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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19087, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352060

RESUMO

The World Health Organization categorized SARS-CoV-2 as a variant of concern, having numerous mutations in spike protein, which have been found to evade the effect of antibodies stimulated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The susceptibility to omicron variant by immunization-induced antibodies are direly required for risk evaluation. To avoid the risk of arising viral illness, the construction of a specific vaccine that triggers the production of targeted antibodies to combat infection remains highly imperative. The aim of the present study is to develop a particular vaccine exploiting bioinformatics approaches which can target B- and T-cells epitopes. Through this approach, novel epitopes of the S protein-SARS-CoV-2 were predicted for the development of a multiple epitope vaccine. Multiple epitopes were selected on the basis of toxicity, immunogenicity and antigenicity, and vaccine subunit was constructed having potential immunogenic properties. The epitopes were linked with 3 types of linker EAAAK, AAY and GPGPG for vaccine construction. Subsequently, vaccine structure was docked with the receptor and cloned in a pET-28a (+) vector. The constructed vaccine was ligated in pET-28a (+) vector in E. coli using the SnapGene tool for the expression study and a good immune response was observed. Several computational tools were used to predict and analyze the vaccine constructed by using spike protein sequence of omicrons. The current study identified a Multi-Epitope Vaccine (MEV) as a significant vaccine candidate that could potentially help the global world to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Biologia Computacional , Escherichia coli , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Epitopos de Linfócito T
2.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7130-7140, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After establishing safety and immunogenicity of Biological-E's CORBEVAX™ vaccine in adult population (18-80 years) in Phase 1-3 studies, vaccine is further tested in children and adolescents in this study. METHODS: This is a phase-2/3 prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and immunogenicity of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in children and adolescents of either gender between <18 to ≥12 years of age in Phase-2 and <18 to ≥5 years of age in Phase-Phase-2/Phase-3 with placebo as a control. This study has two age sub-groups; subgroup-1 with subjects <18 to ≥12 years of age and subgroup-2 with subjects <12 to ≥5 years of age. In both sub groups, eligible subjects (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative and seronegative at baseline) were randomized to receive either CORBEVAX™ vaccine or Placebo in 3:1 ratio. FINDINGS: The safety profile of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in both pediatric cohorts was comparable to the placebo-control group. Majority of reported adverse events (AEs) were mild in nature. No severe or serious-AEs, medically attended AEs (MAAEs) or AEs of special interest (AESI) were reported during the study period and all reported AEs resolved without any sequelae. In both pediatric age groups, CORBEVAX™ vaccinated subjects showed significant improvement in humoral immune-responses in terms of anti-RBD-IgG concentrations, anti-RBD-IgG1 titers, neutralizing-antibody (nAb)-titers against Ancestral-Wuhan and Delta-strains. Significantly high interferon-gamma immune- response (cellular) was elicited by CORBEVAX™ vaccinated subjects with minimal effect on IL-4 cytokine secretion. INTERPRETATIONS: The safety profile of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in <18 to ≥5 years' children and adolescents was found to be safe and tolerable. Significant increase in anti-RBD-IgG and nAb-titers and IFN-gamma immune-responses were observed post-vaccination in both pediatric age sub-groups. The nAb titers observed in both the pediatric age cohorts were non-inferior to the adult cohort (BECT069 study) in terms of ratio of the GMT's of both the cohorts. This study shows that CORBEVAX™ vaccine is highly immunogenic and can be safely administered to pediatric population as young as 5 years old. The study was prospectively registered with clinical trial registry of India- CTRI/2021/10/037066.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Prospectivos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Imunoglobulina G , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17955, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289319

