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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global abrupt progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization (RI), thus increasing the susceptibility of countries to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Being endemic to several infectious diseases, Lebanon might be at increased risk of outbreaks as the utilization of RI services might have deteriorated due to the pandemic and the country's political unrest following the October 2019 uprising. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the utilization of RI services in both the public and private sectors following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered cross-sectional survey was completed electronically, in April 2020, by 345 private pediatricians who are registered in professional associations of physicians in Lebanon and provide immunization services at their clinics. Means of the reported percentages of decrease in the utilization of vaccination services by pediatricians were calculated. As for the public sector, an examination of the monthly differences in the number of administered vaccine doses in addition to their respective percentages of change was performed. Adjustment for the distribution of RI services between the sectors was performed to calculate the national decrease rate. RESULTS: The utilization of vaccination services at the national level decreased by 31%. In the private sector, immunization services provision diminished by 46.9% mainly between February and April 2020. The highest decrease rates were observed for oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and hepatitis A, followed by measles and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The number of vaccine doses administered in the public sector decreased by 20%. The most prominent reductions were detected for the OPV and measles vaccines, and during October 2019 and March 2020. CONCLUSION: The substantial decrease in the utilization of RI as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic requires public health interventions to prevent future outbreaks of VPDs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , /imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , /patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
2.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21409, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577115

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded to be the most challenging global health crisis in a century. In 11 months since its first emergence, according to WHO, the causative infectious agent SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 100 million people and claimed more than 2.15 million lives worldwide. Moreover, the world has raced to understand the virus and natural immunity and to develop vaccines. Thus, within a short 11 months a number of highly promising COVID-19 vaccines were developed at an unprecedented speed and are now being deployed via emergency use authorization for immunization. Although a considerable number of review contributions are being published, all of them attempt to capture only a specific aspect of COVID-19 or its therapeutic approaches based on ever-expanding information. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview to conceptually thread together the latest information on global epidemiology and mitigation strategies, clinical features, viral pathogenesis and immune responses, and the current state of vaccine development.


Assuntos
/imunologia , /prevenção & controle , Imunidade/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , /imunologia
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 545-557, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409549

RESUMO

The use of gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu), retains most of the viral structural antigens, represent a promising option for vaccine development. However, despite the high effectiveness of γ-Flu vaccines, the need to incorporate an adjuvant to improve vaccine-mediated protection seems inevitable. Here, we examined the protective efficacy of an intranasal gamma-irradiated HIN1 vaccine co-administered with a plasmid encoding mouse interleukin-28B (mIL-28B) as a novel adjuvant in BALB/c mice. Animals were immunized intranasally three times at one-week intervals with γ-Flu, alone or in combination with the mIL-28B adjuvant, followed by viral challenge with a high lethal dose (10 LD50) of A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) influenza virus. Virus-specific antibody, cellular and mucosal responses, and the balance of cytokines in the spleen IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-4) and in lung homogenates (IL-6 and IL-10) were measured by ELISA. The lymphoproliferative activity of restimulated spleen cells was also determined by MTT assay. Furthermore, virus production in the lungs of infected mice was estimated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)/hemagglutination assay (HA). Our data showed that intranasal immunization with adjuvanted γ-Flu vaccine efficiently promoted humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses and efficiently decreased lung virus titers, all of which are associated with protection against challenge. This combination also reduced IL-6 and IL-10 levels in lung homogenates. The results suggest that IL-28B can enhance the ability of the vaccine to elicit virus-specific immune responses and could potentially be used as an effective adjuvant.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Administração Intranasal/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2225: 39-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108656

