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1.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(1): 84-89, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186597

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Vitamin D status may be related to allergen sensitizations, but the evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with allergic sensitizations in early childhood. Methods: Data were collected from 2642 children who visited the Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital from January 2016 to May 2017 for routine health check-ups. Serum 25(OH)D levels were tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Allergic sensitizations including food and inhalant allergens were tested for specific IgE antibodies at one year (12 months 0 days through 12 months 30 days) and two years (24 months 0 days through 24 months 30 days) of age. Results: The mean level of serum 25(OH)D was 86.47 ± 27.55 nmol/L, with a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (< 75 nmol/L) in children aged 0-2 years (36.8%). Lower 25(OH)D levels with serum total IgE of more than 200IU/mL (81.54 ± 25.53 nmol/L) compared with less than 100 IU/mL (87.92 ± 28.05 nmol/L). The common sensitization to allergens in children aged one and two years were milk (44.2%), cat epithelium (26.4%), egg (13.1%), dog epithelium (12.7%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (6.7%). After multivariate adjustment, data in 25(OH)D treated as a continuous variable or categories, no consistent associations were found between 25(OH)D levels and allergen-specific IgEs. Conclusions: Serum 25(OH)D level showed an inverse relationship with total IgE level in early childhood. However, there is lack of evidence to support associations between low 25(OH)D levels and allergic sensitization to various allergens


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Imunização/métodos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , China
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(6): 579-584, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186551

RESUMO

Background: In Portugal, the pollen types most implicated in respiratory allergy are grasses, olive and parietaria. The knowledge of sensitizations to molecular allergens in children and adults can contribute to better diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. Methods: ImmunoCAP singleplex technology was used for molecular allergens and Phadia 250(R) automatic equipment. g205 (Phl p1); g215 (Phl p5b); g210 (Phl p7); and g212 (Phl p12) allergen determinations were made in 45 patients with positive grass sensitization tests. Results: The majority of patients are sensitized to Phl p1 (91%) and Phl p1+/Phl p5-/Phl p7-/Phl p12- was the most dominant profile (40%). In the adult group, the IgE averages for Phl p1 were approximately 10.46, while they were 8.43 for Phl p5, 0.69 for Phl p7, and 0.06 for Phl p12. In the child group, these values were higher: 22.49, 20.23, 3.89, and 0.35, respectively. For allergens Phl p1, Phl p5, and Phl p7, these differences between the child and adult population were not statistically significant (p = 0.754, p = 0.806 and p = 0.102, respectively), but for Phl p12, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.018) was observed. Conclusions: IgE antibodies Phl p1 is the most important allergic marker and sensitivities caused by Phl p12 give rise to higher IgE values in children


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Pólen/classificação , Técnicas de Imunoadsorção , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Portugal , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Imunoterapia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692797

RESUMO

The number of children who survive to adolescence is increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to the success of child survival programs, with immunization as a major theme. However, the national immunization schedule in Nigeria is presently restricted to early childhood with no attention paid to immunization in adolescence. Presently, the vaccines that are readily available for adolescents include tetanus toxoid which is normally administered to pregnant women, so necessarily includes adolescent mothers; and a few research programs which offers hepatitis B vaccines. Also, there are few Nigerian adolescents who access immunization as a requirement for travelling outside the country or as a result of parental effort. Knowledge and awareness about adolescent immunization is generally poor. Nigerian adolescents have been shown to be poorly protected from tetanus, rubella and hepatitis B which are vaccine preventable. Neonatal, childhood and adult tetanus, congenital rubella syndrome, cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are just few of the diseases whose incidence can be reduced with an effective adolescent immunization program. This will also ensure that the gains of childhood immunization is concretized and socio-economic losses as a result of vaccine preventable diseases are eliminated to create a healthy and vibrant workforce. There is an urgent need to build a viable adolescent immunization program in Nigeria as adolescents represent a window of opportunity to prevent diseases which affect both the younger and older age group. This can be extended to other developing countries as well.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria
4.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 98-105, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634816

