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2.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(6): 974-978, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and infection-to-delivery interval with maternal and cord serum concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and transplacental transfer ratio in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27 March 2020 and 24 January 2021. We collected information regarding deep throat saliva or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, serial cycle threshold (Ct) values at and after diagnosis, demographic, clinical and outcome data, and neonatal NPS RT-PCR results. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed in maternal and cord blood serum samples obtained at delivery. Correlation of maternal Ct values, infection-to-delivery interval, infection duration and viral load area under the curve (AUC) with gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, maternal and cord serum IgG concentrations and transplacental transfer ratio of IgG were evaluated using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: Twenty pregnant women who consented to participate and who had delivered their babies by 31 January 2021 were included in the study, comprising 14 who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and six with active infection at delivery. The median GA at clinical manifestation was 32.7 (range, 11.9-39.4) weeks. The median infection-to-delivery interval and infection duration were 41.5 (range, 2-187) days and 10.0 (range, 1-48) days, respectively. The median GA at delivery was 39.1 (range, 32.4-40.7) weeks and the median seroconversion interval was 14 (range, 1-19) days. Of 13 neonates born to seropositive mothers with recovered infection at delivery, 12 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All neonatal NPS samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and all cord sera tested negative for IgM. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 (interquartile range, 0.9-1.6). There was a negative correlation between infection-to-delivery interval and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in maternal (r = -0.6693, P = 0.0087) and cord (r = -0.6554, P = 0.0068) serum and a positive correlation between IgG concentration in maternal serum and viral load AUC (r = 0.5109, P = 0.0310). A negative correlation was observed between transfer ratio and viral load AUC (r = -0.4757, P = 0.0409). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women who have recovered from COVID-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations at delivery increased with increasing viral load during infection and decreased with increasing infection-to-delivery interval. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 and it decreased with increasing viral load during infection. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2018-2026, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358161

RESUMO

Passive transfer of immunity is important for calf health and survival. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for calf passive transfer of immunity through producer-recorded serum total protein (STP) and to determine associations with other routinely evaluated traits in organic Holstein calves (n = 16,725) that were born between July 2013 to June 2018; a restricted subset (n = 7,518) of calves with known Holstein maternal grandsires was analyzed separately. Producers measured STP on farm, and STP was extracted from farm management software. Failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT) was declared for calves with STP ≤5.2 g/dL. Calves that had the opportunity to reach 1 yr of age were recorded as either staying in the herd or leaving the herd (STAY365). Univariate and threshold models were fitted for STP and FPT, respectively, and included the fixed effects of herd-year-month of birth, calf age in days at STP measurement, dam age in years, and random effects of animal and birthdate within herd. Model effects for STAY365 included the fixed effects of herd-year-month of birth and random effects of animal and birthdate within herd. Multivariate analyses of STP with FPT or STAY365 were conducted to determine the genetic correlation between traits and STP was also regressed on gestation length. Heritability estimates of STP were 0.06 and 0.08 for full and restricted data, respectively. Heritability estimates for FPT were 0.04 and 0.06 for full and restricted data, respectively. The genetic correlation between STP and FPT was near unity. Heritability estimates for STAY365 ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 with genetic correlation estimates between STP and STAY365 ranging from 0.19 and 0.25. Approximate genetic correlations were estimated for sires (n = 302 and n = 256 for full and restricted data, respectively) with at least 10 daughters for STP and predicted transmitting abilities for health, calving traits, and production. Positive approximate genetic correlations were estimated for STP with cow livability, productive life, net merit dollars, and milk yield; favorable approximate genetic correlations were observed for daughter and sire calving ease, and sire stillbirth. Longer gestation length was associated with reduced STP genetically and phenotypically. These results suggest that passive transfer as measured through STP is heritable and favorably correlated with current measures of health, calving, and production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Colostro/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/genética , Leite/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Parto , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Natimorto/veterinária
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030455, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351086

