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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47926

RESUMO

A Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP), a Sociedade Brasileira de Imunizações (SBIm) e a Federação Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (Febrasgo) divulgaram o documento técnico “Imunização na gestação: pré-concepção e puerpério” com o objetivo de orientar profissionais de saúde sobre a importância da vacinação durante a gestação.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez/imunologia , Imunização , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional
2.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20201000. 37 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1123158

RESUMO

El documento contiene la estrategia para la implementación de la vacunación segura como medida de prevención contra la COVID-19 en el país.


Assuntos
Vacinação em Massa , Imunização , Vacinação , Infecções por Coronavirus
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008871, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936831

RESUMO

Deconvolution of syphilis pathogenesis and selection of candidate syphilis vaccinogens requires detailed knowledge of the molecular architecture of the Treponema pallidum outer membrane (OM). The T. pallidum OM contains a low density of integral OM proteins, while the spirochete's many lipoprotein immunogens are periplasmic. TP0751, a lipoprotein with a lipocalin fold, is reportedly a surface-exposed protease/adhesin and protective antigen. The rapid expansion of calycin/lipocalin structures in the RCSB PDB database prompted a comprehensive reassessment of TP0751. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis of full-length protein revealed a bipartite topology consisting of an N-terminal, intrinsically disordered region (IDR) and the previously characterized C-terminal lipocalin domain. A DALI server query using the lipocalin domain yielded 97 hits, 52 belonging to the calycin superfamily, including 15 bacterial lipocalins, but no Gram-negative surface proteins. Surprisingly, Tpp17 (TP0435) was identified as a structural ortholog of TP0751. In silico docking predicted that TP0751 can bind diverse ligands along the rim of its eight-stranded ß-barrel; high affinity binding of one predicted ligand, heme, to the lipocalin domain was demonstrated. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed very low expression of TP0751 compared to other T. pallidum lipoproteins. Immunoblot analysis of immune rabbit serum failed to detect TP0751 antibodies, while only one of five patients with secondary syphilis mounted a discernible TP0751-specific antibody response. In opsonophagocytosis assays, neither TP0751 nor Tpp17 antibodies promoted uptake of T. pallidum by rabbit peritoneal macrophages. Rabbits immunized with intact, full-length TP0751 showed no protection against local or disseminated infection following intradermal challenge with T. pallidum. Our data argue that, like other lipoprotein lipocalins in dual-membrane bacteria, TP0751 is periplasmic and binds small molecules, and we propose that its IDR facilitates ligand binding by and offloading from the lipocalin domain. The inability of TP0751 to elicit opsonic or protective antibodies is consistent with a subsurface location.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Imunização , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Sífilis/imunologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Dobramento de Proteína , Coelhos , Sífilis/genética , Sífilis/patologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Treponema pallidum/genética , Treponema pallidum/patogenicidade
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 915-917, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907278

RESUMO

Development of an effective vaccine requires a long and complicated process. Preclinical studies and phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ clinical trials mainly focused on the assessment of the vaccine's safety (tolerability), immunogenicity and efficacy before license. After license, it is necessary to further evaluate the actual effectiveness and safety in the general population through phase Ⅳ clinical trials and optimize the immunization strategies with the disease's epidemiology data. In this special issue, published several articles, which reported the main results of pre-license clinical trials and post-marketing evaluation of various vaccines, it was extremely useful to support vaccine licensing and market use. We encourage the continuous clinical studies and post-marketing evaluation of vaccines, including the novel corona virus-19 vaccines, to provide technical support for the population use, under the situation of COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 1010-1016, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907294