RESUMO

Progress has been made in COVID-19 vaccine development, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Patients with AIIRD (n = 101) were included in this study. All patients received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Serum anti-S1/RBD protein IgG was detected 2-16 weeks after the second vaccination. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥ 1.00 bound antibody unit S/CO. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was assessed by seropositivity rate and the levels of serum IgG antibody against anti-S1/RBD protein, compared with the general population (n = 46). There was no difference by statistical significance in the seropositivity rate between patients with AIIRD (82.2%) and SLE (86.1%) and the control group (93.5%), p > 0.05. The level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies in patients with AIIRD (median [IQR], 8.8 [2.2-17.3]) and SLE (median [IQR], 9.6 [2.4-20.4]) was comparable to that in the control group (median [IQR], 7.2 [3.1-14.2]), p > 0.05. Patients treated with glucocorticoids(GCs) (median dose, [IQR]: 2.5 mg/day [IQR 2.5-5.0]) or hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) or GCs + HCQ without other immunomodulatory medications, had an appropriate immunogenic response(88.1%) with high levels of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG(median [IQR], 12.1 [6.5-20.4]). Neither of patients treated with rituximab had positive serum antibodies, which was statistically significant, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Compared with the control group, methotrexate(MTX) and iguratimod(IGU) was significantly reduced the level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had appropriate immunogenicity in patients with AIIRD. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was severely impaired by rituximab, and also suppressed by MTX and IGU, while low doses of GC and HCQ had negligible effect.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Doenças Reumáticas , Febre Reumática , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
4.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 28(4): 890-911, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine immunogenicity among chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant (LT) patients are conflicting. We performed meta-analysis to examine vaccine immunogenicity regarding etiology, cirrhosis status, vaccine platform and type of antibody. METHODS: We collected data via three databases from inception to February 16, 2022, and reported pooled seroconversion rate, T cell response and safety data after two vaccine doses. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (CLD only: 5; LT only: 18; both: 2; LT with third dose: 3) observational studies of 3,945 patients were included. For CLD patients, seroconversion rate ranged between 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76-90%) and 91% (95% CI, 83-95%), based predominantly on neutralizing antibody and anti-spike antibody, respectively. Seroconversion rate was 81% (95% CI, 76-86%) in chronic hepatitis B, 96% (95% CI, 93-97%) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 85% (95% CI, 75-91%) in cirrhosis and 85% (95% CI, 78-90%) in non-cirrhosis, 86% (95% CI, 78-92%) for inactivated vaccine and 89% (95% CI, 71-96%) for mRNA vaccine. The pooled seroconversion rate of anti-spike antibody was 66% (95% CI, 55-75%) after two doses of mRNA vaccines and 88% (95% CI, 58-98%) after third dose among LT recipients. T cell response rate was 65% (95% CI, 30-89%). Prevalence of adverse events was 27% (95% CI, 18-38%) and 63% (95% CI, 39-82%) among CLD and LT groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: CLD patients had good humoral response to COVID-19 vaccine, while LT recipients had lower response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatopatias , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Anticorpos Antivirais
5.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6455-6462, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195473

