Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 943
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12421, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127717

RESUMO

Social contact is known to impact the partners' physiology and behavior but the mechanisms underpinning such inter-partner influences are far from clear. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we examined how social dialogue shapes the partners' multi-system endocrine response as mediated by behavioral synchrony. To address sex-specific, hormone-specific, attachment-specific mechanisms, we recruited 82 man-woman pairs (N = 164 participants) in three attachment groups; long-term couples (n = 29), best friends (n = 26), and ingroup strangers (n = 27). We used salivary measures of oxytocin (OT), cortisol (CT), testosterone (T), and secretory immuglobolinA (s-IgA), biomarker of the immune system, before and after a 30-min social dialogue. Dialogue increased oxytocin and reduced cortisol and testosterone. Cross-person cross-hormone influences indicated that dialogue carries distinct effects on women and men as mediated by social behavior and attachment status. Men's baseline stress-related biomarkers showed both direct hormone-to-hormone associations and, via attachment status and behavioral synchrony, impacted women's post-dialogue biomarkers of stress, affiliation, and immunity. In contrast, women's baseline stress biomarkers linked with men's stress response only through the mediating role of behavioral synchrony. As to affiliation biomarkers, men's initial OT impacted women's OT response only through behavioral synchrony, whereas women's baseline OT was directly related to men's post-dialogue OT levels. Findings pinpoint the neuroendocrine advantage of social dialogue, suggest that women are more sensitive to signs of men's initial stress and social status, and describe behavior-based mechanisms by which human attachments create a coupled biology toward greater well-being and resilience.


Assuntos
Amigos/psicologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Interação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocitocina/análise , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 634923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717178

RESUMO

Our previous studies showed that a combination of a DNA plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 (CpG ODN) (FL/CpG) as a nasal adjuvant provoked antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a nasal vaccine consisting of FimA as the structural subunit of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) fimbriae and FL/CpG for the induction of FimA-specific antibody (Ab) responses and their protective roles against nasal and lung infection by P. gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in the etiology of periodontal disease. C57BL/6 mice were nasally immunized with recombinant FimA (rFimA) plus FL/CpG three times at weekly intervals. As a control, mice were given nasal rFimA alone. Nasal washes (NWs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice given nasal rFimA plus FL/CpG resulted in increased levels of rFimA-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) and IgG Ab responses when compared with those in controls. Significantly increased numbers of CD8- or CD11b-expressing mature-type dendritic cells (DCs) were detected in the respiratory inductive and effector tissues of mice given rFimA plus FL/CpG. Additionally, significantly upregulated Th1/Th2-type cytokine responses by rFimA-stimulated CD4+ T cells were noted in the respiratory effector tissues. When mice were challenged with live P. gingivalis via the nasal route, mice immunized nasally with rFimA plus FL/CpG inhibited P. gingivalis colonization in the nasal cavities and lungs. In contrast, controls failed to show protection. Of interest, when IgA-deficient mice given nasal rFimA plus FL/CpG were challenged with nasal P. gingivalis, the inhibition of bacterial colonization in the respiratory tracts was not seen. Taken together, these results show that nasal FL/CpG effectively enhanced DCs and provided balanced Th1- and Th2-type cytokine response-mediated rFimA-specific IgA protective immunity in the respiratory tract against P. gingivalis. A nasal administration with rFimA and FL/CpG could be a candidate for potent mucosal vaccines for the elimination of inhaled P. gingivalis in periodontal patients.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Fímbrias/administração & dosagem , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquemas de Imunização , Proteínas de Membrana/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 6697319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604389