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen in burn patients, and rapidly acquires antibiotic resistance; thus, developing an effective therapeutic approach is the most promising strategy for combating infection. Type III secretion system (T3SS) translocates bacterial toxins into the cytosol of the targeted eukaryotic cells, which plays important roles in the virulence of P. aeruginosa infections in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models. The PcrV protein, a T3SS translocating protein, is required for T3SS function and is a well-validated target in animal models of immunoprophylactic strategies targeting P. aeruginosa. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) raised against recombinant PcrV (r-PcrV) in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models. R-PcrV protein was generated by expressing the pcrV gene (cloned in pET-28a vector) in E. coli BL-21. Anti-PcrV IgY was obtained by immunization of hen. Anti-PcrV IgY induced greater protection in P. aeruginosamurine acute pneumonia and burn wound models than control IgY (C-IgY) and PBS groups. Anti-PcrV IgY improved opsonophagocytic killing and inhibition of bacterial invasion of host cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that anti-PcrV IgY can be a promising therapeutic candidate for combating P. aeruginosa infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Queimaduras/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Animais , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Virulência/imunologia
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 651, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge about neonatal danger signs and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 4 months attending immunization services. RESULT: The study recruited 432 mothers to participate. A knowledge score of neonatal danger signs was found [32.9% (95% CI 28.9%, 37%)]. Mothers educated to secondary level were 4.9 times more likely to know about neonatal danger signs [(AOR = 4.9, 95% CI (1.15, 21). Similarly, mothers whose husband educated to college and above [AOR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.15, 21)], and being multipara mother [(AOR = 2.59, 95% CI (1.05, 6.6)], were factors significantly associated with good knowledge of mothers about neonatal danger signs.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunização/métodos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Infect Dis ; 220(3): 411-419, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A conditionally replication-defective human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine (V160) derived from AD169 and genetically engineered to express CMV pentameric complex (gH/gL/pUL128/pUL130/pUL131) was developed and evaluated for phase 1 vaccine safety and immunogenicity in CMV-seronegative and CMV-seropositive adults. METHODS: Subjects received 3 doses of V160 or placebo on day 1, month 1, and month 6. Four vaccine dose levels, formulated with or without aluminum phosphate adjuvant, were evaluated. Injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) and vaccine viral shedding were monitored. CMV-specific cellular and humoral responses were measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT and virus neutralization assay up to 12 months after last dose. RESULTS: V160 was generally well-tolerated, with no serious AEs observed. Transient, mild-to-moderate injection-site and systemic AEs were reported more frequently in vaccinated subjects than placebo. Vaccine viral shedding was not detected in any subject, confirming the nonreplicating feature of V160. Robust neutralizing antibody titers were elicited and maintained through 12 months postvaccination. Cellular responses to structural and nonstructural viral proteins were observed, indicating de novo expression of viral genes postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: V160 displayed an acceptable safety profile. Levels of neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses in CMV-seronegative subjects were within ranges observed following natural CMV infection. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: . NCT01986010.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , ELISPOT/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 96, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is characterized by severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and a high mortality rate in piglets, leads to enormous economic losses to the pork industry and remains a large challenge worldwide. Thus, a rapid and reliable method is required for epidemiological investigations and to evaluate the effect of immunization. However, the current diagnostic methods for PEDV are time-consuming and very expensive and rarely meet the requirements for clinical application. Nanobodies have been used in the clinic to overcome these problems because of the advantages of their easy expression and high level of stability. In the present work, a novel biotinylated nanobody-based blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed to detect anti-PEDV antibodies in clinical pig serum. RESULTS: Using phage display technology and periplasmic extraction ELISA (PE-ELISA), anti-PEDV N protein nanobodies from three strains of PEDV were successfully isolated after three consecutive rounds of bio-panning from a high quality phage display VHH library. Then, purified Nb2-Avi-tag fusion protein was biotinylated in vitro. A novel bELISA was subsequently developed for the first time with biotinylated Nb2. The cutoff value for bELISA was 29.27%. One hundred and fifty clinical serum samples were tested by both newly developed bELISA and commercial kits. The sensitivity and specificity of bELISA were 100% and 93.18%, respectively, and the coincidence rate between the two methods was 94%. CONCLUSIONS: In brief, bELISA is a rapid, low-cost, reliable and useful nanobody-based tool for the serological evaluation of current PEDV vaccines efficacy and indirect diagnosis of PEDV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biotinilação/métodos , Camelus/virologia , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos/virologia
8.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 612-619, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542606