RESUMO

The severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and the development of multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccines expedited vaccine 'mix and match' trials in humans and demonstrated the benefits of mixing vaccines that vary in formulation, strength, and immunogenicity. Heterologous sequential vaccination may be an effective approach for protecting against dengue, as this strategy would mimic the natural route to broad dengue protection and may overcome the imbalances in efficacy of the individual leading live attenuated dengue vaccines. Here we review 'mix and match' vaccination trials against SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and dengue virus and discuss the possible advantages and concerns of future heterologous immunization with the leading dengue vaccines. COVID-19 trials suggest that priming with a vaccine that induces strong cellular responses, such as an adenoviral vectored product, followed by heterologous boost may optimize T cell immunity. Moreover, heterologous vaccination may induce superior humoral immunity compared to homologous vaccination when the priming vaccine induces a narrower response than the boost. The HIV trials reported that heterologous vaccination was associated with broadened antigen responses and that the sequence of the vaccines significantly impacts the regimen's immunogenicity and efficacy. In heterologous dengue immunization trials, where at least one dose was with a live attenuated vaccine, all reported equivalent or increased immunogenicity compared to homologous boost, although one study reported increased reactogenicity. The three leading dengue vaccines have been evaluated for safety and efficacy in thousands of study participants but not in combination in heterologous dengue vaccine trials. Various heterologous regimens including different combinations and sequences should be trialed to optimize cellular and humoral immunity and the breadth of the response while limiting reactogenicity. A blossoming field dedicated to more accurate correlates of protection and enhancement will help confirm the safety and efficacy of these strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Dengue , Dengue , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0268419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The administration of a third (booster) dose of COVID-19 vaccines in Peru initially employed the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) mRNA vaccine. The national vaccination program started with healthcare workers (HCW) who received BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) vaccine as primary regimen and elderly people previously immunized with BNT162b2. This study evaluated the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the "booster" dose in these two groups in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study, recruiting participants from November to December of 2021 in Lima, Peru. We evaluated immunogenicity and reactogenicity in HCW and elderly patients previously vaccinated with either two doses of BBIBP-CorV (heterologous regimen) or BTN162b2 (homologous regimen). Immunogenicity was measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels immediately before boosting dose and 14 days later. IgG geometric means (GM) and medians were obtained, and modeled using ANCOVA and quantile regressions. RESULTS: The GM of IgG levels increased significantly after boosting: from 28.5±5.0 AU/mL up to 486.6±1.2 AU/mL (p<0.001) which corresponds to a 17-fold increase. The heterologous vaccine regimen produced higher GM of post-booster anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, eliciting a 13% increase in the geometric mean ratio (95%CI: 1.02-1.27) and a median difference of 92.3 AU/ml (95%CI: 24.9-159.7). Both vaccine regimens were safe and well tolerated. Previous COVID-19 infection was also associated with higher pre and post-booster IgG GM levels. CONCLUSION: Although both boosting regimens were highly immunogenic, two doses of BBIBP-CorV boosted with BTN162b2 produced a stronger IgG antibody response than the homologous BNT162b2 regimen in the Peruvian population. Additionally, both regimens were mildly reactogenic and well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G , Peru , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
7.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6599-6606, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ERVEBO®, a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vaccine containing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV GP (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP), was advanced through clinical development by Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA in collaboration with multiple partners to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) and has been approved for human use in several countries. METHODS: We evaluated data from three Phase 2/3 clinical trials conducted in Liberia (PREVAIL), Guinea (FLW), and Sierra Leone (STRIVE) during the 2013-2016 West African EVD outbreak to assess immune responses using validated assays. We performed a post hoc analysis of the association of vaccine response with sex, age (18-50 yrs & >50 yrs), and baseline (BL) GP-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer (<200 & ≥200 EU/mL), including individual study (PREVAIL, FLW, or STRIVE) data and pooled data from all 3 studies. The endpoints were total IgG antibody response (EU/mL) measured by the GP-ELISA and neutralizing antibody response measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP at Days 28, 180, and 365 postvaccination. RESULTS: In the overall pooled population, in all subgroups, and in each trial independently, GP-ELISA and PRNT geometric mean titers increased from BL, generally peaking at Day 28 and persisting through Day 365. Immune responses were greater in women and participants with BL GP-ELISA ≥ 200 EU/mL, but did not differ across age groups. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP elicits a robust and durable immune response through 12 months postvaccination in participants regardless of age, sex, or BL GP-ELISA titer. The higher immune responses observed in women and participants with pre-existing immunity are consistent with those described previously and for other vaccines. Trials were registered as follows: PREVAIL: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02344407; FLW: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201503001057193; STRIVE: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02378753. Protocols V920-009, 011, and 018.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Glicoproteínas , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas do Envelope Viral
8.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6450-6454, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose influenza vaccine offers better protection against influenza/associated complications compared with standard-dose formulation. We evaluated immunogenicity and safety of high-dose influenza vaccine (QIV-HD) and standard-dose (QIV-SD) in older adults (≥ 65 years) in Taiwan. METHODS: This was a phase III, randomized, modified double-blind, active-controlled, multi-center, descriptive study in older adults. Participants (N = 165) were randomized 1:1 to receive QIV-HD or QIV-SD vaccine (clinicaltrials.gov#NCT04537234). RESULTS: For all four influenza strains, geometric means titers (GMTs) of hemagglutination inhibition were higher for the QIV-HD than QIV-SD with adjusted GMT ratios (95 % CI) of 2.65 (1.87-3.75) for A/H1N1; 1.76 (1.31-2.38) for A/H3N2; 2.60 (1.90-3.56) for B/Victoria; and 2.01 (1.57-2.56) for B/Yamagata. The seroconversion was higher for QIV-HD than QIV-SD with similar safety profiles across both groups. CONCLUSION: QIV-HD was highly immunogenic for four influenza strains and have acceptable safety profile in older adults aged ≥ 65 years in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Idoso , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza B , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Taiwan , Anticorpos Antivirais , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Método Duplo-Cego , Vacinas Combinadas , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