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that culminates in beta cell destruction in the pancreas and, subsequently, deficiency in insulin production. Cytokines play a crucial role in the development of diabetes, orchestrating the recruitment and action of immune cells, to not only destroy insulin-producing cells but also preserve them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered Lactococcus lactis MG1363 FnBPA+ strains carrying plasmids encoding IL-4 and IL-10 in the streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes model and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The STZ-induced mice that were treated with combined bacterial strains carrying plasmids encoding IL-4 and IL-10 showed lower incidence of diabetes and more preserved pancreatic islets than the mice that received the individual bacterial strains. Combined administration of L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA+ (pValac::dts::IL-4) and L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA+ (pValac::IL-10) resulted in protection against diabetes in NOD mice. It was shown that the combined treatment with recombinant bacterial by oral route prevented hyperglycemia and reduced the pancreatic islets-destruction in NOD mice. In addition, increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in serum and pancreatic tissue revealed a systemic effect of the treatment and also favored an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. Reduced concentrations of IL-12 in pancreas were essential to the regulation of inflammation, resulting in no incidence of diabetes in treated NOD mice. Normal levels of intestinal sIgA after long-term treatment with the L. lactis strains carrying plasmids encoding IL-4 and IL-10 indicate the development of oral tolerance and corroborate the use of this potent tool of mucosal delivery. For the first time, L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA+ strains carrying eukaryotic expression vectors encoding IL-4 and IL-10 are tested in STZ-induced and NOD mouse models. Therefore, our study demonstrates this innovative strategy provides immunomodulatory potential for further investigations in T1D and other autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-4/biossíntese , Interleucina-4/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD
4.
J Sports Sci ; 39(14): 1594-1601, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629651

RESUMO

This study examined possible predictors of upper respiratory tract symptom (URTS) episodes in elite rugby union and league players (n = 51) during intensive pre-season training. Baseline saliva and blood samples were collected in the first week of pre-season training for analysis of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cytomegalovirus. Thereafter, SIgA, URTS, internal training load and self-reported wellness data were repeatedly measured throughout a 10-week pre-season training period. Univariate frailty model analysis, which included 502 observations, was performed for each rugby code for the following independent predictor variables: SIgA concentration, internal training load, total wellness, sleep quantity, sleep quality and stress. Rugby union and league players experienced a similar number of URTS episodes; however, predictors of URTS episodes differed between the codes. No biomarkers or self-reported measures significantly predicted URTS risk in rugby union players, while reductions in self-reported total wellness (HR: 0.731, p = 0.004) and sleep quality (HR: 0.345, p = 0.001) predicted increased URTS risk in rugby league players. The findings from this study highlight that factors influencing URTS risk are perhaps sport specific and this may be attributed to different sporting demands and/or different management of players by team-practitioners.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111341, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561646

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a member of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and a causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in a wide range of hosts. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is mostly used for the prevention of childhood tuberculosis. Further substantial implications are required for the development and evaluation of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines as well as improving the role of BCG in TB control strategies. In this study, we prepared PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with argF antigen (argF-NPs). We hypothesized, that argF nanoparticles mediate immune responses of BCG vaccine in mice models of M. bovis infection. We observed that mice vaccinated with argF-NPs exhibited a significant increase in secretory IFN-γ, CD4+ T cells response and mucosal secretory IgA against M. bovis infection. In addition, a marked increase was observed in the level of secretory IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-10 both in vitro and in vivo upon argF-NPs vaccination. Furthermore, argF-NPs vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in the inflammatory lesions in the lung's tissues, minimized the losses in total body weight and reduced M. bovis burden in infected mice. Our results indicate that BCG prime-boost strategy might be a promising measure for the prevention against M. bovis infection by induction of CD4+ T cells responses and mucosal antibodies.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/imunologia , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/administração & dosagem , Ornitina Carbamoiltransferase/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(8): 725-735, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602613