RESUMO

Vaccines are the most effective means to prevent infectious diseases, especially for viral infection. The key to an excellent antiviral vaccine is the ability to induce long-term protective immunity against a specific virus. Bacterial vaccine vectors have been used to impart protection against self, as well as heterologous antigens. One significant benefit of using live bacterial vaccine vectors is their ability to invade and colonize deep effector lymphoid tissues after mucosal delivery. The bacterium Salmonella is considered the best at this deep colonization. This is critically essential for inducing protective immunity. This chapter describes the methodology for developing genetically modified self-destructing Salmonella (GMS) vaccine delivery systems targeting influenza infection. Specifically, the methods covered include the procedures for the development of GMSs for protective antigen delivery to induce cellular immune responses and DNA vaccine delivery to induce systemic immunity against the influenza virus. These self-destructing GMS could be modified to provide effective biological containment for genetically engineered bacteria used for a diversity of purposes in addition to vaccines.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/genética , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Genes Letais , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Nucleoproteínas/imunologia , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Transgenes
5.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(12): 1147-1152, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318323

RESUMO

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, immunization practices of all age groups, especially routine childhood vaccines, have been interrupted. Immunization is considered an essential health activity, which needs to be resumed as early as possible. This pandemic has created several unique issues related to routine immunization of individual children at clinics, which needs to be addressed. In this communication, the Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP) of Indian Academy of Pediatrics addresses the common questions and issues related to SARS-CoV-2 and routine immunization services. This also includes the recommendations for routine immunization of SARS-CoV-2 suspect and positive children, and for the logistics to be followed for immunization services.


Assuntos
Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização , Criança , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/normas , Índia , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22370, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353972

RESUMO

There are currently few approved effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nanobodies are 12-15 kDa single-domain antibody fragments that can be delivered by inhalation and are amenable to relatively inexpensive large scale production compared to other biologicals. We have isolated nanobodies that bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain and block spike protein interaction with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with 1-5 nM affinity. The lead nanobody candidate, NIH-CoVnb-112, blocks SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection of HEK293 cells expressing human ACE2 with an EC50 of 0.3 µg/mL. NIH-CoVnb-112 retains structural integrity and potency after nebulization. Furthermore, NIH-CoVnb-112 blocks interaction between ACE2 and several high affinity variant forms of the spike protein. These nanobodies and their derivatives have therapeutic, preventative, and diagnostic potential.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , /genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos/imunologia , /virologia , Camelídeos Americanos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transdução Genética , Transfecção
7.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1197-1203, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has had any effects on pediatric vaccination rates at the main university hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using electronic health records. The vaccination statuses of all children who were scheduled for vaccinations at birth and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months during March, April and May between 2017 and 2020 were included in the study with total sample of 15,870 children, and comparisons between the cohorts were performed. RESULTS: All vaccination visits during April and May 2020 were below the lower extremes except for the birth vaccinations. In March, April, and May 2020 there were respective drops in vaccination visits of 49.93%, 71.90% and 68.48% compared with the mean numbers of vaccination visits during the same months from 2017 to 2019. In comparisons of mean numbers of visits from March 2017 to May 2019 and March to May in 2020, the respective reductions in visits for birth and 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12-month vaccinations were 16.5%, 80.5%, 74.7%, 72.9%, 80.0% and 74.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The huge impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic on childhood vaccinations will require urgent vaccination recovery plans with innovative approaches and future action plans to maintain vaccination coverage during any subsequent pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is highly prevalent in low-income countries and is a major public health problem worldwide. Lactating mothers are the most vulnerable population group to vitamin A deficiency. Despite this, there is limited study on vitamin A-rich food consumption by lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adequate vitamin A rich food consumption and associated factors among lactating mothers visiting child immunization and postnatal care centers in health institutions of Gondar Town. METHODS: An Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed at a health institution in Gondar Town from February to March 2019, and included 631 study participants. Simple random sampling followed by a systematic sampling technique was used to select participants. The data were collected using the Helen Keller International Food Frequency Questionnaire, entered using Epi-Info 7 statistical software and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the outcome variable and variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 624 lactating mothers participated in the study giving a response rate of 98.89%. The study shows adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich food was 38.94% (95% CI: 35%- 43%). Predictors such as attending college diploma and above (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI; 1.02-4.99), having household family size ≤ 3 (AOR = 4.04, 95% CI; 1.60-10.17), being in higher economic class (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI; 1.18-3.14), having dietary diversity score of ≥ 5 (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) and meal frequency of ≥ 4 (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) were statistically significant. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The majority of respondents had inadequate consumption of foods rich in vitamin A. Educational status, family size, wealth index, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were found to be factors that affect adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich foods. Encouraging and educating lactating mothers to consume foods rich in vitamin A is crucial.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Prevalência , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 915-917, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907278