RESUMO

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are known as the gastrointestinal pathogens and major causes of enterohemorrhagic colitis since decades ago. There is no efficient approved vaccine against EHEC O157 and non-O157. In the present study, a recombinant candidate vaccine against enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 entrapped in the sodium alginate and PLGA nanoparticles and the efficiency of the immunization of these formulations were investigated. nanoparticles due to their properties like controlled cargoes release, adjuvanticity, cargo protection, increased bioavailability, etc have been noticed for drug delivery. A chimeric protein composed of HcpA, EspA, Tir and Stx2B antigens was designed, recombinantly expressed, purified and entrapped in nanoparticles. BALB/c mice were administrated with nano-formulated and free proteins. IgG titer, EHEC fecal shedding and the ability of the immune sera to neutralize Stx toxin and inhibit the bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells were analyzed. Fecal shedding analysis demonstrated that the colonization of the bacteria in the intestine of the mice was reduced significantly (P > 0.01). Immune mice were able to tolerate up to 200 LD50 of the active Stx toxin. About 80% of the bacterial binding capacity to Caco-2 cells was declined, especially in groups immunized with nano-formulations. Considering the importance of EHEC, especially O157 serotype, on public health and the other hand, the lack of an efficient vaccine in this regard, delivery of HETS candidate vaccine with NPs can be applied to prevent the infection by the pathogen.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/imunologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
9.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(9): 585-600, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474740

RESUMO

Amino acid derivative reactivity assay (ADRA) has previously been developed as an alternative method to direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate key event 1 in skin sensitization mechanisms. However, when using alternative methods for skin sensitization, integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA) that combine the results of multiple tests evaluating different key events are generally required. To verify whether ADRA can be used in IATA, we replaced DPRA with ADRA in five IATA methods combining DPRA, KeratinoSens, and h-CLAT: (i) the "2 out of 3" approach, (ii) the "3 out of 3" approach, (iii) sequential testing strategy (STS), (iv) integrated testing strategy by scoring approach (ITS-SA), and (v) the "ITS by two methods approach" (ITS-2MA). The prediction accuracy of the "2 out of 3" approach using ADRA (1 mM) and ADRA (0.5 mg/mL) was 90.0% and 91.1%, respectively, for human data, and was very similar to that obtained using DPRA (91.1%). The "3 out of 3" approach also showed good predictability (83.2%) using either ADRA (1 mM) or ADRA (0.5 mg/mL) compared to DPRA. Regarding the accuracy of the prediction of sensitization intensity for the human data by the third classification, prediction accuracy using ADRA was almost the same as STS, ITS-SA, or ITS-2MA using DPRA. As a result, this study showed that ADRA can be used as a test method for key event 1 in the evaluation of skin sensitization by combining multiple alternative methods.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/imunologia , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/métodos , Imunização/métodos , Pele/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Células U937
10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 94, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistence, biodistribution, and risk of integration into the host genome of any new therapeutic DNA vaccine must be established in preclinical studies. We previously developed the DNA vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 encoding chicken type II collagen (CCII) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we characterized its dynamic profile, biodistribution, and potential for genomic DNA integration in normal vaccinated rodent. RESULTS: A real-time quantitative PCR analysis (RT-qPCR) of animals administered a single dose of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 (300 µg/kg by intramuscular injection) showed that CCOL2A1 mRNA level in the blood peaked between 2 and 6 h post-immunization and then rapidly declined, and was undetectable between day 1-42. CCOL2A1 transcript was detected at the muscle injection site on days 3-14 post-immunization. Starting from day 14, the transcript was detected in the heart, liver, lung, and kidney but not in the spleen or thymus, and was expressed only in the lung on day 28. There was no CCOL2A1 mRNA present in the testes or ovaries at any time point. Non-invasive in vivo fluorescence imaging revealed CCII protein expression from 2 h up to day 10 and from 2 h up to day 35 after administration of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 via the intravenous and intramuscular routes, respectively; the protein had disappeared by day 42. Importantly, CCOL2A1 was not integrated into the host genome. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine is rapidly cleared within a short period of time and is therefore safe, and merits further development as a therapeutic vaccine for RA treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Roedores/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Colágeno Tipo II/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Injeções Intramusculares/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Roedores/imunologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
11.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 143: 1-7, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398438