RESUMO

Gut microbiota transmission from mother to offspring has attracted much interest in recent years. The gut microbiota in the infant plays a potentially significant role in modulating and maintaining the development of infant immunity. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), the major immunoglobulin in the intestine, can target polysaccharides and flagellin on the bacterial surface, resulting in sIgA-coated bacteria. The presentation of specific bacteria coated with sIgA may be a signal of disease and provide novel insights into the relationship between infant microbiota and disease. Here, we review the composition of sIgA-coated bacteria in the adult intestine, human milk, and the infant intestine, as well as the factors that influence the development of gut microbiota in early life. Then, we highlight the diseases that are related to variations in sIgA-coated bacteria in the infant and adult intestine. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility that sIgA-coated bacteria could play a role in mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Finally, we propose directions for future research to promote our understanding within this field.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Translocação Bacteriana , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia
7.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(4): 511-516, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative importance and predictive ability of salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) measures with regards to upper respiratory illness (URI) in youth athletes. METHODS: Over a 38-week period, 22 youth athletes (age = 16.8 [0.5] y) provided daily symptoms of URI and 15 fortnightly passive drool saliva samples, from which s-IgA concentration and secretion rate were measured. Kernel-smoothed bootstrapping generated a balanced data set with simulated data points. The random forest algorithm was used to evaluate the relative importance (RI) and predictive ability of s-IgA concentration and secretion rate with regards to URI symptoms present on the day of saliva sampling (URIday), within 2 weeks of sampling (URI2wk), and within 4 weeks of sampling (URI4wk). RESULTS: The percentage deviation from average healthy s-IgA concentration was the most important feature for URIday (median RI 1.74, interquartile range 1.41-2.07). The average healthy s-IgA secretion rate was the most important feature for URI4wk (median RI 0.94, interquartile range 0.79-1.13). No feature was clearly more important than any other when URI symptoms were identified within 2 weeks of sampling. The values for median area under the curve were 0.68, 0.63, and 0.65 for URIday, URI2wk, and URI4wk, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The RI values suggest that the percentage deviation from average healthy s-IgA concentration may be used to evaluate the short-term risk of URI, while the average healthy s-IgA secretion rate may be used to evaluate the long-term risk. However, the results show that neither s-IgA concentration nor secretion rate can be used to accurately predict URI onset within a 4-week window in youth athletes.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Adolescente , Atletas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Taxa Secretória
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 261, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431850

RESUMO

Intestinal microfold cells are the primary pathway for translocation of secretory IgA (SIgA)-pathogen complexes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Uptake of SIgA/commensals complexes is important for priming adaptive immunity in the mucosa. This study aims to explore the effect of SIgA retrograde transport of immune complexes in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we report a significant increase of SIgA transport in CD patients with NOD2-mutation compared to CD patients without NOD2 mutation and/or healthy individuals. NOD2 has an effect in the IgA transport through human and mouse M cells by downregulating Dectin-1 and Siglec-5 expression, two receptors involved in retrograde transport. These findings define a mechanism of NOD2-mediated regulation of mucosal responses to intestinal microbiota, which is involved in CD intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/deficiência , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Salmonella/fisiologia , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Transcitose
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173630, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045197

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are commonly used in clinic, but the immunosuppression seriously hinders their usage. Herein, immunomodulatory effect of artesunate (AS) on hydrocortisone (HC)-induced immunosuppression was investigated. HC-induced immunosuppression mice (HC mice) were established by intramuscular administration with HC (20 mg/kg) once a day for 5 consecutive days. The results showed HC mice challenged with Escherichia coli on the sixth day presented a lower ability to clear bacteria, decreased TNF-α in blood, decreased spleen index and thymus index. Significantly, AS (20 mg/kg) treatment not only enhanced the ability of HC mice to clear bacteria, but also increased spleen index, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines from 78.7 ± 12.1 ng/ml (TNF-α) and 48.7 ± 8.6 pg/ml (IL-6) to 174.0 ± 90.5 ng/ml and 783.3 ± 90.5 pg/ml, number of white blood cells in blood, and sIgA in colon. Subsequently, HC-induced immunosuppression peritoneal macrophages model (HC cells) was established via addition of HC (0.5 µg/ml) for 0.5 h, and then LPS (100 ng/ml) was added to clarify the functional status of the cells. The results showed HC inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions and their release, but AS (2.5 µg/ml) could increase TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions and their release. AS inhibited GILZ mRNA up-regulated by HC and increases TLR4/NF-κB p65 expressions down-regulated by HC. Our findings revealed that AS's effect is closely related to the improvement of the TLR4/NF-κB signal transduction pathway via inhibiting the up-regulation of GILZ mRNA, demonstrating AS does possess immunomodulatory effects and is worth further investigation in the future.