RESUMO

Development of an effective vaccine requires a long and complicated process. Preclinical studies and phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ clinical trials mainly focused on the assessment of the vaccine's safety (tolerability), immunogenicity and efficacy before license. After license, it is necessary to further evaluate the actual effectiveness and safety in the general population through phase Ⅳ clinical trials and optimize the immunization strategies with the disease's epidemiology data. In this special issue, published several articles, which reported the main results of pre-license clinical trials and post-marketing evaluation of various vaccines, it was extremely useful to support vaccine licensing and market use. We encourage the continuous clinical studies and post-marketing evaluation of vaccines, including the novel corona virus-19 vaccines, to provide technical support for the population use, under the situation of COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais
10.
Immunity ; 53(4): 724-732.e7, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783919

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a serious global pandemic. Because of the high transmissibility of the virus and the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19, developing effective and safe vaccines is a top research priority. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the immunogenicity of lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) vaccines encoding the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or the spike receptor binding domain in mice. We demonstrate that a single dose of these vaccines induces strong type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, as well as long-lived plasma and memory B cell responses. Additionally, we detect robust and sustained neutralizing antibody responses and the antibodies elicited by nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines do not show antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in vitro. Our findings suggest that the nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccine platform can induce robust immune responses and is a promising candidate to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , RNA Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furina/genética , Furina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunização/métodos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Vacinas Virais/genética
11.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847031

RESUMO

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Imunização/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21055, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629732

RESUMO

Food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization are common allergic diseases worldwide, with widely varying estimates of prevalence in children. Our study investigated the characteristics of ingestion and inhalation allergy among children from Sichuan province in Southwest China, so as to get public awareness of these disorders.A total of 1722 children between 0 and 14 years' old were enrolled in this study. They were outpatients in the West China Second University Hospital during June 2019 to September 2019. Serum specific IgE specific to 10 types of food allergen and 10 types of aeroallergen were estimated. Nutrition indicators were tested by electrochemical luminescence.59.70% children were allergic to at least 1 allergen, comprising 24.90% to aeroallergen and 38.81% to food allergen, respectively, whereas 36.28% children were allergic to both aeroallergen and food allergen. Milk was the most common food allergen, and egg came in second place. With regard to aeroallergen, house dust mite held the maximum proportion (65.02%), whereas dust mite followed behind. Inhalation allergy was more commonly seen in boys than girls. Bronchitis was the most common symptom of both allergies. In addition, the highest incidence age for children to be sensitive to food allergen and aeroallergen were 0∼2 years' old and 3∼5 years' old, respectively. It is worth mentioning that there was no significant difference in nutritional status between children with or without allergic diseases.Our findings reveal that milk, egg, house dust mite, and dust mite are the most common allergens among children in Sichuan province. Boys are more susceptible to aeroallergen than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of ingestion and inhalation allergy varies from different age groups, and has no correlation with nutritional status. In brief, the analysis of the pattern of food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization is invaluable to effective diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conscientização , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007897, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645081