9.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6740-6746, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BPZE1 is a live, attenuated pertussis vaccine derived from B. pertussis strain Tohama I modified by genetic removal or inactivation of 3 B. pertussis toxins: pertussis toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, and tracheal cytotoxin. This Phase 2a study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of liquid or lyophilized BPZE1 vaccine administered intranasally by needleless tuberculin syringe or mucosal atomization device (VaxINatorTM) at two dose levels. METHODS: Fifty healthy male and non-pregnant female participants 18-49 years of age were enrolled. Participants were randomized 3:3:3:1 to a single lyophilized dose of 107 colony forming units (CFU) BPZE1, 109 CFU BPZE1, placebo via VaxINator device, or a single liquid dose of 109 CFU BPZE1 via tuberculin syringe. Reactogenicity was assessed for 14 days. Blood was obtained pre-vaccination; on Day 8 (safety); and on Days 15, 29, and 181 (immunogenicity). Nasal wick and swab samples were obtained at baseline and on Days 29 and 181 for assessment of mucosal antibody responses and clearance of BPZE1. RESULTS: Across all groups, 35/50 (70 %) experienced at least one local adverse event (AE) and 31/50 (62 %) experienced at least one systemic AE, with similar AE frequencies observed between the highest 109 CFU BPZE1 and placebo groups. There were no severe or serious AEs during the study. At Day 29, seroconversion (≥2-fold rise from baseline in serum IgG or IgA) to at least 2 pertussis antigens was observed in 73 % in the 109 CFU BPZE1 VaxINator group, 60 % in the 109 CFU BPZE1 group delivered via tuberculin syringe, 27 % of participants in the 107 CFU BPZE1 VaxINator group, and 20 % in the placebo VaxINator group. No participants were colonized with BPZE1 at Day 29 post vaccination. DISCUSSION: Lyophilized BPZE1 vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic at the highest dose (109 CFU) delivered intranasally by VaxINator device and was not associated with any SAEs or prolonged shedding of BPZE1. Further evaluation of BPZE1 is warranted.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Coqueluche , Coqueluche , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Vacina contra Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Bordetella pertussis , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Tuberculina , Administração Intranasal , Vacinas Atenuadas , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
10.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6785-6794, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel control study evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose schedule of serogroups ACYW meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate protein, in infants and toddlers of 3-35 months old. METHOD: 720 participants were stratified according to the age of 3-5 months old, 6-11 months old, and 12-35 months old and randomly assigned with an equal ratio to two different dose groups, i.e., 40- and 20-µg doses. Blood samples were taken from all participants before the first vaccination and 30 days after the full-course vaccination to detect the serogroups ACYW meningococcal antibodies. All adverse events occurred within 30 days after vaccination of each dose, and serious adverse events occurred within six months after full-course vaccination were collected for safety evaluation. This study was registered at the China drug trial registration with the identifier CTR 20182031. RESULTS: After 30 days of full-course vaccination, 92.78 % (95 % CI: 85.70 %-100.00 %) showed the immune response against all serogroups in both high-dose and low-dose groups by rabbit serum bactericidal antibody assay (rSBA) and the geometric mean titer (GMT) of all serogroups showed a high level (74.6-505.8, 95 % CI: 56.4-615.7). However, no significant difference between different dose groups was observed (P > 0.05). The common local and systemic adverse events in both groups were redness (3 %-7%), and fever (26 %-65 %), respectively. In addition, the grade 3 adverse event related to the vaccine was fever (1.67 %-12.50 %). No serious adverse event was reported to be associate with the vaccination. CONCLUSION: The serogroups ACYW meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was safe and effective in the population aged 3-35 months. The vaccine efficacy and safety of the 20-µg dose group were not less than that of the 40-µg dose group.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Animais , Coelhos , Vacinas Conjugadas , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Sorogrupo , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Polissacarídeos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
11.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ad26COVS1 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2
12.
N Engl J Med ; 387(18): 1673-1687, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccine in young children are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned young children (6 months to 5 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273 or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and reactogenicity of the vaccine and to determine whether the immune response in these children was noninferior to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives were to determine the incidences of Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection after administration of mRNA-1273 or placebo. RESULTS: On the basis of safety and immunogenicity results in part 1 of the trial, the 25-µg dose was evaluated in part 2. In part 2, 3040 children 2 to 5 years of age and 1762 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273; 1008 children 2 to 5 years of age and 593 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive placebo. The median duration of follow-up after the second injection was 71 days in the 2-to-5-year-old cohort and 68 days in the 6-to-23-month-old cohort. Adverse events were mainly low-grade and transient, and no new safety concerns were identified. At day 57, neutralizing antibody geometric mean concentrations were 1410 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1272 to 1563) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 1781 (95% CI, 1616 to 1962) among 6-to-23-month-olds, as compared with 1391 (95% CI, 1263 to 1531) among young adults, who had received 100-µg injections of mRNA-1273, findings that met the noninferiority criteria for immune responses for both age cohorts. The estimated vaccine efficacy against Covid-19 was 36.8% (95% CI, 12.5 to 54.0) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 50.6% (95% CI, 21.4 to 68.6) among 6-to-23-month-olds, at a time when B.1.1.529 (omicron) was the predominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 25-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe in children 6 months to 5 years of age and elicited immune responses that were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/imunologia , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Eficácia de Vacinas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 786, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229772