RESUMO

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Women with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited from April 2 to June 13, 2020, and follow-up occurred through July 10, 2020. Contemporaneous participants without SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled as a convenience sample from pregnant women with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, defined by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal plasma or respiratory fluids and umbilical cord plasma, quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in maternal and cord plasma, and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the placenta. Results: Among 127 pregnant women enrolled, 64 with RT-PCR results positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 31.6 [5.6] years) and 63 with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [5.4] years) provided samples for analysis. Of women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 (36%) were asymptomatic, 22 (34%) had mild disease, 7 (11%) had moderate disease, 10 (16%) had severe disease, and 2 (3%) had critical disease. In viral load analyses among 107 women, there was no detectable viremia in maternal or cord blood and no evidence of vertical transmission. Among 77 neonates tested in whom SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were quantified in cord blood, 1 had detectable immunoglobuilin M to nucleocapsid. Among 88 placentas tested, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any. In antibody analyses among 37 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G was detected in 24 women (65%) and anti-nucleocapsid was detected in 26 women (70%). Mother-to-neonate transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower than transfer of anti-influenza hemagglutinin A antibodies (mean [SD] cord-to-maternal ratio: anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G, 0.72 [0.57]; anti-nucleocapsid, 0.74 [0.44]; anti-influenza, 1.44 [0.80]; P < .001). Nonoverlapping placental expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no evidence of placental infection or definitive vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was inefficient. Lack of viremia and reduced coexpression and colocalization of placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 may serve as protective mechanisms against vertical transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Placenta/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Placenta/patologia , Placenta/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5236, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067431

RESUMO

The etiology of major neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism is unclear, with evidence supporting a combination of genetic factors and environmental insults, including viral infection during pregnancy. Here we utilized a mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA) with the viral mimic PolyI:C infection during early gestation. We investigated the transcriptional changes in the brains of mouse fetuses following MIA during the prenatal period, and evaluated the behavioral and biochemical changes in the adult brain. The results reveal an increase in RNA editing levels and dysregulation in brain development-related gene pathways in the fetal brains of MIA mice. These MIA-induced brain editing changes are not observed in adulthood, although MIA-induced behavioral deficits are observed. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIA induces transient dysregulation of RNA editing at a critical time in brain development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Edição de RNA , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/imunologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Poli I-C/efeitos adversos , Poli I-C/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 641, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal poliovirus antibodies could provide passive immunity to the newborns from poliovirus infection during their first few months of life, but they may impair the immune responses of infants to the poliovirus vaccine as well. In our study, we pooled the data from three clinical trials of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) based on Sabin strains to investigate the effect of maternal poliovirus antibodies on the immune responses of infants to poliovirus vaccines. METHODS: There were five groups in the pooled analysis, including low-dose Sabin IPV, medium-dose Sabin IPV, high-dose Sabin IPV, control Sabin IPV, and control Salk IPV groups. We reclassified the infants in different groups according to their maternal poliovirus antibodies by two methods, the first one included maternal antibody negative (< 1:8) and maternal antibody positive (≥1:8), and the second one included maternal antibody titer < 1:8, 1:8 ~ < 1:32 and ≥ 1:32. Then, we compared the geometric mean titers (GMTs), geometric mean antibody fold increases (GMIs) and seroconversion rates of poliovirus type-specific neutralizing antibodies after vaccination among participants with different maternal poliovirus antibody levels. RESULTS: The GMTs and GMIs of three types of poliovirus antibodies after vaccination in maternal antibody negative participants were significantly higher than those in maternal antibody positive participants. The seroconversion rates of type II and type III poliovirus antibodies in maternal antibody positive participants were significantly lower than those in maternal antibody negative participants. Among participants with maternal antibody titer < 1:8, 1:8 ~ < 1:32 and ≥ 1:32, the GMTs and GMIs of three types of poliovirus antibodies after vaccination showed a tendency to decline with the increasing of maternal antibody levels. The seroconversion rates of three types of poliovirus antibodies in participants with maternal antibody titer ≥1:32 were significantly lower than those in participants with maternal antibody titer < 1:8 and 1:8 ~ < 1:32. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal poliovirus antibodies interfered with the immune responses of infants to poliovirus vaccines, and a high level of maternal antibodies exhibited a greater dampening effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04264598 February 11, 2020; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04264546 February 11, 2020; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03902054 April 3, 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/uso terapêutico , Poliovirus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Poliomielite/virologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Soroconversão
9.
Mol Immunol ; 126: 129-135, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823237