Assuntos
Artesunato/farmacologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucocorticoides/toxicidade , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(5): 430-434, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify periods of increased risk for upper respiratory tract symptom (URTS) episodes, and examine whether biomarkers and/or self-reported lifestyle and wellness data can predict URTS risk in elite rugby union players. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal and repeated-measures study. METHODS: Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), salivary cortisol, URTS, internal training load and self-reported lifestyle and wellness data including household illness, stress, mood, fatigue, muscle soreness and sleep quality were repeatedly measured in elite Southern hemisphere rugby union players (n=28) throughout a season. Univariate frailty model analysis, which included 495 observations, was used to determine predictors of URTS risk. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the highest incidence of URTS occurred after rest weeks, namely the Christmas break and bye weeks (i.e., no scheduled trainings or matches); whereas URTS risk was reduced during weeks involving international travel (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.43, p<0.001)). Household illness was the strongest predictor of URTS risk; players were almost three-fold more at risk for an URTS episode when illness in the household was present (HR: 2.90, p=0.002). A non-significant, but potentially important trend for an inverse association between SIgA concentration and URTS incidence was also observed (HR: 0.99, p=0.070). CONCLUSIONS: Rest weeks were identified as periods of increased risk for URTS; while international travel did not appear to increase players risk for URTS. Incidence of household illness and SIgA concentration independently predicted URTS risk, with household illness being the strongest predictor. These findings can assist practitioners monitoring and management of athletes to potentially reduce URTS risk.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Características da Família , Família , Futebol Americano , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111012, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254017

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of prebiotic, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), in intestinal inflammation have been demonstrated in several studies. Herein, we evaluate whether joint treatment with FOS, both before and during mucositis, had additional beneficial effects and investigated the mechanisms underlying in the action of FOS on the intestinal barrier. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: CTR (without mucositis + saline solution), FOS (without mucositis + 6 % FOS), MUC (mucositis + saline solution), PT (mucositis + 6 % FOS supplementation before disease induction), and TT (mucositis + 6 % FOS supplementation before and during disease induction). Mucositis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (300 mg/kg) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). After 72 h, the animals were euthanized and intestinal permeability (IP), tight junction, bacterial translocation (BT), histology and morphometry, and immunoglobulin A secretory (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate, and production of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, butyrate and propionate) were evaluated. The MUC group showed an increase in the IP, BT, and inflammatory infiltrate but a decrease in the tight junction expression and butyrate and propionate levels (P < 0.05). In the PT and TT groups, FOS supplementation maintained the IP, tight junction expression, and propionate concentration within physiologic levels, increased butyrate levels, and reduced BT and inflammatory infiltrate (P < 0.05). Total treatment with FOS (TT group) was more effective in maintaining histological score, morphometric parameters, and sIgA production. Thus, total treatment (prophylactic and therapeutic supplementation) with FOS was more effective than pretreatment alone, in reducing 5-FU-induced damage to the intestinal barrier.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Translocação Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoruracila , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosite/metabolismo , Mucosite/microbiologia , Mucosite/patologia , Permeabilidade , Propionatos/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/microbiologia , Junções Íntimas/patologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22802, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080754

RESUMO

The agents used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) might affect the oral health of cancer patients.The study aims to assess the changes in the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in saliva and blood, during first 22 days of intensive chemotherapy of ALL in children.Saliva and blood samples were taken from 24 patients, including 13 boys and 11 girls (age range: 4 - 17 years) on days 1, 8 and 22 of treatment. The levels of immunoglobulin A and total protein were estimated in samples at each time-point. The distribution of the quantitative variables was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare the levels of repeated measurements and post hoc non-parametric analysis was applied for between time-point comparisons.A constant relationship was found between the levels of Ig A in blood and saliva (r = 0.28; P = .031). No change in salivary IgA level was observed in the prednisone-only prephase, but it dropped significantly on day 22 (10.7+/-4.8 vs 9.6+/-6.4 vs 5.7+/-3.9 ng/mL; P = .04), when chemotherapy was given (anthracycline, vincristine, L-asparaginase).In blood, the total protein level decreased significantly between day 1 and 22 (6.2+/-0.4 vs 5.1+/-0.3 g/dL; P = .001). Lymphocyte count (per microliter) also decreased (2.12+/-0.8 vs 0.41+/-0.1 vs 1.08+/-0.5; P = .002). Four children suffered from oral mucositis graded 1 or higher between days 8 and 22.Chemotherapy given during the treatment of childhood ALL is associated with a reduction in the level of salivary immunoglobulin A. Prevention of the drop of salivary IgA may diminish the risk of occurrence of acute mucosal complications.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Saliva/imunologia , Adolescente , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Daunorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Proteínas/análise , Indução de Remissão , Saliva/química , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013844