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread to millions of people worldwide. Preliminary data from organ transplant recipients have shown reduced seroconversion rates after the administration of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccination platforms. However, it is unknown whether different vaccination platforms provide different levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2. To answer this question, we prospectively studied 431 kidney and liver transplant recipients (kidney: n = 230; liver: n = 201) who received either the ChAdOx1 vaccine (n = 148) or the BNT-162b2 vaccine (n = 283) and underwent an assessment of immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G spike antibody levels. The primary objective of the study is to directly compare the efficacy of two different vaccine platforms in solid organ transplant recipients by measuring of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the RBD of the spike protein (anti-RBD) two weeks after first and second doses. Our secondary endpoints were solicited specific local or systemic adverse events within 7 days after the receipt of each dose of the vaccine. There was no difference in the primary outcome between the two vaccine platforms in patients who received two vaccine doses. Unresponsiveness was mainly linked to diabetes. The rate of response after the first dose among younger older patients was significantly larger; however, after the second dose this difference did not persist (p = 0.079). Side effects were similar to those that were observed during the pivotal trials.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Transplantados
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994770, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311633

RESUMO

Introduction: Being able to independently determine vaccine induced antibody responses by minimal-invasive methods is of great interest to enable a flexible and effective vaccination strategy. This study aimed to evaluate (1) the accuracy, feasibility, usability and acceptability of capillary blood and saliva self-sampling to determine SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and health professionals (HP). Methods: IMID patients and HP having received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, self-collected capillary blood (Tasso+) and saliva samples. Capillary samples were considered interchangeable with venous blood if three criteria were met: Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) > 0.8, non-significant Wilcoxon signed-rank test (i.e., p > 0.05), and a small bias or 95% of tests within 10% difference through Bland-Altman. Participants completed a survey to investigate self-sampling usability (system usability scale; SUS) and acceptability (net promoter score; NPS). Study personnel monitored correct self-sampling completion and recorded protocol deviations. Results: 60 participants (30 IMID patients and 30 HP) were analyzed. We observed interchangeability for capillary samples with an accuracy of 98.3/100% for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgA antibodies, respectively. Fifty-eight capillary blood samples and all 60 saliva samples were successfully collected within the first attempt. Usability of both self-sampling procedures was rated as excellent, with significantly higher saliva ratings (p < 0.001). Capillary self-sampling was perceived as significantly (p < 0.001) less painful compared to traditional venous blood collection. Participants reported a NPS for capillary and saliva self-sampling of +68% and +63%, respectively. The majority of both groups (73%) preferred capillary self-sampling over professional venous blood collection. Conclusion: Our results indicate that capillary self-sampling is accurate, feasible and preferred over conventional venous blood collection. Implementation could enable easy access, flexible vaccination monitoring, potentially leading to a better protection of vulnerable patient groups. Self-collection of saliva is feasible and safe however more work is needed to determine its application in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saliva , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2388-2397, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202997

RESUMO

Updated immunization strategies are needed to address multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. Here we report interim results from an ongoing, open-label phase 2/3 trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine candidate mRNA-1273.211, which contains equal mRNA amounts encoding the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta variant spike proteins, as 50-µg (n = 300) and 100-µg (n = 595) first booster doses administered approximately 8.7-9.7 months after the mRNA-1273 primary vaccine series ( NCT04927065 ). The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and reactogenicity of mRNA-1273.211 and to demonstrate non-inferior antibody responses compared to the mRNA-1273 100-µg primary series. Additionally, a pre-specified immunogenicity objective was to demonstrate superior antibody responses compared to the previously authorized mRNA-1273 50-µg booster. The mRNA-1273.211 booster doses (50-µg or 100-µg) 28 days after immunization elicited higher neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta variant than those elicited 28 days after the second mRNA­1273 dose of the primary series ( NCT04470427 ). Antibody responses 28 days and 180 days after the 50-µg mRNA-1273.211 booster dose were also higher than those after a 50-µg mRNA-1273 booster dose ( NCT04405076 ) against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta, Omicron BA.1 and Delta variants, and all pre-specified immunogenicity objectives were met. