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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(8): 750-756, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638573

RESUMO

Objective To prepare and characterize the somatostatin (SS) anti-idiotypic antibody of yolk (SS yolk Ab2 ) on the basis of successful preparation of neutralizing SS mAb1 2E7, and then to further probe the application of SS yolk Ab2 in promoting animal growth. Methods The egg-laying hens were immunized with the neutralizing SS mAb1 2E7. The eggs containing a high titer of SS yolk Ab2 were collected and the egg yolk was separated from the egg white. The SS yolk Ab2 in yolk solution was extracted by water dilution and acidification, and was purified by precipitating with cool ethanol. The titer, concentration and specificity of SS yolk Ab2 was determined by ELISA. The Ab2ß property of SS yolk Ab2 was determined by ELISA of competitive inhibition. The effect of SS yolk Ab2 on animal growth was experimented in the mice, chickens and fish. Results The SS yolk Ab2 had a titer of 1×10-5 and a concentration of 8 mg/mL. The SS yolk Ab2 could react with the rabbit antibody against SS, but not react with the rabbit antibody against growth hormone, insulin and gastrin. The immunoreaction between the SS yolk Ab2 and rabbit antibody against SS was inhibited by SS competitively. The SS yolk Ab2 could induce the mouse to produce SS Ab3 and the SS Ab3 could react with SS, which suggest that the SS yolk Ab2 was an Ab2ß. The SS yolk Ab2 was used to immunize the mice in different doses of 0.8 µg or 3.2 µg each mouse by subcutaneous injection, and to immunize the chickens in different doses of 0.8 µg or 3.2 µg each chicken through intramuscular injection, and to immunize the Doppelfish in doses of 3.2 µg each Doppelfish by immersing fishes in 2 L of sea water containing Ab2. The control animals were immunized with the same volume of physiological saline and by the same methods. One month later, the SS yolk Ab2 vaccine could increase body weight 33.5% and 37.0% in the mice, 25.6% and 34.1% in chickens, and 24.8% in the Doppelfish compared with the corresponding controls. Conclusion The SS yolk Ab2 was prepared successfully. It had a high titer, concentration and specificity. It is an Ab2ß as a vaccine can increase body weight of animals significantly by small-dose immunization only once.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos , Galinhas , Gema de Ovo , Somatostatina , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/análise , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Peixes , Crescimento/fisiologia , Imunização , Camundongos
2.
Orv Hetil ; 160(41): 1607-1616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587575

RESUMO

More than 200 million HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers live worldwide. Health-care personnel have increasing risk for aquiring the HBV infection. An effective vaccine is available against the infection, however, a certain proportion of the vaccinated patients do not respond to the vaccine depending on certain factors. Therefore, vaccine-induced immunity (anti-HBs) should be tested at health-care workers. For nonresponders, there are other vaccination strategies to try to achieve protection. This recommendation also provides a guidance for postexposure prophylaxis following occupational exposures against HBV infection. This is the first Hungarian recommendation about this topic. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(41): 1607-1616.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Comitês Consultivos , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos , Hungria , Imunização , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 968-972, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607039

RESUMO

Vaccination is the best intervention to prevent influenza and its complications. Effective influenza immunization strategy facilitates influenza vaccine coverage to protect the population and reduce disease burden. This paper analyzes related influenza policies from six countries with high vaccination rates and summarizes five common key elements of them. Additionally, we propose the proper immunization strategy of influenza vaccine in China.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , China , Humanos , Imunização , Vacinação
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 987-992, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607043