RESUMO

Supplying novel feed ingredients for pig production is crucial to enhance food security and decrease the environmental impact of meat production. Several studies have focused on evaluating the beneficial health effects of yeast in pigs. However, its use as a protein source has been partially addressed. Previously, we have shown that yeast at high inclusion levels maintains growth performance and digestibility, while nutrient digestibility, intestinal villi height and fecal consistency were improved. The present study combined microbiome, short-chain fatty acid, and immune parameter analysis to investigate the effect of high inclusion of yeast in diets for post-weaning piglets. Our results showed that yeast did not have a significant impact on the hematological or biochemical parameters in blood. The different immune cell subpopulations isolated from blood and distal jejunal lymph nodes (DJLN) were analyzed by flow cytometry and showed that yeast diet induced an increased number of the subtype of leukocytes CD45+/CD3-/CD8+, a special type of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Also, a very mild to moderate infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes and lower IgA level were observed in the colon of yeast fed piglets. The microbiome profiling in different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets was performed using 16S rRNA metabarcoding. The results showed that 40% replacement of dietary protein had a statistically significant effect on the microbial communities in cecum and colon, while the microbial population in ileum and jejunum were not affected. Analysis of predicted microbial metabolic pathways analysis revealed significant upregulation of short-chain fatty acids, ether lipid metabolisms, secondary bile acids, and several other important biosynthesis pathways in cecum and colon of pigs fed yeast. In conclusion, the results showed that diet containing 40% of yeast protein positively shaped microbial community in the large intestine and increased the number of a specific subpopulation of NK cells in the DJLN. These results showed that yeast modulates the microbiome and decreases the secretion of IgA in the colon of post-weaning pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Candida , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Desmame
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 (HN019) on clinical periodontal parameters (plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding), on immunocompetence of gingival tissues [expression of beta-defensin (BD)-3, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation(CD)-57 and CD-4], and on immunological properties of saliva (IgA levels) in non-surgical periodontal therapy in generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) patients. Adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and the antimicrobial properties of HN019 were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were recruited and monitored clinically at baseline (before scaling and root planing-SRP) and after 30 and 90 days. Patients were randomly assigned to Test (SRP+Probiotic, n = 15) or Control (SRP+Placebo, n = 15) group. Probiotic lozenges were used for 30 days. Gingival tissues and saliva were immunologically analyzed. The adhesion of HN019 with or without Porphyromonas gingivalis in BEC and its antimicrobial properties were investigated in in vitro assays. Data were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). RESULTS: Test group presented lower plaque index (30 days) and lower marginal gingival bleeding (90 days) when compared with Control group. Higher BD-3, TLR4 and CD-4 expressions were observed in gingival tissues in Test group than in Control group. HN019 reduced the adhesion of P. gingivalis to BEC and showed antimicrobial potential against periodontopathogens. CONCLUSION: Immunological and antimicrobial properties of B. lactis HN019 make it a potential probiotic to be used in non-surgical periodontal therapy of patients with GCP. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: B. lactis HN019 may be a potential probiotic to improve the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Name of the registry and registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): "Effects of probiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontitis"-NCT03408548.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis/imunologia , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Aderência Bacteriana/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/terapia , Periodontite Crônica/imunologia , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Saliva/imunologia
15.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 169(3): 373-377, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748137