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the bivalent mRNA-1273.211 booster (50-µg) was similar to the booster dose of mRNA-1273 (50-µg). Immunization with the primary series does not set a ceiling to the neutralizing antibody response, and a booster dose of the bivalent vaccine elicits a robust response with titers that are likely to be protective against COVID-19. These results indicate that bivalent booster vaccines can induce potent, durable and broad antibody responses against multiple variants, providing a new tool in response to emerging variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Combinadas , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
16.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6947-6955, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were the main cause of anogenital cancers and warts. HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines provide protection against the high-risk types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. This randomized, blinded, non-inferiority phase III trial was to determine whether immunogenicity and tolerability would be non-inferior among women after receiving two novel 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines (4vHPV, HPV 6/11/16/18; 9vHPV, HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) compared with those receiving Gardasil 4 (4-valent). METHODS: 1680 females between 20 and 45 years were randomized in a 2:1:1 ratio to 20-26, 27-35, or 36-45 y groups. Subjects then equally assigned to receive 4vHPV, 9vHPV or Gardasil 4 (control) vaccine at months 0, 2, and 6. End points included non-inferiority of HPV-6/11/16/18 antibodies for 4vHPV versus control, and 9vHPV versus control and safety. The immunogenicity non-inferiority was pre-defined as the lower bound of 95% confidence interval (CI) of seroconversion rate (SCR) difference > -10% and the lower bound of 95% CI of geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratio > 0.5. RESULTS: Among the three vaccine groups, more than 99% of the participants seroconverted to all 4 HPV types. The pre-specified statistical non-inferiority criterion for the immunogenicity hypothesis was met: all the lower bounds of 95% CIs on SCR differences exceeded -10% for each vaccine HPV type and the corresponding lower bounds of 95% CIs for GMT ratios > 0.5. Across vaccination groups, the most common vaccination reaction were injection-site adverse events (AEs), including pain, swelling, and redness. General and serious AEs were similar in the three groups. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the novel 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccination was highly immunogenic and generally well tolerated, both of which were non-inferior to Gardasil 4 in immunogenicity and safety.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Gammapapillomavirus , Anticorpos Antivirais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Papillomaviridae , China , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
17.
Vaccine ; 40(44): 6315-6325, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in children, morbidity and mortality caused by pneumococcal disease (PD) remain high. In addition, many children do not complete their PCV course on schedule. V114 is a 15-valent PCV that contains two epidemiologically important serotypes, 22F and 33F, in addition to the 13 serotypes present in PCV13, the licensed 13-valent PCV. METHODS: This phase III descriptive study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of catch-up vaccination with V114 or PCV13 in healthy children 7 months-17 years of age who were either pneumococcal vaccine-naïve or previously immunized with lower valency PCVs (NCT03885934). Overall, 606 healthy children were randomized to receive V114 (n = 303) or PCV13 (n = 303) via age-appropriate catch-up vaccination schedules in three age cohorts (7-11 months, 12-23 months, or 2-17 years). RESULTS: Similar proportions of children 7-11 months and 2-17 years of age reported adverse events (AEs) in the V114 and PCV13 groups. A numerically greater proportion of children 12-23 months of age reported AEs in the V114 group (79.0%) than the PCV13 group (59.4%). The proportions of children who reported serious AEs varied between different age cohorts but were generally comparable between vaccination groups. No vaccine-related serious AEs were reported, and no deaths occurred. At 30 days after the last PCV dose, serotype-specific immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations were comparable between vaccination groups for the 13 shared serotypes and higher in the V114 group for 22F and 33F. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up vaccination with V114 in healthy individuals 7 months-17 years of age was generally well tolerated and immunogenic for all 15 serotypes, including those not contained in PCV13, regardless of prior pneumococcal vaccination. These results support V114 catch-up vaccination in children with incomplete or no PCV immunization per the recommended schedule.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Humanos , Vacinas Conjugadas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Vacinação , Imunoglobulina G , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(9): 100739, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075216