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the occurrence features of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of Seasonal Influenza Vaccines (InfV) used in China, 2015-2018 influenza season. Methods: InfV (including concurrent administered with other vaccines) AEFI data were collected through the Chinese national AEFI information system during 2015.9.1-2018.8.31 (excluding Chinese Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan data). The vaccine lot release data were collected from National Institutes for Food and Drug Control published database. Time periods of three influenza season were 2015.9.1-2016.8.31, 2016.9.1-2017.8.31, 2017.9.1-2018.8.31. The vaccines used and included in this analysis were trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3)-Split, IIV3-Split (Children) and IIV-subnit. The incidence of AEFI were calculated (per 100 000 release doses), and epidemiological characteristic were analyzed using descriptive methodology. Results: A total of 8 464 InfV AEFIs were collected in 2015-2018 influenza season from National AEFI Information System, in which 5 646 were IIV3-split, with the rate of 10.64/100 000 release doses, 2 818 were IIV3-split (Children), with the rate of 9.355/100 000 release doses. The most common symptom was fever (axillary temperature ≥37.1 ℃) within vaccine reactions, with a number of 6 207 cases. In which, there were 3 554 cases with fever (axillary temperature ≥38.6 ℃) and the estimated reporting rate was 4.274/100 000 release doses. In all rare vaccine reactions, the most common diagnosis was anaphylactic rash(442, 0.531/100 000 release doses) and angioedema (70, 0.084/100 000 release doses). Even the rates of serious rare vaccine reactions were low, febrile Convulsion (27, 0.032/100 000 release doses) and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura(HSP) (21, 0.025/100 000 release doses) were relatively common in serious rare vaccine reactions during the study period. Conclusion: The estimated rate of rare vaccine reactions related toInfV was relatively low. In all vaccine reactions, fever was the most common symptoms. The most common diagnosis of non-serious rare vaccine reaction were anaphylactic rash and angioedema. The incidence of serious rare vaccine reactions was low.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização , Estações do Ano
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1070-1074, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607059

RESUMO

Original antigenic sin may exist in the influenza virus infection or vaccination, which possibly reduces the protective efficacy in repeated influenza vaccination. This paper reviews the literature on the original antigenic sin and its influence in influenza vaccination, and interprets the possible mechanism of this phenomenon from the three aspects of influenza virus structure, humoral immunity and cellular immunity. A large number of studies have shown that original antigen sin has a negative impact on influenza vaccination, but the evidence disproveing this phenomenon also exist, so multi-center large-scale clinical trials should be conducted to provide evidence-based basis for reaearching whether original antigen sin exists and its effects. in order to provide reference for the development and update of noval influenza vaccines and its formulation of immunization strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunização , Vacinação
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 204-211, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) continue to pose a significant threat to healthcare workers (HCWs) while immunization among this group remains low. HCWs' behaviours as well as facilitators and barriers towards their vaccination for a number of VPDs were explored through an EU-wide survey. METHODS: HCWs across the EU answered online survey that explored attitudes and behaviours towards vaccination for a number of VPDs. Response data were adjusted based on weights estimated by HCWs' country and working profession according to WHO statistics. The survey was delivered between October 2012 and April 2014. RESULTS: Analysis was based on responses from 5,424 HCWs from 14 European countries. The majority (86.7%) had a positive attitude regarding immunizations. HCWs considered influenza (86.4%), viral hepatitis type B (71.9%) and tuberculosis (59.1%) as higher risk diseases for occupational exposure in the workplace. However, 43.8% reported not receiving a seasonal influenza vaccine in the last 10 years and 65.6% reported not receiving the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2009. Main enablers towards immunizations included believing in vaccine protection and easy, free of charge access to vaccines in the workplace. Barriers to up-to-date immunizations differed according to disease but included concerns about short- and long-term effects. CONCLUSION: Although the concept of mandatory vaccination seems to be favoured by many health professionals in Europe, it remains a controversial subject both among HCWs' profession categories and also among different countries. Interventions to increase vaccination among HCWs would benefit by tailoring their approach according to disease and target group.


Assuntos
Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza , Europa (Continente) , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
7.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 496-503, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into complexities of seeking access to state and federal cross-jurisdictional data for linkage with the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). We provide recommendations for improving access and receipt of linked datasets involving Australian Government-administered data. METHODS: We describe requirements for linking eleven federal and state data sources to establish a national linked dataset for safety evaluation of vaccines. The required data linkage methodology for integrating cross-jurisdictional data sources is also described. RESULTS: Extensive negotiation was required with 18 different agencies for 21 separate authorisations and 12 ethics approvals. Three variations of the 'best practice' linkage model were implemented. Australian Government approval requests spanned nearly four years from initial request for data, with a further year before ACIR data transfer to the linkage agency. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of immunisation registers with other data collections is achievable in Australia but infeasible for routine and rapid identification of vaccine safety concerns. Lengthy authorisation requirements, convoluted disparate application processes and inconsistencies in data supplied all contribute to delayed data availability. Implications for public health: Delayed data access for safety surveillance prevents timely epidemiological reviews. Poor responsiveness to safety concerns may erode public confidence, compromising effectiveness of vaccination programs through reduced participation.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imunização , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistema de Registros , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Formulação de Políticas , Vacinas
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6601-6613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496701