RESUMO

Kalliklectin is a unique fish-specific lectin, whose sequence is similar to the heavy chain of mammalian plasma kallikrein and coagulation factor XI. In this study, we aimed to evaluate dynamic expression profiles of the lectin gene, during early developmental stages, in fugu, Takifugu rubripes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the kalliklectin gene was not expressed until 14 h post-fertilization (hpf), while the mRNA was detected after 30 hpf. In real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), the gene was first expressed at 10.5 hpf; then, the expression level increased with a peak at 30 hpf and then gradually decreased. On the other hand, western blotting with specific antibody detected the lectin protein at all tested stages, including the unfertilized egg, which suggests that the lectin detected in the early stages was a maternal factor. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that kalliklectin was localized at the basement membranes of the newly hatched larvae, while the lectin was widely detected in epidermal cells in larva at 5 dph. A 40-kDa lectin was partially purified from unfertilized eggs using mannose-affinity chromatography, and the lectin was determined as kalliklectin by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis, which indicated that the lectin is functional in the eggs. The egg lectin can bind to Gram-positive bacterial pathogens of fish, such as Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae. We conclude that fugu kalliklectin might be an important immunocomponent, transferred from mother to offspring.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Takifugu/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lactococcus/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Óvulo/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Streptococcus iniae/imunologia , Takifugu/imunologia , Takifugu/microbiologia
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(12): 1280-1282, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data regarding transplacental passage of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibodies and potential immunity in the newborn is limited. CASE REPORT: We present a 25-year-old multigravida with known red blood cell isoimmunization, who was found to be COVID-19 positive at 27 weeks of gestation while undergoing serial periumbilical blood sampling and intrauterine transfusions. Maternal COVID-19 antibody was detected 2 weeks after positive molecular testing. Antibodies were never detected on cord blood samples from two intrauterine fetal cord blood samples as well as neonatal cord blood at the time of delivery. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates a lack of passive immunity of COVID-19 antibodies from a positive pregnant woman to her fetus, neither in utero nor at the time of birth. Further studies are needed to understand if passage of antibodies can occur and if that can confer passive immunity in the newborn. KEY POINTS: · Passive immunity should not be assumed in COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.. · Isoimmunization may impair passive immunity of certain antibodies.. · Vaccination to or maternal infection of COVID-19 may not be protective for the fetus..


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Transfusão de Sangue Intrauterina , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto , Anemia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos/complicações , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21335, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791731