RESUMO

The macroscopic and histological methods were employed to examine the autopsy specimens of salivary lingual glands obtained from 299 patients of both sexes and various age ranging from newborn to longevity. The age-associated alterations of minor lingual and pharyngeal glands were revealed, and the topographical relations between the glands and lymphoid cells were described. The characteristic sparsity of the glands in infancy is caused by nutritional uniformity at this period, when diminished production of secretory IgA results in frequent inflammatory processes in oral and pharyngeal cavities. With age, the glandular orifices widen, and their number increases thereby augmenting local immunity in the oral cavity and in oral aspect of the pharynx. Starting from elderly and senile age, the involutive alterations were observed, which were accompanied by diminished production of secretory immunoglobulin A and related degradation of local and humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Boca/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Masculino , Faringe/imunologia , Faringe/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares Menores/imunologia
16.
Benef Microbes ; 11(4): 375-390, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755264

RESUMO

Proteolytic starter cultures with intrinsic immunomodulatory activities are desirably features for the development of functional foods, which would significantly reduce the cost of their production (one-strain starter) having an additional beneficial effect on the host. In this work, Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were selected according to their ability to efficiently hydrolyse ß-casein and to modulate the immune system. Among 36 strains evaluated, the highest proteolytic activities were found for L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL581 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL656. The immunomodulatory effect of both strains and their ß-casein hydrolysates (CRL581 and CRL656 hydrolysates, respectively) were studied in a murine model. Balb/c mice were fed lactobacilli or their hydrolysates for three days. One day after the last lactobacilli or hydrolysate treatments, mice were challenged with the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly(I:C) by intraperitoneal injection. Before and after poly(I:C) challenge the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages, intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA), cytokine profile, and histological analysis of the intestine were analysed. L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL581 significantly increased the activation of peritoneal macrophages as well as the levels of intestinal IgA, interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ when compared to untreated controls. In addition, the CRL581 strain was able to significantly reduce the intestinal inflammatory damage triggered by TLR3 activation. L. delbrueckii CRL581 increased the levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and IFN-ß, and reduced tumour necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 concentrations in the intestine of poly(I:C)-challenged mice. No immunomodulatory effects were observed for the CRL656 strain or for the CRL581 or CRL656 hydrolysates. The results of this work show that the technologically relevant and high proteolytic strain L. delbrueckii CRL581 is able to beneficially modulate the intestinal innate antiviral immune response. Although further studies with the CRL581 strain are required to corroborate and deepen its immunological effects, this bacterium is an interesting alternative for the development of new functional foods with antiviral capabilities.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação , Intestinos/imunologia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/análise , Caseínas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/terapia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteólise
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750092

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of a competitive season on salivary responses [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), Testosterone/Cortisol ratio (sT/C), Immunoglobulin A (sIgA), sIgA secretion rate (srIgA), alpha-amylase (sAA)] and upper respiratory symptoms (URS) occurrence in three teams of male soccer players (Under-15, Under-17 and Under-19 yrs.). Training and competition volumes, salivary biomarkers and URS were determined monthly. No differences were found for monthly training volume between teams. Incidence of URS was higher for the U15 (44.9% of the total cases). Higher sT and srIgA were observed for the U19, lower sC were found for the U17 and sAA showed higher values for the U15 throughout the season. In the U15, significant difference (p = .023) was found for sIgA concentration with higher concentration values in January compared to December (-42.7%; p = .008) and the sT showed seasonal variation (p < .001) with the highest value in January significantly different from October (-40.2%; p = .035), November (-38.5%; p = 0.022) and December (-51.6%; p = .008). The U19 presented an increase in sC in March compared to February (-66.1%, p = .018), sT/C were higher in February compared to March (-58.1%; p = .022) and sAA increased in March compared to September (-20.5%; p = .037). Negative correlations, controlled for age group, were found between URS occurrence and srIgA (r = -0.170, p = .001), sAA (r = -0.179, p = .001) and sT (r = -0.107, p = .047). Monitoring salivary biomarkers provides information on mucosal immunity with impact in URS occurrence. Coaches could manipulate training loads to attenuate the physical stressors imposed on athletes, especially at demanding and stressful periods.