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and the main pathogen of severe HFMD. In 2015, three EV71 vaccines were successively marketed in China as powerful prevention and control tools for HFMD caused by EV71. To understand the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety and quality stability of the domestic EV71 vaccine after entering into the market and analyze potential problems in its application, this article incorporates research regarding the immune effect, population effect, safety, quality testing and evaluation results, vaccination willingness and vaccination behavior survey to explore the vaccination strategies for the donll stic EV71 vaccine. EV71 vaccine has good immunogenicity, safety, protective efficacy, and good quality stability after entering into the market, however, only a few study focused on its safety when inoculating with other immunization planning vaccines simultaneously. Strengthen safety monitoring and discuss the safety of the EV71 vaccine especially when simultaneously inoculate with other immunization program vaccines are still necessary. Enterovirus evolution and recombination, whilst the probable impact of the EV71 vaccine can be the reason for future changes of HFMD epidemic strains, hence continuous monitoring of antigenic mutations and genetic evolution of enterovirus should be responded to. Encouraging the R&D of polyvalent vaccines against HFMD is also necessary. Parents' lack of HFMD and EV71 vaccine knowledge was common, therefore HFMD knowledge should be strengthened at the same time when introducing the EV71 vaccine to the public. Also, it should be emphasized that the EV71 vaccine can only prevent HFMD caused by EV71.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Enterovirus/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , China , Humanos , Imunização , Intenção , Marketing , Vacinação
7.
Br Dent J ; 229(6): 325, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978554
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, data on this serious illness among highly susceptible and vulnerable children living in local peri-urban areas are limited. Establishing the prevalence of pneumonia and identifying the associated factors are important for proper planning and intervention. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 560 systematically selected children under the age of five years in peri-urban areas of Dessie City from January through March 2019. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire, physical examination of children and direct observation of housing conditions. Pneumonia was examined using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines as the presence of the symptoms of fast breathing or indrawn chest with or without fast breathing during the two weeks prior to the study. A principal component analysis was used to construct a household wealth index. Data were analyzed using a binary logistic regression model at 95%CI (confidence interval). The analysis involved estimating the crude odds ratio (COR) using bivariate analysis, and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) using multivariable analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables at p-value of less than 0.05 were declared statistically significant. MAIN FINDINGS: The prevalence of pneumonia among children under five was 17.1% (95%CI: 13.9%-19.9%). Of the participating children, 113 (21.0%) had a cough, 92 (17.1%) had fast breathing, 76 (14.1%) had fever, and 40 (7.4%) of the children had chest indrawn. Domestic fuel was the most common source of cooking fuel 383 (71.1%). Majority 445 (82.6%) of children were fully vaccinated and 94 (17.4%) were not fully vaccinated. Most (481, 89.2%) of the children were got exclusive breastfeeding. Slightly more than half (284, 52.7%) of the under-five children had acute malnutrition and 27.1% of the children had a childhood history of ARI. The multivariable analysis showed using domestic fuel as the energy source for cooking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.95, 95%CI: 1.47-10.62), cooking in the living room (AOR = 6.23; 95%CI: 1.80-21.68), overcrowding (AOR = 3.37, 95%CI: 1.56-7.27), child history of acute respiratory infection (ARI) (AOR = 6.12 95%CI: 2.77-13.53), family history of ARI (AOR = 4.69, 95%CI: 1.67-13.12) and acute malnutrition (AOR = 2.43, 95%CI: 1.18-5.04) were significantly associated with childhood pneumonia. CONCLUSION: In this study, pneumonia remains a leading public health problem among under five children in the study area and higher than national averages. Domestic fuel as the energy source for cooking, cooking in the living room, overcrowding, child history of ARI, family history of ARI and acute malnutrition were predictors of pneumonia. Community-based interventions focusing on improving housing conditions, reduced use of domestic biofuels, adequate and balanced food intake, including exclusive breastfeeding of infants, and early treatment of ARIs.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/etnologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956421

RESUMO

Members of the broad complex, tram track, bric-a-brac and zinc finger (BTB-ZF) family of transcription factors, such as BCL-6, ZBTB20, and ZBTB32, regulate antigen-specific B cell differentiation, plasma cell longevity, and the duration of antibody production. We found that ZBTB38, a different member of the BTB-ZF family that binds methylated DNA at CpG motifs, is highly expressed by germinal center B cells and plasma cells. To define the functional role of ZBTB38 in B cell responses, we generated mice conditionally deficient in this transcription factor. Germinal center B cells lacking ZBTB38 dysregulated very few genes relative to wild-type and heterozygous littermate controls. Accordingly, mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of Zbtb38 showed normal germinal center B cell numbers and antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates. Memory B cells from these animals functioned normally in secondary recall responses. Despite expression of ZBTB38 in hematopoietic stem cells, progenitors and mature myeloid and lymphoid lineages were also present in normal numbers in mutant mice. These data demonstrate that ZBTB38 is dispensable for hematopoiesis and antibody responses. These conditional knockout mice may instead be useful in defining the functional importance of ZBTB38 in other cell types and contexts.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
10.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 263-272, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Central East region of Burkina Faso has vaccine coverage which is among the lowest in the country with an epidemiological profile marked by the occurrence of measles or meningitis outbreaks. This study was conducted with the aim of carrying out an equity analysis of the organization of immunization services in this region in order to identify factors that cause potential inequities in vaccination offer. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study covered the seven districts in the Central East region. Data collection was done in two weeks combined with observation method, individual interviews and document review. Part of the data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data analysis was performed with the Epi info 7 software using a plan designed for this purpose. RESULTS: A total of 144 health centers in the region (93.0% coverage) were surveyed. The average distance between villages and health facilities was 5.2 km with 16.2% of villages that were located more than 10 km from a health facility. Health centers had an average of four health workers, however the urban health centers had more workers than those in rural areas. About 16% of the villages did not benefit from an on-site vaccination trip due to the unavailability of transport logistics. More than half of the health centers (53.9%) had experienced vaccine shortages in the last six months before the study. More than 5,000 safety boxes containing used syringes were stored in the districts of the region. CONCLUSION: This study identified factors potentially responsible for an inequity in providing vaccination services in the Central East region. These factors include, but are not limited to, the geographical distribution of the health centers, the availability of transport logistics, and the shortage in vaccines and deficiencies in the waste disposal system. Concerted actions should be developed, involving all stakeholders in the health system in order to address these issues.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
11.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 273-278, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985844