RESUMO

During the manufacture of H1N1 microneedles, a stabilizer is usually added to maintain the antigenicity of the vaccine. However, finding a suitable stabilizer is difficult, and the addition of a stabilizer can limit the antigen dose and the addition of an adjuvant because of the limited volume of the microneedles. In this study, the authors evaluated whether H1N1 microneedles could be fabricated without a stabilizer by keeping the production environment at a low temperature. H1N1 microneedle patches without a stabilizer were prepared in a process that involved maintaining a low temperature of 10 °C. The protective immune response to this method of drug application was investigated by comparing it with traditional intramuscular (IM) immunization and with the use of H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer. A process-sensitive antigen, H1N1, was stabilized without the use of a stabilizer in a process that maintained a low temperature of 10 °C. The preparation process consisted of coating and drying processes. In animal experiments, mice were immunized using an array of low-temperature H1N1 microneedles without a stabilizer (LT-MN), and they showed strong antibody responses. Compared to three other application methods of traditional IM immunization, low-temperature H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer (LT-MN-T), and room-temperature H1N1 microneedles with a stabilizer (RT-MN-T), LT-MN produced comparable results in inducing protective immunity. A plaque reduction neutralization test found that LT-MN and LT-MN-T provided greater immunity compared with IM and RT-MN-T. A process in which the temperature is maintained at 10 °C can provide successful vaccination with H1N1 microneedles without the addition of a stabilizer. This process can be applied to various temperature-sensitive biologics.


Assuntos
Excipientes/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Injeções Intradérmicas/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Agulhas , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente , Vacinação/métodos
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 879-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421239

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is the causative pathogen of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis disease, which has caused huge economic losses to aquaculture industry in China. In this study, nine truncated CyHV-2 membrane glycoproteins (ORF25, ORF25C, ORF25D, ORF30, ORF124, ORF131, ORF136, ORF142A, ORF146) and a GFP reporter protein were respectively expressed using baculovirus surface displaying system. Western blot showed that the proteins were successfully packaged in the recombinant virus particles. In baculovirus transduced gibel carp kidney cells, the target proteins were expressed and displayed on the fish cell surface. Healthy gibel carp were immunized by immersion with the recombinant baculoviruses and the fish treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were served as mock group. The expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), interferon α (IFNα) and a complement component gene C3 were significantly up-regulated in most experimental groups, and interferon γ (IFNγ) expression in some groups were also induced after immunization. Subsequently, the immunized gibel carp were challenged by intraperitoneal injection of CyHV-2 virus. All the immunized groups exhibited reduced mortality after CyHV-2 challenge. In the groups immunized with baculoviruses displaying and expressing ORF25, ORF25C and ORF146, the relative percentage survival values reached 83.3%, 87.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Our data suggested that baculovirus-displayed ORF25, ORF25C and ORF146 could be potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of CyHV-2 infection in gibel carp.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Carpa Dourada/imunologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunização/veterinária , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Baculoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imersão , Imunização/métodos , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402966

RESUMO

Introduction: Measles is an acute viral disease that remains endemic in much of sub-Sahara Africa, including Liberia. The 2014 Ebola epidemic disrupted an already fragile health system contributing to low uptake of immunization services, population immunity remained low thus facilitating recurrent outbreaks of measles in Liberia. We describe lessons learnt from detecting and responding to recurrent outbreaks of measles two years post the 2014 Ebola epidemic in Liberia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study using the findings from Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) 15 counties, National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL), National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) and District Health Information Software (DIHS2) data conducted from October to December, 2017. We perused the outbreaks line lists and other key documents submitted by the counties to the national level from January 2016 to December 2017. Results: From January 2016 to December 2017, 2,954 suspected cases of measles were reported through IDSR. Four hundred sixty-seven (467) were laboratory confirmed (IgM-positive), 776 epidemiologically linked, 574 clinically confirmed, and 1,137 discarded (IgM-negative). Nine deaths out of 1817 cases were reported, a case fatality rate of 0.5%; 49% were children below the age of 5 years. Twenty-two percent (405/1817) of the confirmed cases were vaccinated while the vaccination status of 55% (994/1817) was unknown. Conclusion: Revitalization of IDSR contributed to increased detection and reporting of suspected cases of measles thus facilitating early identification and response to outbreaks. Priority needs to be given to increasing the uptake of routine immunization services, introducing a second dose of measles vaccine in the routine immunization program and conducting a high-quality supplementary measles immunization campaign for age group 1 to 10 years to provide protection for a huge cohort of susceptible.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Recidiva
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 1-9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282365