RESUMO

Purpose: The primary goal of the present study was to explore and evaluate the highly conserved Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) molecule, fused with truncated HBV virus-like particles (VLPs), as a candidate vaccine against the virulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NMB). Methods: NspA was inserted into the major immunodominant region of the truncated hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc; amino acids 1-144). The chimeric protein, HBc-N144-NspA, was expressed from a prokaryotic vector and generated HBc-like particles, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Further, the chimeric protein and control proteins were used to immunize mice and the resulting immune responses evaluated by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and analysis of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) titer. Results: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the recombinant HBc-N144-NspA protein showed that it elicited the production of high levels of NspA-specific total IgG. The SBA titer of HBc-N144-NspA/F reached 1:16 2 weeks after the last immunization in BALB/c mice, when human serum complement was included in the vaccine. Immunization of HBc-N144-NspA, even without adjuvant, induced high levels of IL-4 and a high IgG1 to IgG2a ratio, confirming induction of an intense Th2 immune response. Levels of IL-17A increased rapidly in mice after the first immunization with HBc-N144-NspA, indicating the potential for this vaccine to induce a mucosal immune response. Meanwhile, the immunization of HBc-N144-NspA without adjuvant induced only mild inflammatory infiltration into the mouse muscle tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that modification using HBc renders NspA a candidate vaccine, which can trigger protective immunity against NMB.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Vírion/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade , Imunização , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Teste Bactericida do Soro , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Virulência
9.
APMIS ; 127(12): 753-763, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512768

RESUMO

Iron uptake system is expressed in early stages of Acinetobacter baumannii infections under iron-restricted conditions. This study is aimed at the evaluation of immuno-protectivity of BfnH in comparison with BauA in both mature and selected fragmental proteins. The study was designed in single and combined forms of antigens. BfnH is presented in 3472 strains of A. baumannii with more than 97% identity. The preliminary immune-informatics analysis of this protein indicated a region from the ß-barrel domain including exposed loops 2-5, with antigenic score comparable to that of BfnH. There was a significant rise in the specific IgG response in all test groups. The bacterial challenge with a lethal dose of A. baumannii demonstrated partial protection of whole proteins which coincides with a significant reduction in the bacterial population colonized in the main organs and an increase in the survival level. Passive immunization of the mice brought about 50% survival in the mice groups immunized with BfnH and with a combination of BfnH and BauA. The protectivity of siderophore receptors suggests their potential immunogenic role that could be considered as a component of multivalent subunit vaccine candidates against A. baumannii.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Acinetobacter baumannii/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Imunização , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Carga Bacteriana , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
10.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(4): 413-445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490051

RESUMO

Pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of developing vaccine-preventable diseases due to reduced immunization coverage. Studies have demonstrated that reduced immunization coverage in this population is related to barriers, such as frequent hospitalization, lack of knowledge, and concerns about safety and efficacy. This article examines a nurse practitioner-led quality improvement project (QIP) conducted in an outpatient pediatric nephrology clinic. The QIP focused on educating pediatric providers related to age-appropriate immunizations for children with CKD or nephrotic syndrome, and those who are renal transplant candidates and recipients. A process is now in place to review immunization records upon initial visit and annually, and to notify primary care providers of current recommendations for this population.


Assuntos
Imunização/normas , Transplante de Rim , Síndrome Nefrótica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Criança , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem Pediátrica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 392-395, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559791

RESUMO

Existing research for using the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis as a vaccine component shows that protection against anthrax may be obtained using fragments of this protein. The aim of the research is to check whether the selected protein fragment of the protective antigen (domain 4) encoded by an appropriate nucleotide sequence of gene pag of B. anthracis, was expressed in the bacterial system of E. coli. In order to examine the selected sequence of the pag gene, a PCR reaction and a highly effective TOPO cloning strategy were used, followed by purification of the recombinant proteins and their detection by a western-blot method. In the planning of the PA4 antigen expression a higher level of effectiveness in production of small protein - domain 4 - was anticipated. As a result, the 139 amino acids protein fragment of B. anthracis PA (domain 4) was isolated. The research may have found the basis for in vivo research aimed at finding potential anthrax vaccine components.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Antraz/imunologia , Antraz/microbiologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Bacillus anthracis/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Animais , Antraz/imunologia , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Antraz/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Antraz/genética , Vacinas contra Antraz/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus anthracis/química , Bacillus anthracis/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Domínios Proteicos
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 951-954, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474081

RESUMO

Construction and application of immunization information system is an important part of health information, which is very useful to improve the quality, efficiency and safety of vaccination. The background, system architecture, functions and applications, working conditions and characteristics of Shandong province Immunization Information System (IIS) are introduced in this article. It is expected to provide experiences for the development of immunization information system of other provinces.