RESUMO

The coverage of immunization against avoidable disease in the Republic of Benin as in other West African countries, is declining nowadays. To sustain the government effort, National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) were created technically and funded by the West African health organization (WAHO) and Preventive Medicine Agency in countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) including the Republic of Benin. The variation in experts’ methods of analyzing evidence sometimes results in risk error and lack of statistical power. This situation does not allow for the comparison of the scientific validity of certain recommendations made to policy makers, due to the lack of a rigorous framework. The aim of this paper is to design an improved framework to be used in the Republic of Benin in order to encourage a more harmonized approach based on evidence used by expert consultative committees. This framework shows four fundamental scientific steps including a Ministerial referral procedure, recommendation framework, evidence-based data collection, model analyses appropriate for expert advice on vaccines and child immunization, as well as three administrative steps including scientific discussion and work meetings without forgetting ethical aspects.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Política de Saúde , Imunização , Benin , Criança , Humanos
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000821, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886672

RESUMO

As a novel alternative to established surface display or combinatorial chemistry approaches for the discovery of therapeutic peptides, we present a method for the isolation of small, cysteine-rich domains from bovine antibody ultralong complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). We show for the first time that isolated bovine antibody knob domains can function as autonomous entities by binding antigen outside the confines of the antibody scaffold. This yields antibody fragments so small as to be considered peptides, each stabilised by an intricate, bespoke arrangement of disulphide bonds. For drug discovery, cow immunisations harness the immune system to generate knob domains with affinities in the picomolar to low nanomolar range, orders of magnitude higher than unoptimized peptides from naïve library screening. Using this approach, knob domain peptides that tightly bound Complement component C5 were obtained, at scale, using conventional antibody discovery and peptide purification techniques.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Dissulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Domínios de Imunoglobulina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Formação de Anticorpos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos/genética , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Bovinos , Complemento C5/química , Complemento C5/genética , Complemento C5/imunologia , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/imunologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Humanos , Imunização , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética
13.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-09-22.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52718

RESUMO

O Manual de Vigilância de Pneumonia Bacteriana e Meningite em Menores de 5 anos: Guia Prático tornou-se referência de destaque para os profissionais de saúde da Região das Américas que lidam com atividades de vigilância epidemiológica. Abrange doenças, principais agentes etiológicos, vacinas disponíveis, procedimentos laboratoriais e de vigilância para captura e monitoramento de casos, bem como análise de dados para a produção de informações relevantes. Esta segunda edição introduz novos conceitos e procedimentos de atualização para refletir a introdução de testes de biologia molecular em diagnósticos laboratoriais e a disponibilidade de novas vacinas.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Meningites Bacterianas , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Imunização , Vacinação , Vigilância Imunológica , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
14.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-09-09. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-104).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52649

RESUMO

Ao longo de seis meses de 2020, a COVID-19 prejudicou o progresso econômico e social em todas as partes do mundo. Nenhuma região ficou imune a essa pandemia altamente contagiosa. De um início de avanço lento em janeiro, os casos continuam a crescer no mundo todo, já passando 10 milhões de infecções. Enquanto países individuais tomaram medidas fortes e avançaram na contenção da disseminação – e melhor diagnóstico e tratamentos são urgentemente necessários – essa não é uma solução duradoura e a doença está agora ressurgindo em locais onde achava-se que a disseminação estivesse contida. O desenvolvimento e implementação de uma vacina segura e eficaz contra a COVID-19 é essencial para a restauração de algo remotamente semelhante à atividade econômica normal e deve ser a mais alta prioridade em todos os países. Alguns países deram passos na proteção de suas populações garantindo diretamente a oferta de vacinas. O risco associado a transações bilaterais com um único fabricante é alto, pois a probabilidade de sucesso de qualquer vacina nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento é baixa. Agrupar demanda com outros países, através de um mecanismo conjunto, aumenta muito a probabilidade de sucesso de cada país e sucesso global na eliminação de uma doença que não reconhece fronteiras. Através do Mecanismo de Acesso Global a Vacinas contra COVID-19 (COVAX), países têm a oportunidade de se beneficiar de um portfólio de vacinas candidatas de modo que suas populações possam ter acesso precoce a vacinas eficazes. Para Governos que não possuem acordos bilaterais, o Mecanismo COVAX oferece um suprimento confiável de vacinas seguras e eficazes. Para Governos que estão fazendo acordos com fabricantes individuais para o fornecimento de vacinas, aderir ao Mecanismo COVAX equivale a uma apólice de seguro...