RESUMO

Oral immunization is a commonly employed route for inducing local immunity. However, the application of oral immunization is limited by the short-term persistence of immunity, particularly for inactivated viruses. The ultimate goal for mucosal vaccination is to stimulate protective immunological memory. In the intestine, long-term persistence of immunity is related to CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells. In this study, piglets were orally immunized with Bacillus subtilis spores (B.s) plus whole inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV WIV), followed by booster oral immunization. Initially, the results showed that B.s plus PEDV WIV enhanced the anti-PEDV capability on mucosal surfaces, as evidenced by plaque reduction neutralization tests in serum and intestinal fluid. Elevated antigen-specific IgG titers in the serum and IgA titers in saliva, feces and nasal washing liquid were also observed. Meanwhile, B.s plus PEDV WIV increased the area of Peyer's patches and the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the ileum of piglets. Similarly, the percentage of CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells were upregulated and proliferation ability of antigen-specific memory T-cell was strengthened in intestinal mucosal-associated lymphocytes, which was accompanied with increased expression of CCR9 after oral immunization with B.s plus PEDV WIV. In addition, the activation of memory T-cells is correlated with the increased mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4, as well as interleukin-6 and induced by B.s. Collectively, the study provided further insight into the potential immunopotentiator ability of B.s to assist PEDV WIV in the potentiation of immunity by upregulating memory CD4+CD8+ T cells via oral immunization.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunização/métodos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Esporos/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Cima , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261990

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, the prevalence of food allergies has registered a significant increase in Westernized societies, potentially due to changes in environmental exposure and lifestyle. The pathogenesis of food allergies is complex and includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. New evidence has highlighted the role of the intestinal microbiome in the maintenance of the immune tolerance to foods and the potential pathogenic role of early percutaneous exposure to allergens. The recent increase in food allergy rates has led to a reconsideration of prevention strategies for atopic diseases, mainly targeting the timing of the introduction of solid foods into infants' diet. Early recommendation for high atopy risk infants to delay the introduction of potential food allergens, such as cow's milk, egg, and peanut, until after the first year of life, has been rescinded, as emerging evidence has shown that these approaches are not effective in preventing food allergies. More recently, high-quality clinical trials have suggested an opposite approach, which promotes early introduction of potential food allergens into infants' diet as a means to prevent food allergies. This evidence has led to the production of new guidelines recommending early introduction of peanut as a preventive strategy for peanut allergy. However, clinical trials investigating whether this preventive dietary approach could also apply to other types of food allergens have reported ambiguous results. This review focuses on the latest high-quality evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials examining the timing of solid food introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergies and also discusses the possible implications of early complementary feeding on both the benefits and the total duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Imunização/normas , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Feminino , Peixes/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/tendências , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/imunologia , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 257, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332640