RESUMO

Network-based intervention strategies can be effective and cost-efficient approaches to curtailing harmful contagions in myriad settings. As studied, these strategies are often impractical to implement, as they typically assume complete knowledge of the network structure, which is unusual in practice. In this paper, we investigate how different immunization strategies perform under realistic conditions-where the strategies are informed by partially-observed network data. Our results suggest that global immunization strategies, like degree immunization, are optimal in most cases; the exception is at very high levels of missing data, where stochastic strategies, like acquaintance immunization, begin to outstrip them in minimizing outbreaks. Stochastic strategies are more robust in some cases due to the different ways in which they can be affected by missing data. In fact, one of our proposed variants of acquaintance immunization leverages a logistically-realistic ongoing survey-intervention process as a form of targeted data-recovery to improve with increasing levels of missing data. These results support the effectiveness of targeted immunization as a general practice. They also highlight the risks of considering networks as idealized mathematical objects: overestimating the accuracy of network data and foregoing the rewards of additional inquiry.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Epidemias , Imunização , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Coleta de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(3): 281-289, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In Africa, few studies of sensitisation profiles have been performed in children or adolescents and, in Angola, there are none. The objectives of the present study were to assess the sensitisation profile of Angolan schoolchildren and to determine the relationship between that pattern, sociodemographic factors, asthma and other allergic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study in 5-14-year-old children, performed between September and November 2017, in the Province of Bengo, Angola. Five schools (15%) were randomly selected in the geographical area of the study: three from an urban area, and two from a rural area. Data were collected using the Portuguese versions of the ISAAC questionnaires for children and adolescents, regarding asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with a battery of 12 aeroallergens. Stools were assessed for the presence of helminths. Descriptive statistics were used, as well as univariate calculation of odds ratios. RESULTS: Sensitisation to aeroallergens was low (8%) and most sensitised children were asymptomatic. Most frequent sensitisations involved house dust mites, cockroach or fungi, and a high proportion of children (78.1%) were monosensitised. No relationship was detected between sensitisations and asthma, rhinitis or eczema. Place of residence, gender, age or helminthic infection did not affect the probability of having positive SPTs. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent sensitisations in children from Bengo Province in Angola involve house dust mites, followed by cockroach and fungi. No relationship was found between atopic sensitisation and asthma or other allergic diseases


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Imunização/métodos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Angola/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Razão de Chances , Testes Cutâneos , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia
15.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 21, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, the International Chiropractors Association (ICA) posted reports claiming that chiropractic care can impact the immune system. These claims clash with recommendations from the World Health Organization and World Federation of Chiropractic. We discuss the scientific validity of the claims made in these ICA reports. MAIN BODY: We reviewed the two reports posted by the ICA on their website on March 20 and March 28, 2020. We explored the method used to develop the claim that chiropractic adjustments impact the immune system and discuss the scientific merit of that claim. We provide a response to the ICA reports and explain why this claim lacks scientific credibility and is dangerous to the public. More than 150 researchers from 11 countries reviewed and endorsed our response. CONCLUSION: In their reports, the ICA provided no valid clinical scientific evidence that chiropractic care can impact the immune system. We call on regulatory authorities and professional leaders to take robust political and regulatory action against those claiming that chiropractic adjustments have a clinical impact on the immune system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunização , Manipulação Quiroprática , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quiroprática , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sociedades Médicas
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379764

RESUMO

Due to the lack of efficiency to control malaria elicited by sub-unit vaccine preparations, vaccination with live-attenuated Plasmodium parasite as reported 70 years ago with irradiated sporozoites regained recently a significant interest. The complex life cycle of the parasite and the different stages of development between mammal host and anopheles do not help to propose an easy vaccine strategy. In order to achieve a complete long-lasting protection against Plasmodium infection and disease, we considered a genetically attenuated blood stage parasite in the hmgb2 gene coding for the high-mobility-group-box 2 (HMGB2). This Plasmodium protein belongs to the HMGB family and hold as the mammal proteins, a double life since it acts first as a nuclear factor involved in chromatin remodelling and transcription regulation and second, when secreted as an active pro-inflammatory alarmin protein. Even though the number of reports on whole living attenuated blood stage parasites is limited when compared to attenuated sporozoites, the results reported with Plasmodium KO parasites are very encouraging. In this report, we present a novel strategy based on pre-immunization with Δhmgb2PbNK65 parasitized red blood cells that confer long-lasting protection in a murine experimental cerebral malaria model against two highly pathogenic homologous and heterologous parasites.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB2/genética , Malária Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Animais , Anopheles/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Proteína HMGB2/metabolismo , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmodium berghei/patogenicidade , Esporozoítos/genética , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 182-187, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386904

