's health and neonatal mortality rate, can be indirectly diagnosed through blood gammaglutamyltransferases assay and evaluation of growth rate over the two first days of life. In the absence of maternal colostrum, few homo- and heterospecific immune sources are available and canine colostrum banking remains the optimal solution. Whereas passive immune transfer is crucial for survival during the neonatal period, it later interferes with response to vaccination. In addition to systemic passive immune transfer, maternal antibodies (mainly IgA) would provide local (digestive) immunity, ensuring mid-term protection of the puppies' gut together with probably long term training of the digestive immune system.


Assuntos
Cães/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Colostro/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Leite/imunologia , Gravidez
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226153

RESUMO

Two types of gammaherpesviruses (γEHV) are known to infect horses, EHV-2 and EHV-5. Foals become infected early in life, probably via the upper respiratory tract, despite maternal antibodies. In this study, we analyzed samples from a herd of mares and their foals. The foals were followed from birth to 22 months of age and the dams during the first 6 months postpartum. Blood and nasal swab samples were taken regularly for evaluation of antibody responses, virus isolation and viral load by qPCR. EHV-2 was isolated on day 5, and EHV-5 on day 12, earlier than previously reported. γEHV specific antibodies were not detectable in serum of foals before colostrum intake but peaked a few days after colostrum. Overall, EHV-2 viral load peaked in nasal swab at three to four months of age, paralleled with decline in maternal antibodies, but EHV-5 viral load did not peak until month 12. Maternal antibodies had a notable effect on the viral load and induction of endogenous antibody production. Foals were grouped in two groups depending on the mare's γEHV specific total IgG levels in serum at birth, group-high and group-low. Group-high had higher levels of maternal γEHV specific total IgG and IgG4/7 for the first 3 months, but when the endogenous production had superseded maternal antibodies, group-low was higher. The maternal antibodies had an effect on the γEHV viral load. Group-low peaked in EHV-2 viral load one month earlier than group-high. These effects were more evident for EHV-5, as there were seven months between the viral load peaks for the groups. The study provides information on how maternal antibody transfer affects γEHV shedding and antibody production in offspring. It also extends our knowledge on the occurrence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 infection in foals during the first two years of life.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Carga Viral/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/imunologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Masculino , Carga Viral/veterinária
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 233, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea in children and ruminants at the earliest stages of life. Maternal antibodies represent the main shield of neonate mammals for most of the infections. Two recombinant antigens (SA35 and SA40), portions of two C. parvum proteins, were tested for their ability to induce immune responses in adult mice and for protection on neonate BALB/c mice born from females immunised by mucosal delivery of both peptides. METHODS: Adult BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunised with SA35 and SA40, separately or mixed, and their immune response was characterised. Furthermore, BALB/c pregnant mice were immunised by mucosal delivery with an SA35/40 mix, before and during pregnancy. Soon after birth, their offspring were infected with two doses (1 × 105 and 5 × 103) of C. parvum oocysts and the parasitic burden was determined at 5 and 9 days post-infection. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal immunisation with SA35 and SA40 induced specific IgG and IgG1 in serum, specific IgA in the intestinal mucosa, increase of CD3+/CD4+ and CD30+ cells in splenocytes, which produced IFN-γ. Neonates born from immunised mice and infected with 1 × 105 oocysts showed a significant reduction of oocysts and intestinal forms (23 and 42%, respectively). A reduction of all parasitic forms (96%; P < 0.05) was observed when neonates were infected with 5 × 103 oocysts. CONCLUSIONS: SA35 and SA40 peptides induce specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to C. parvum in adult mice. Moreover, mucosal administration of the SA35/40 mix in pregnant mice reduces C. parvum burden in their litters.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Peptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oócitos/imunologia , Peptídeos/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1796-1806, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonellosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves, often occurring before preventative vaccines can be administered. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effect on calves of colostrum from cows vaccinated with a commercially available Salmonella Newport bacterin against a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. ANIMALS: Twenty Holstein bull calves from a university dairy farm. METHODS: Nonrandomized placebo-controlled trial in which colostrum was harvested from 30 cows that received 2 doses of either Salmonella bacterin or saline before calving. Colostrum collected from each group was pooled and fed to 2 groups of 10 calves at birth. At approximately 2 weeks of age, calves were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium. Clinical, hematologic, microbiological, and postmortem findings were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: No differences in mortality, clinical findings, hematology results, blood and fecal cultures, or necropsy findings between the 2 groups were observed. Vaccinated cows had higher colostral titers, and calves fed this colostrum had higher serum titers (mean difference, 0.429; mean [SE], 0.852 [0.02] for vaccinated versus 0.423 [0.02] for control calves). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Transfer of colostral immunoglobulins from Salmonella enterica serotype Newport bacterin to neonatal calves was not sufficient to decrease mortality, clinical signs, sepsis, intestinal damage, or fecal shedding when exposed to a highly pathogenic Salmonella isolate. A large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial is needed to evaluate the efficacy of this bacterin when administered in the dry period for prevention of salmonellosis in neonatal calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Colostro , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Masculino , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella enterica/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
19.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(2): 151-162, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954167

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood in developed countries, with a continually increasing prevalence. The paradigm of asthma control is shifting from disease management to primary prevention, and the modification of numerous host and external factors have been proposed as methods to prevent recurrent wheeze and asthma in children, some with promising preliminary results. This article reviews potential asthma prevention strategies and identifies future areas of research.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Microbiota/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Risco , Vitamina D/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3150-3157, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919905

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins, which are passed vertically from hens to their progeny, are first present in the eggs but with time also in the developing embryos and eventually in the serum of hatching chicks, and have protective function during embryogenesis and in the first few weeks of birds' life, before the immune system becomes fully efficient. Considering the above fact, the aim of this study was to determine total levels of IgM and IgY as well as specific IgY antibody titers against selected pathogens in the serum of breeder turkeys and their progeny, as well as in egg yolks and egg whites. Study results demonstrated that the level of IgY antibodies in the serum of turkey breeder hens reached 22.04 mg/mL on average in the whole egg laying cycle. In addition, the mean transfer percentage of IgY antibodies from turkey layers to their progeny reached approximately 31.4%, but the level of this transfer differed depending on pathogen character and accounted for 33.2%, 51.9%, 45.1%, and 44.3% in the case of antibodies against avian metapneumoviruses, Newcastle disease virus, Ornithobacterium rhinortacheale, and Pasteurella multocida, respectively. Antibody percentage transfer differed also as affected by the stage of the egg production cycle. Study results confirmed the earlier observed dependency concerning the class of antibodies transferred to eggs from laying hens, and while the IgY were mainly detected in the egg yolk extracts, the IgM were found only in egg white extracts; in comparison to IgY, the IgM antibodies were not transferred to the serum of turkey poults. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that describes in detail the phenomenon of maternal antibody transfer in turkeys.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/análise , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Óvulo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Metapneumovirus/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Ornithobacterium/imunologia , Pasteurella multocida/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Perus/imunologia
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