RESUMO

Transcutaneous immunization using a microneedle device presents a promising alternative to syringe-based injection of vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective immune response elicited after application of tetanus toxoid antigen-loaded dissolvable microneedles (TT-MN) in mice model. Dissolvable microneedles were prepared using 20% w/v of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymer mixture by micromolding technique. TT-MN were prepared by addition of tetanus toxoid to polymer mixture before casting microneedles. TT-MN were characterized using texture analyzer, stereomicroscope, and scanning electron microscope. Tetanus toxoid loading was found to be 77 ± 2 µg per microneedle array. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the microneedles penetrated to a depth of 130 µm inside mouse skin. Complete dissolution of microneedles was achieved within 1 h after insertion in skin. Immunization studies in Swiss albino mice demonstrated significantly (p < 0.001) greater IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody titers for TT-MN and intramuscular injection groups compared with naïve control. Splenocyte proliferation assay confirmed effective re-stimulation on exposure to tetanus toxoid in microneedle treatment groups. Taken together, TT-MN can be developed as minimally invasive system for transcutaneous delivery of tetanus toxoid antigen.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Imunização/métodos , Agulhas , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas , Camundongos , Polímeros/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Solubilidade , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 250, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has made remarkable progress in maternal and child health (MCH) over the last thirty years, but socio-economic inequalities persist. Ethnicity has become an important determinant of poor MCH outcomes, but little rigorous analytical work has been done in this area. To understand the socio-economic factors that explain ethnic variation in uptake of MCH care, we report the findings from an analysis in Sichuan province. METHODS: We linked data from the 2003, 2008 and 2013 National Health Service Surveys in Sichuan Province. The ethnic disparities in uptake of maternal care (completing 5 antenatal visits, giving birth in hospital and receiving a caesarean section) and childhood immunization (Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), three doses of diphtheria (DPT) and measles immunization) were examined by geographical (Han district/county vs. ethnic minority county) and individual-based (Han women/children vs. ethnic minority women/children) comparisons. We also examined variation by distance to township and county hospitals, women's education, parity and age using weighted multilevel Poisson regressions with random intercept at district/county level. RESULTS: Ethnic inequalities in maternal care were marked, both at the geographical (district/county) and the individual level. The % of births in hospital was 90.7% among women in Han districts, compared to 83.3% among women living in Han counties (crude RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.75-1.15), 53.8% among Han women living in ethnic minority counties (crude RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.93), and 13.5% among ethnic minority women living in ethnic minority counties (crude RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.57). Adjusting the analysis for survey year, education, parity and distance to county level hospital weakened the association between geographical/individual ethnicity and uptake of maternity care, but associations remained remarkably strong. Coverage of childhood immunization was much higher than uptake of maternity care, and inequalities by ethnicity were much less pronounced. CONCLUSION: Lessons can be learned from China's successful immunization programme to further reduce inequalities in access to maternity care among ethnic minority populations in remote areas. Bringing the services closer to the women's homes and strengthening health promotion from the township to the village level may encourage more women to seek antenatal care and give birth in hospital.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223412

RESUMO

Introduction: the government of Uganda aims at reducing childhood morbidity through provision of immunization services. We compared the proportion of children 12-33 months reached using either static or outreach immunization strategies and factors affecting utilization of routine vaccination services in order to inform policy updates. Methods: we adopted the 2015 vaccination coverage cluster survey technique. The sample selection was based on a stratified three-stage sample design. Using the Fleiss formula, a sample of 50 enumeration areas was sufficient to generate immunization coverages at each region. A total of 200 enumeration areas were selected for the survey. Thirty households were selected per enumeration area. Epi-Info software was used to calculate weighted coverage estimates. facility. Results: among the 2231 vaccinated children aged 12-23 months who participated in the survey, 68.1% received immunization services from a health unit and 10.6% from outreaches. The factors that affected utilization of routine vaccination services were; accessibility, where 78.2% resided within 5km from a health. 29.7% missed vaccination due to lack of vaccines at the health facility. Other reasons were lack of supplies at 39.2% and because the caretaker had other things to do, 26.4%. The survey showed 1.8% (40/2271) respondents had not vaccinated their children. Among these, 70% said they had not vaccinated their child because they were busy doing other things and 27.5% had not done so because of lack of motivation. Conclusion: almost 7 in 10 children aged 12-23 months access vaccination at health facilities. There is evidence of parental apathy as well as misconceptions about vaccination.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Apatia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Cobertura Vacinal
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237893

RESUMO

Although many influenza-related deaths are attributable to secondary bacterial infection with S. pneumoniae, vaccines that simultaneously protect against influenza and pneumococcal infection are currently not developed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility to prevent post-influenza pneumococcal infection using an associated vaccine based on live influenza vaccine (LAIV) combined with recombinant polypeptides derived from superficial factors of Group B streptococcus (GBS) determining pathogenicity. We demonstrated in a model of post-influenza pneumococcal pneumonia that intranasal pneumococcal super-infection seriously complicated the course of A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9) CDC-RG virus infection in mice. Associated immunization using LAIV and GBS vaccine (GBSV) prevented post-influenza pneumococcal pneumonia better than mono-LAIV or GBSV immunization. At the same time, parenteral pneumococcal post-influenza infection of immune mice was more severe in the groups immunized using recombinant GBS peptides which can be explained by antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. In this case, the introduction of blockers of histamine receptors type 1 and 2 reduced the burden of secondary pneumococcal infection.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/etiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/imunologia , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/genética , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Conjugadas/genética , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico
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