RESUMO

Memory CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in protective immunity against infection and cancer. However, the induction of memory CTLs with currently available vaccines remains difficult. The chemokine receptor XCR1 is predominantly expressed on CD103+ cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Recently, we have demonstrated that a high activity form of murine lymphotactin/XCL1 (mXCL1-V21C/A59C), a ligand of XCR1, can induce antigen-specific memory CTLs by increasing the accumulation of CD103+ DCs in the vaccination site and the regional lymph nodes. Here, we combined a hydrophilic gel patch as a transcutaneous delivery device and mXCL1-V21C/A59C as an adjuvant to further enhance memory CTL responses. The transcutaneous delivery of ovalbumin (OVA) and mXCL1-V21C/A59C by the hydrophilic gel patch increased CD103+ DCs in the vaccination site and the regional lymph nodes for a prolonged period of time compared with the intradermal injection of OVA and mXCL1-V21C/A59C. Furthermore, the hydrophilic gel patch containing OVA and mXCL1-V21C/A59C strongly induced OVA-specific memory CTLs and efficiently inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing tumors more than the intradermal injection of OVA and mXCL1-V21C/A59C. Collectively, this type of hydrophilic gel patch and a high activity form of XCL1 may provide a useful tool for the induction of memory CTL responses.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Quimiocinas C/administração & dosagem , Quimiocinas C/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Animais , Antígenos CD , Linhagem Celular , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Géis , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1185-1192, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441051

RESUMO

AIMS: Riemerella anatipestifer infections of goslings and ducklings can result in high mortality. Since there are at least 21 serotypes of R. anatipestifer, cross-protection is an important goal for vaccine development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of different immunization regimens - the traditional inactivated vaccine vs prime-boost regimens using DNA and protein subunit vaccines (DNA+subunit, subunit+subunit, subunit+inactivated and DNA+DNA). Results showed that, when compared to the inactivated vaccine, prime-boost regimens induced higher and up to 16-week longer lasting levels of antibody responses, significantly elevated the percentage of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell and higher expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12 mRNAs. Furthermore, as an indication of cross-protection, sera from prime-boost regimens were able to recognize lysates of R. anatipestifer serotypes 1, 2 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: Prime-boost regimens especially DNA-prime and protein-boost, induce strong long-term immune response and may prove protective for breeder ducks requiring long-term protection. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: It is worth mentioning that the subunit+inactivated regimen group also elicited strong immune response. The cost of this regimen may only be half of the other prime-boost regimens, making this subunit + inactivated combination an attractive option.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Imunização/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Riemerella/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Proteção Cruzada , Patos/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Riemerella/genética , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373266

RESUMO

The recent setbacks in efforts to achieve measles elimination goals are alarming. To reverse the current trends, it is imperative that the global health community urgently intensify efforts and make resource commitments to implement evidence-based elimination strategies fully, including supporting research and innovations. The Immunization Agenda 2030: A Global Strategy to Leave No One Behind (IA2030) is the new global guidance document that builds on lessons learned and progress made toward the GVAP goals, includes research and innovation as a core strategic priority, and identifies measles as a "tracer" for improving immunisation services and strengthening primary health care systems. To achieve vaccination coverage and equity targets that leave no one behind, and accelerate progress toward disease eradication and elimination goals, sustained and predictable investments are needed for the identified research and innovations priorities for the new decade.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização/economia , Invenções/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Surtos de Doenças/economia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Obtenção de Fundos/tendências , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Incidência , Invenções/tendências , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/organização & administração , Investimentos em Saúde/tendências , Sarampo/economia , Vacina contra Sarampo/economia , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas
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