Assuntos
Imunização , Sistemas de Informação , Vacinação , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China , Humanos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação/tendências
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426733

RESUMO

Remote-living Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience a higher burden of influenza infection during pregnancy than any other Australian women. Despite recommendations of inactivated influenza vaccination (IIV) in pregnancy, uptake and safety data are scarce for this population. We examined uptake of IIV in pregnancy and report adverse birth outcomes amongst a predominantly unvaccinated group of remote-living Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women from the Northern Territory (NT), using data from the 1+1 Healthy Start to Life study. Data were deterministically linked with the NT Immunisation Register to ascertain IIV exposure in pregnant women during 2003-2006 and 2009-2011 inclusive. Overall, IIV uptake in pregnancy was 3% (n=20/697 pregnancies); 0% (0/414) pre-influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 7% (20/293) post-influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (2009-2011). Vaccine uptake was poor in this cohort and it is unclear at what stage this policy failure occurred. Women with known comorbidities and/or high risk factors were not targeted for vaccination. Much larger study participant numbers are required to validate between group comparisons but there was no clinically nor statistically significant difference in median gestational ages (38 weeks for both groups), mean infant birthweights (3,001 g unvaccinated vs 3,175 g IIV vaccinated), nor birth outcomes between the few women who received IIV in pregnancy and those who did not. There were no stillbirths in women who received an IIV in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Imunização , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Mães , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1479-1492, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463653

RESUMO

RIG-I is a cytosolic RNA sensor that recognizes short 5' triphosphate RNA, commonly generated during virus infection. Upon activation, RIG-I initiates antiviral immunity, and in some circumstances, induces cell death. Because of this dual capacity, RIG-I has emerged as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. Previously, a sequence-optimized RIG-I agonist (termed M8) was generated and shown to stimulate a robust immune response capable of blocking viral infection and to function as an adjuvant in vaccination strategies. Here, we investigated the potential of M8 as an anti-cancer agent by analyzing its ability to induce cell death and activate the immune response. In multiple cancer cell lines, M8 treatment strongly activated caspase 3-dependent apoptosis, that relied on an intrinsic NOXA and PUMA-driven pathway that was dependent on IFN-I signaling. Additionally, cell death induced by M8 was characterized by the expression of markers of immunogenic cell death-related damage-associated molecular patterns (ICD-DAMP)-calreticulin, HMGB1 and ATP-and high levels of ICD-related cytokines CXCL10, IFNß, CCL2 and CXCL1. Moreover, M8 increased the levels of HLA-ABC expression on the tumor cell surface, as well as up-regulation of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation. M8 induction of the RIG-I pathway in cancer cells favored dendritic cell phagocytosis and induction of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, together with increased expression of IL12 and CXCL10. Altogether, these results highlight the potential of M8 in cancer immunotherapy, with the capacity to induce ICD-DAMP on tumor cells and activate immunostimulatory signals that synergize with current therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nelfinavir/análogos & derivados , Alarminas/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína DEAD-box 58/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunização , Interferons/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Nelfinavir/farmacologia , Nelfinavir/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(8): 1453-1462, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441616