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Vacinas , Vacinas Virais , Imunização
15.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-09-09. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-105).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52648

RESUMO

[Introdução]: O desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra a COVID-19 é o desafio mais urgente de nosso tempo. A pandemia mundial já causou a perda de centenas de milhares de vidas e prejudicou a vida de outros bilhões de pessoas. Assim como reduzir a trágica perda de vidas, a introdução de uma vacina evitará a perda de $375 B1 mensais na economia global. O desenvolvimento de uma ou mais vacinas eficazes é também um dos mais complexos desafios de nossa era. Diferente do desenvolvimento de vacinas no passado, o aumento de escala, fabricação e conclusão de estudos em humanos para vacinas candidatas deve ser feito em paralelo. Mesmo com o investimento acelerado na fabricação e conclusão dos estudos para garantir que as vacinas candidatas sejam seguras e eficazes, nos próximos 18 meses, não há nenhum cenário no qual a oferta excederá a demanda, apesar de que na trajetória atualmente prevista, algumas vacinas candidatasestarão disponíveis dentro desse prazo. Governos são responsáveis perante suas populações e contribuintes e, com tantas vidas e sustentos em jogo, alguns estão compreensivelmente buscando acordos bilaterais com fabricantes a fim de garantir acesso à escassa oferta futura de vacinas...


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Vacinas , Vacinas Virais , Imunização
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1183-1196, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812860

RESUMO

Introduction. PCV2 is a DNA virus that exists widely in pigs and has caused great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. In the existing commercial PCV2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits both natural infection with PCV2 and vaccine immunization produce results that are positive for PCV2 Cap antibodies and therefore they cannot diagnose PCV2 infection in immunized pig farms.Aim. To establish a PCV2 non-structural protein antibody detection method that distinguishes between antibodies resulting from natural prior exposure (infection) and those induced by subunit vaccine immunization.Methodology. Based on the non-structural Rep' protein, we established an indirect ELISA (iELISA) using sera from guinea pigs and piglets.Results. The results for iELISA for guinea pig serum showed that animals vaccinated with a whole-virus inactivated PCV2 vaccine had 100 % (10/10) Cap antibody positivity and 100 % (10/10) Rep' antibody positivity. Guinea pigs vaccinated with a recombinant subunit PCV2 vaccine had 100 % (10/10) Cap antibody positivity, while no (0/10) guinea pigs were Rep' antibody-positive. The combined detection results for the Rep' iELISA and a PCV2 Antibody Test kit (Commercial) showed that pigs vaccinated with a whole-virus inactivated PCV2 vaccine or PCV2 SD/2017 had 100 % (5/5) Cap antibody positivity and 100 % (5/5) Rep' antibody positivity. Pigs vaccinated with a recombinant subunit PCV2 vaccine had 100 % (5/5) Cap antibody positivity, while no (0/10) pigs were Rep' antibody-positive.Conclusion. This paper describes an effective iELISA method that can distinguish natural infection with PCV2 (Cap and Rep positive) or inoculation with a whole-virus inactivated vaccine (Cap and Rep positive) from subunit vaccine immunization (Cap-positive, Rep-negative). These comparative assays could be very useful in the control of PCV2 in pig herds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Circovirus/genética , Imunização , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1103-1109, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741179

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the protective efficacy and safety of Brucella 104M against aerosol challenge in BALB/c mice and characterize its immunological effects. Methods: Female mice of 6-8 weeks old were immunized with Brucella abortus strain 104M by intratracheal aerosol delivery or intranasal instillation or subcutaneous injection route. Six mice of each group were sacrificed at 4, 8, 16, 24 weeks after immunization. At each time point, the clinical manifestations of mice were investigated, the serum, spleen and lung samples of mice were collected, body weight, spleen weight, bacteria loads in spleens, the anti-Brucella antibodies titers in serum and the cytokines concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-18 in serum or lung homogenate of the mice were detected. Twenty two weeks after immunization, all the mice were challenged with Brucella A19 through intratracheal aerosol delivery. Results: Compared with the control group, neither abnormal clinical symptoms nor significant changes in body weight were found in 104M immunization groups, at each time point when immunized through either nose dropping route, subcutaneous injection or aerosol routes; and the spleen weight of immunization groups were lower than control group after challenge (P<0.05): *M1 (0.26±0.16)g

Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Imunização , Aerossóis , Animais , Feminino , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
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