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Since the end of December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has occurred and spread rapidly throughout China. At present, China's epidemic situation has been basically controlled, but the number of cases worldwide is increasing day by day. On March 11, the WHO officially announced that the COVID-19 had become a global pandemic. However, there are currently limited data on pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia and their infants. In this paper, a case of a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 pneumonia is reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a clinically confirmed COVID-19 pregnant woman. The patient was tested negative 4 times in nucleic acid test, but immunoglobulin G was positive and immunoglobulin M was negative before delivery, suggesting a previous infection. DIAGNOSES: The pregnant woman underwent a computed tomography scan of both lungs at 29 + 2 weeks of pregnancy, and scattered stiffness and frosted glass shadows of both lungs were observed. According to the diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia in the "New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Plan Fifth Edition" of the National Health Commission of China, she was diagnosed as a clinically confirmed case. INTERVENTIONS: The pregnant women received nebulized inhalation and oral cephalosporin treatment in a community hospital and was discharged after the symptoms disappeared. After that, she was isolated at home. OUTCOMES: The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby after being cured from COVID-19 infection. The nucleic acid test of the neonatal pharyngeal swab was negative, and the neonatal serum test showed positive for immunoglobulin G and negative for immunoglobulin M. LESSONS SUBSECTIONS: The findings of this case report are useful for understanding the possible clinical features of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, the duration of the antibody, and passive immunity of the fetus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Nascido Vivo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(6): 824-829, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To describe the concentration of total and specific IgG antibodies anti-Streptococcus B, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp, and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp in the umbilical cord of newborn(NB) twins and to analyze the association between neonatal infection and antibody concentration in the umbilical cord blood. METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study of a cohort of NB twins admitted during the period of 20 months. Patients with malformations and mothers with infection were excluded. Variables analyzed: gestational age(GA); birth weight(BW); antibody concentrations in umbilical cord blood; infection episodes. We used the paired Student t-test, Spearman correlation, and generalized estimation equation. RESULTS 57 pairs of twins were included, 4 excluded, making the sample of 110 newborns. GA=36±1.65weeks and BW=2304.8±460g(mean±SD). Antibody concentrations in twins(mean±SD): total IgG=835.71±190.73mg/dL, anti-StreptococcusB IgG=250.66±295.1 AU/mL, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp IgG=280.04±498.66 AU/mL and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp IgG=504.75±933.93 AU/mL. There was a positive correlation between maternal antibody levels and those observed in newborns(p <0.005). The transplacental transfer of maternal total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG antibodies was significantly lower at NB GA <34 weeks(p <0.05). Five newborns were diagnosed with an infection. Infants with infection had significantly lower total IgG concentration(p <0.05). CONCLUSION This study showed a positive correlation between maternal and newborn antibodies levels. In infants younger than 34 weeks there is less transfer of total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG. The highest incidence of infection in the newborn group who had significantly lower total IgG serum antibodies reinforces the importance of anti-infectious protection afforded by passive immunity transferred from the mother.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Klebsiella , Infecções por Pseudomonas/sangue , Infecções Estreptocócicas/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 824-829, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136280

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To describe the concentration of total and specific IgG antibodies anti-Streptococcus B, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp, and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp in the umbilical cord of newborn(NB) twins and to analyze the association between neonatal infection and antibody concentration in the umbilical cord blood. METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study of a cohort of NB twins admitted during the period of 20 months. Patients with malformations and mothers with infection were excluded. Variables analyzed: gestational age(GA); birth weight(BW); antibody concentrations in umbilical cord blood; infection episodes. We used the paired Student t-test, Spearman correlation, and generalized estimation equation. RESULTS 57 pairs of twins were included, 4 excluded, making the sample of 110 newborns. GA=36±1.65weeks and BW=2304.8±460g(mean±SD). Antibody concentrations in twins(mean±SD): total IgG=835.71±190.73mg/dL, anti-StreptococcusB IgG=250.66±295.1 AU/mL, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp IgG=280.04±498.66 AU/mL and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp IgG=504.75±933.93 AU/mL. There was a positive correlation between maternal antibody levels and those observed in newborns(p <0.005). The transplacental transfer of maternal total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG antibodies was significantly lower at NB GA <34 weeks(p <0.05). Five newborns were diagnosed with an infection. Infants with infection had significantly lower total IgG concentration(p <0.05). CONCLUSION This study showed a positive correlation between maternal and newborn antibodies levels. In infants younger than 34 weeks there is less transfer of total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG. The highest incidence of infection in the newborn group who had significantly lower total IgG serum antibodies reinforces the importance of anti-infectious protection afforded by passive immunity transferred from the mother.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Descrever o título de anticorpos IgG total e específico anti-Streptococcus B, anti-lipopolissacarídeos(LPS) de Klebsiella e Pseudomonas no cordão umbilical em gêmeos e analisar a possível associação entre os títulos desses anticorpos e a ocorrência de infecção. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo transversal de uma coorte de recém-nascidos (RN) gemelares em 20 meses. Excluídos: malformação, infecção congênita ou materna. Variáveis estudadas: idade gestacional(IG); peso de nascimento(PN); título de anticorpos e episódios de infecção. Foram utilizados testes t-Student pareado, correlação de Spearman e equações de estimação generalizadas. RESULTADOS Elegíveis 59 pares de gêmeos, excluídos 4 e incluídos 55 pares (n=110RN). A IG foi 36±1,65semanas e o PN foi 2304,8±460g (média±DP). Concentrações de anticorpos dos RN(média±DP): IgG total=835,71±190,73 mg/dL, IgG anti-Streptococcus B=295,1±250,66 UA/mL, IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas=280,04±498,66 UA/mL e IgG anti-LPS Klebsiella=504,75± 933,93UA/mL. Houve correlação positiva entre níveis de anticorpos maternos e aqueles observados nos RN (p<0,005). A transferência transplacentária de anticorpos maternos IgG total e IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas foi significativamente menor em RN IG < 34semanas (p<0,05). Foram diagnosticados 5 RN com infecção. Os RN que apresentaram infecção tinham concentração de IgG total significativamente menor (p<0,05). CONCLUSÕES Na população estudada existe correlação entre os anticorpos maternos e os níveis de anticorpos no RN. Nos gêmeos menores que 34 semanas há menor transferência de IgG total e IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas. Nos RN com infecção a concentração de IgG total é significativamente menor, o que demonstra a maior vulnerabilidade e risco de infecção dessa população e a importância da imunidade passiva transferida pela placenta.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Infecções por Pseudomonas/sangue , Infecções Estreptocócicas/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Klebsiella , Pseudomonas , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Infecções
14.
Science ; 368(6491): 612-615, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381718