RESUMO

To evaluate immune efficacy of the recombinant Lactobacillus casei, we constructed pLA-Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-F/L. casei and obtained the expression products. PCR amplified the NDV F gene carrying part of the major epitopes. The target gene was inserted to the shuttle plasmid pLA, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in order to screen positive recombinant plasmid. The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into L. casei by electroporation to construct pLA-NDV-F/L. casei. The positive strains were identified by PCR. The reactivity of the recombinant bacteria was identified by Western blotting and the protein expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. The 14-day-old chickens in each group were vaccinated by oral plus nose drops. The pLA-NDV-F/L. casei twice immunization group and three times immunization group, the commercial vaccine group, the pLA/L. casei group, the unchallenge PBS and the challenge PBS group were established. IgG in serum and sIgA in the lavage fluid of intestinal, nasal and lung were detected by ELISA. The protection rate of chickens was evaluated. The results showed that 94.10% of the recombinant bacteria expressed the F protein. The recombinant protein was highly expressed on the surface of L. casei with a protein size of 62 kDa, which specifically bound to anti-NDV serum. The levels of anti-F IgG and sIgA antibodies in each test group were significantly higher than those in the control groups. The duration of antibody in the pLA-NDV-F/L. casei three-time immunization group lasted 28 days longer than that in the twice immunized group, and there was no significant difference between antibody peak values. The attack protection rates in each group of immunized pLA-NDV-F/L. casei three times, twice, attenuated vaccine, pLA/L. casei and PBS were 80%, 80%, 90%, 0% and 0%, respectively. Therefore, the antigenic protein of NDV F was successfully expressed by L. casei expression system, which has of reactogenicity and immunogenicity, and could induce protective immune responses in chickens.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus casei , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Galinhas , Imunização , Vacinas Atenuadas
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1096-1100, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438094

RESUMO

Immunization information systems and registries are essential for vaccine programs to succeed. Personal Health Record should improve decision making of healthcare providers and consumer outcomes. This article aims to describe the software development of an immunization module using a user-centered design, starting from the analysis of potential users' needs. The design was made through cycles of iterations, adjustments were made validating real scenarios and taking into account the user needs. The main features identified through interviews were: vaccination schedule, further information on vaccines' usefulness, notification, downloadable patient vaccination status and other vaccines outside the official calendar. The final scope is to create a simple, efficient and safe platform for patient immunization management.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Imunização , Software , Vacinação
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402966

RESUMO

Introduction: Measles is an acute viral disease that remains endemic in much of sub-Sahara Africa, including Liberia. The 2014 Ebola epidemic disrupted an already fragile health system contributing to low uptake of immunization services, population immunity remained low thus facilitating recurrent outbreaks of measles in Liberia. We describe lessons learnt from detecting and responding to recurrent outbreaks of measles two years post the 2014 Ebola epidemic in Liberia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study using the findings from Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) 15 counties, National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL), National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) and District Health Information Software (DIHS2) data conducted from October to December, 2017. We perused the outbreaks line lists and other key documents submitted by the counties to the national level from January 2016 to December 2017. Results: From January 2016 to December 2017, 2,954 suspected cases of measles were reported through IDSR. Four hundred sixty-seven (467) were laboratory confirmed (IgM-positive), 776 epidemiologically linked, 574 clinically confirmed, and 1,137 discarded (IgM-negative). Nine deaths out of 1817 cases were reported, a case fatality rate of 0.5%; 49% were children below the age of 5 years. Twenty-two percent (405/1817) of the confirmed cases were vaccinated while the vaccination status of 55% (994/1817) was unknown. Conclusion: Revitalization of IDSR contributed to increased detection and reporting of suspected cases of measles thus facilitating early identification and response to outbreaks. Priority needs to be given to increasing the uptake of routine immunization services, introducing a second dose of measles vaccine in the routine immunization program and conducting a high-quality supplementary measles immunization campaign for age group 1 to 10 years to provide protection for a huge cohort of susceptible.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Recidiva
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 257, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332640

RESUMO

Transcutaneous immunization using a microneedle device presents a promising alternative to syringe-based injection of vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective immune response elicited after application of tetanus toxoid antigen-loaded dissolvable microneedles (TT-MN) in mice model. Dissolvable microneedles were prepared using 20% w/v of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymer mixture by micromolding technique. TT-MN were prepared by addition of tetanus toxoid to polymer mixture before casting microneedles. TT-MN were characterized using texture analyzer, stereomicroscope, and scanning electron microscope. Tetanus toxoid loading was found to be 77 ± 2 µg per microneedle array. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the microneedles penetrated to a depth of 130 µm inside mouse skin. Complete dissolution of microneedles was achieved within 1 h after insertion in skin. Immunization studies in Swiss albino mice demonstrated significantly (p < 0.001) greater IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody titers for TT-MN and intramuscular injection groups compared with naïve control. Splenocyte proliferation assay confirmed effective re-stimulation on exposure to tetanus toxoid in microneedle treatment groups. Taken together, TT-MN can be developed as minimally invasive system for transcutaneous delivery of tetanus toxoid antigen.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Imunização/métodos , Agulhas , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas , Camundongos , Polímeros/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Solubilidade , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 654-656, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352757
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