Assuntos
Atletas , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Futebol , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Testosterona/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4198, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826914

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic requiring the development of interventions for the prevention or treatment to curtail mortality and morbidity. No vaccine to boost mucosal immunity, or as a therapeutic, has yet been developed to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we discover and characterize a cross-reactive human IgA monoclonal antibody, MAb362. MAb362 binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and competitively blocks ACE2 receptor binding, by overlapping the ACE2 structural binding epitope. Furthermore, MAb362 IgA neutralizes both pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in 293 cells expressing ACE2. When converted to secretory IgA, MAb326 also neutralizes authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus while the IgG isotype shows no neutralization. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies, such as MAb362, may provide effective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing mucosal immunity within the respiratory system, a potentially critical feature of an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 6782-6797, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600770

RESUMO

For breast-fed infants, human milk is a source of various nutrients (e.g., proteins, peptides, antibodies) and bioactive components that promote neonatal growth and protect infants from viral and bacterial infection. Moreover, in terms of infant nutrition and protection the functions of many human milk components are very different from those of blood and other biological fluids of healthy adults. For example, catalytic antibodies ("abzymes") with synthetic activities (protein, oligosaccharide, and lipid kinase activities) have been found in human breast milk that are absent in the blood of healthy people. Abzymes with hydrolyzing functions have been detected not only in milk, but also in the blood of patients with autoimmune diseases. Obviously, feeding newborns human milk has a very specific role and it is a unique aspect of mammalian nutrition. Ribonuclease and DNase autoantibodies or abzymes are found in milk and blood of lactating women, but not in blood sera of healthy men and nonpregnant woman. Here, we present the first evidence that human milk secretory IgA molecules (sIgA) can effectively hydrolyze ribooligonucleotides containing 23 different bases [(pN)23 ribooligonucleotides] and 4 microRNAs: miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, miR-137, and miR-219a-5p. Ribonuclease activity is an inherent property of sIgAs. We showed that 7 individual sIgAs hydrolyzed the ribooligonucleotides (pA)23, (pU)23, and (pC)23 nonspecifically and with comparable efficiency, whereas hydrolysis of the 4 microRNAs by sIgAs was site-specific. Sites of hydrolysis of 4 microRNAs by IgG from blood of patients with schizophrenia have been previously identified. The sites of hydrolysis of 4 microRNAs by sIgA-abzymes were very different from the previously identified sites of hydrolysis by IgG in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to IgG, milk sIgAs efficiently hydrolyzed microRNAs in their loop and duplex regions.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Catalíticos/química , Anticorpos Catalíticos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrólise , Lactação , Leite Humano/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/análise
20.
Food Funct ; 11(7): 5992-6006, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697211

RESUMO

Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Pozao has been consumed as a traditional fruit with regional characteristics in China for a long time; however, fewer studies on polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Pozao (JP) have been documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of JP on cyclophosphamide-induced ICR mice for 28 days. The results showed that oral administration of JP could significantly improve the lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen and decrease the proportion of CD3+ and CD4+ and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in cyclophosphamide-induced mice in a dose-dependent manner. JP treatment also increased the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in serum and the intestine, and the improvement effects were proportional to the dose of JP. Similarly, JP significantly increased the levels of IgA and SIgA, as well as the expressions of Claudin-1 and Occludin in the intestine. Particularly, the expressions of Claudin-1 and Occludin were the best in the M-JP group. Furthermore, JP positively regulated the gut microbiota as indicated by the enriched microbiota diversity. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly decreased by JP, while that of Bacteroidetes was increased by JP treatment. More importantly, the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was significantly increased. And a high dose of JP is the most effective. At the genus level, the abundances of the Bacteroidales-S24-7-group, Lachnospiraceae, Alloprevotella, Alistipes and Bacteroides were increased by JP treatment. These results provided evidence for the regulating effect of JP on the peripheral immunity and intestinal barrier function in cyclophosphamide-induced hypoimmune mice.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Relação CD4-CD8 , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida , Citocinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Ocludina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...