RESUMO

Neonates are particularly susceptible to infection. This vulnerability occurs despite their responsiveness to most vaccines. However, current vaccines do not target the pathogens responsible for most of the severe neonatal infections, and the time it takes to induce protective pathogen-specific immunity after vaccination limits protection in the first days to weeks of life. Alternative strategies include using vaccines to broadly stimulate neonatal immunity in a pathogen-agnostic fashion or vaccinating women during pregnancy to induce protective antibodies that are vertically transferred to offspring within their window of vulnerability. Protection may be further improved by integrating these approaches, namely vaccinating the neonate under the cover of vertically transferred maternal immunity. The rationale for and knowledge gaps related to each of these alternatives are discussed.


Assuntos
Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunidade , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
15.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(9): e12721, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277499

RESUMO

Both maternal microbiota and helminth infection may alter offspring immunity but the relationship between these is underexplored. We hypothesized that maternal helminth exposure prior to pregnancy has lasting consequences on offspring intestinal microbiota and consequent immunity. Female BALB/c adult mice were infected with 500L3 Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N brasiliensis). Infection was cleared by ivermectin treatment, and mice were mated 3 weeks post-infection (NbM). Control mice were not infected but were exposed to ivermectin (NvM). We analysed maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, breastmilk microbiota and offspring faecal microbiota and immunity 2 weeks after delivery. During pregnancy, NbM (Mothers previously infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis) displayed significantly altered stool bacterial communities (R2  = .242; P = .001), with increased abundance of Enterococcaceae versus NvM (Naive mothers). Similarly, we observed a profound impact on breastmilk microbiota in NbM vs NvM. Moreover, NbM pups showed significantly altered gut microbial communities at 14 days of age versus those born to NvM with increased relative abundance of Coriobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae. These changes were associated with alterations in pup immunity including increased frequencies and numbers of activated CD4 T cells (CD4 + CD44hi) in NbM offspring spleens. Taken together, we show that preconception helminth infections impact offspring immunity possibly through alteration of maternal and offspring microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Nippostrongylus/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gravidez
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5387-5397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278562