RESUMO

Age is the strongest determinant of COVID-19 mortality, and over 2 billion people have received primary series vaccination with BNT162b2 (mRNA) or ChAdOx1 (adenoviral vector). However, the profile of sustained vaccine immunogenicity in older people is unknown. Here, we determine spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity to 8 months following BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 in 245 people aged 80-98 years. Vaccines are strongly immunogenic, with antibodies retained in every donor, while titers fall to 23%-26% from peak. Peak immunity develops rapidly with standard interval BNT162b2, although antibody titers are enhanced 3.7-fold with extended interval. Neutralization of ancestral variants is superior following BNT162b2, while neutralization of Omicron is broadly negative. Conversely, cellular responses are stronger following ChAdOx1 and are retained to 33%-60% of peak with all vaccines. BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 elicit strong, but differential, sustained immunogenicity in older people. These data provide a baseline to assess optimal booster regimen in this vulnerable age group.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Idoso , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , RNA Mensageiro
20.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(9): 649-675, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083166

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made a worldwide health emergency. Despite the fact that current vaccines are readily available, several SARSCoV-2 variants affecting the existing vaccine are to be less effective due to the mutations in the structural proteins. Furthermore, the appearance of the new variants cannot be easily predicted in the future. Therefore, the attempts to construct new vaccines or to modify the current vaccines are still pivotal works for preventing the spread of the virus. In the present investigation, the computational analysis through immunoinformatics, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to construct an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV2. The structural proteins of SARS-CoV2 are utilized to create a multiepitope-based vaccine (MEV). According to our findings presented by systematic procedures in the current investigation, the MEV construct may be able to trigger a strong immunological response against the virus. Therefore, the designed MEV could be a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2, and also it is expected to be effective for other variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , RNA Viral , Vacinas de Subunidades/química
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