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate different analytical methods of assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in neonatal calves. We hypothesized that 3 different media (i.e., centrifuged serum, centrifuged plasma, filtered plasma) and different analytical methods [i.e., ELISA, capillary electrophoresis (CE), Brix refractometer, and handheld optical refractometer] would be highly correlated with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) and would generate comparable results. Serum and plasma blood samples were collected from Holstein Friesian calves (n = 216) aged 1 to 7 d, from 2 commercial dairy herds in northeast Germany. The RID analysis showed that 59 of 216 calves (27%) had serum IgG concentrations of <10 mg/mL and 157 calves (73%) had serum concentrations of ≥10 mg/mL. The mean IgG concentration (± standard deviation) was 17.1 ± 9.8 mg/mL, and the range was 0.8 to 47.8 mg/mL. In serum, the correlation between RID and CE was r = 0.97, and between RID and ELISA was r = 0.90; CE and ELISA were also highly correlated (r = 0.89). Both refractometry methods were highly correlated with RID using centrifuged serum, centrifuged plasma, or filtered plasma (Brix refractometer: r = 0.84, 0.80, and 0.78, respectively; handheld optical refractometer: r = 0.83, 0.81, and 0.80, respectively). We determined test characteristics (optimum thresholds, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve) for CE, ELISA, and the handheld optical and digital refractometers using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses with RID as the reference value. Optimal thresholds for assessing FPT using plasma were higher than for serum, regardless of the method of plasma harvesting. The 4 different devices had comparable areas under the curve, irrespective of the medium used. All analytical methods can be used to assess FPT.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Eletroforese Capilar/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Refratometria/veterinária , Animais , Colostro , Feminino , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 362-370, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128206

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos anticorpos (ACs) maternos sobre resposta imune humoral induzida pela vacinação em bezerros Holandeses. Bezerros foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: G1 - vacinados no D14 e D44 (n=6); G2 - vacinados no D90 e D120 (n=5); G3 - vacinados no D180 e D210 (n=8); controle: não vacinado (n=5). Utilizaram-se 5mL de vacina comercial (Cattle Master Gold FP5+L5® - Zoetis, Brasil), por via subcutânea. Foi realizada vírus neutralização (VN) no momento da vacinação, booster e 30 dias após a revacinação. Não foram observadas diferenças entre controle e G1 ou G2 para a frequência de soropositivos ou títulos de ACs contra os vírus respiratórios (P≥0,05). G3 apresentou maior produção de ACs em relação ao controle para BoHV-1 (P<0,01), BRSV (P<0,01) e BPIV-3 (P=0,02) após o booster (D240). A análise no tempo também demonstrou aumento nos títulos de ACs no G3 (P≤0,05). O perfil clínico revelou broncopneumonia apenas no grupo controle (n=4/5) entre 80-135 dias de vida. A imunidade colostral e a vacinal apresentaram perfis inversamente proporcionais, com maior produção de ACs aos seis meses de idade. Devido à precocidade da doença respiratória, estudos complementares são necessários para esclarecer o papel da resposta imune celular na vacinação diante dos ACs maternos.(AU)


This research aimed to evaluate the effect of colostral antibodies (ABs) on the humoral immune response induced by vaccination in Holstein calves. Twenty-four calves were randomly assigned into four groups: G1 - vaccinated on D14 and D44 (n= 6); G2 - on D90 and D120 (n= 5); G3 - on D180 and D210 (n= 8); Control: unvaccinated (n= 5). Commercial vaccine (Cattle Master Gold FP5+L5® - Zoetis, Brazil) was administered subcutaneously (5mL). Virus neutralization test (VN) was performed at the time of vaccination, booster and 30 days after booster to determine AB titers. No differences were observed between control and G1 or G2 for seropositive frequencies and ABs titers (P≥ 0.05). G3 showed higher AB production than control for BoHV-1 (P< 0.01), BRSV (P< 0.01) and BPIV-3 (P= 0.02) after booster (D240). Overtime analysis also exhibited increase in AB titers in G3 (P≤ 0,05). Bronchopneumonia was identified in the control group (n= 4/5) between 80-135 days of life. The colostral and vaccinal immunity presented inversely proportional profiles, with higher production of ABs at 6 months of age. Due to the precocity of respiratory disease further studies are required to clarify the role of cellular immune response to vaccination in face of maternal ABs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Vacinação , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária
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