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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133876, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969990

RESUMO

Terasi is a fermented shrimp paste in Indonesia. We examined the effect of the Terasi manufacturing process on the abundance of the allergen tropomyosin (TM) and its IgG/IgE-binding ability. Terasi was produced from three shrimps, Akiami (Acetes japonicus), Okiami (Euphausia pacifica), and Isazaami (Neomysis awatchensis). Protein degradation and TM IgE-binding activity were examined by immunoblotting using anti-TM rabbit IgG and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using shrimp-allergic patients' sera. The processing caused TM degradation, and the IgG-specific response in Akiami meat disappeared at the second fermentation step but remained in both Okiami and Isazaami Terasi. In contrast, TM IgE-binding in all meats decreased gradually during manufacturing and nearly completely disappeared in Akiami Terasi. Conclusively, Terasi production is an effective manufacturing process to reduce the IgE-binding ability of TM, and Terasi can be recognized as a low allergenic seafood when produced under an appropriate manufacturing condition.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Alimentos Fermentados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Penaeidae , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Decápodes/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Indonésia , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Coelhos , Alimentos Marinhos , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18558, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329091

RESUMO

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complementary components in the epithelium of the glomerular capillary wall. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory mediator released by macrophages. MIF plays a key regulatory function in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. This study aimed to investigate whether MIF level could be associated with the activity of MN. Plasma and urine samples from 57 MN patients and 20 healthy controls were collected. The MIF levels in plasma and urine were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The expression of MIF in the renal specimens from 5 MN patients was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The associations of the plasma and urinary levels of MIF and glomerular MIF expression with clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed. It was revealed that with the increase of MIF levels in plasma and urine, the severity of renal pathological injury in MN patients gradually increased. Correlation analysis showed that the MIF levels in plasma were positively correlated with the platelet (PLT) count (r = 0.302, P = 0.022), and inversely correlated with the prothrombin time (PT) (r = - 0.292, P = 0.028) in MN patients. The MIF levels in plasma were positively correlated with the C-reactive protein (CRP) level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.651, P < 0.0001; r = 0.669, P < 0.0001) in MN patients. The urinary levels of MIF were positively correlated with ESR (r = 0.562, P < 0.0001). IHC suggested that MIF was expressed in glomerular basement membrane and tubulointerstitial areas. MIF levels in plasma and urine could reflect the severity of MN, and MIF levels in plasma and urine could be associated with venous thrombosis and infectious complications in MN patients. The glomerular MIF expression could be used to indicate the activity of MN.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Glomerulonefrite , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos , Humanos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2145929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383465

RESUMO

A relatively low clearance is one of the prominent favorable features of immunoglobulin G1-based therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Various studies have observed differential clearance of mAb glycoforms, including oligomannose glycoforms, which are considered a critical quality attribute because they show higher clearance than complex type glycoforms. Glycoform clearance, however, has not previously been studied after subcutaneous injection or in a porcine model system. Here, we performed glycoform-resolved pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of two mAbs in Göttingen minipigs. We found glycoform effects on clearance to be largely the same for subcutaneous and intravenous injection and in line with observations in other species. Oligomannose glycoforms were cleared up to 25% faster and monoantennary glycoforms up to 8% faster than agalactosylated complex glycoforms. Sialylated glycoforms were cleared at approximately the same rate as fully galactosylated glycoforms. Importantly, we report here an impact of galactosylation on the PK of a mAb for the first time. Whether increased galactosylation led to slower or faster clearance seemed to depend on the overall glycosylation profile. When clearance of galactosylated glycoforms was slower, the mAb showed higher galactosylation in serum at maximum concentration after subcutaneous injection compared to both intravenous injection and the injected material. Whether this higher galactosylation after subcutaneous injection has consequences for therapeutic efficacy remains to be investigated. In conclusion, preferential clearance of antibody glycoforms can be simulated in the minipig model with intravenous as well as subcutaneous injections. Furthermore, we observed a glycoform bias in the absorption from skin into circulation after subcutaneous injection based on galactosylation.Abbreviations: AUC - area under the curve; CL/F - apparent clearance as a function of bioavailability following SC administration; Cmax - maximum serum concentration; CQA critical quality attribute; FcγR - Fc gamma receptor; IgG - immunoglobulin G; IV - intravenous; LC-MS - liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry; mAb - therapeutic monoclonal antibody; PK - pharmacokinetics; SC - subcutaneous; TMDD - target-mediated drug disposition.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunoglobulina G , Animais , Suínos , Injeções Intravenosas , Porco Miniatura/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Injeções Subcutâneas
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 990077, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405746

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins are key humoral immune molecules produced and secreted by B lymphocytes at various stages of differentiation. No research has reported whether immunoglobulins are present in the non-proliferative female germ cells-oocytes-and whether they are functionally important for oocyte quality, self-protection, and survival. Herein, we found that IgG was present in the oocytes of immunodeficient mice; the IgG-VDJ regions were highly variable between different oocytes, and H3K27Ac bound and regulated the IgG promoter region. Next, IgG mRNA and protein levels increased in response to LPS, and this increment was mediated by CR2 on the oocyte membrane. Finally, we revealed three aspects of the functional relevance of oocyte IgG: first, oocytes could upregulate IgG to counteract the increased ROS level induced by CSF1; second, oocytes could upregulate IgG in response to injected virus ssRNA to maintain mitochondrial integrity; third, upon bacterial infection, oocytes could secrete IgG, subsequently encompassing the bacteria, thus increasing survival compared to somatic cells. This study reveals for the first time that the female germ cells, oocytes, can independently adjust intrinsic IgG production to survive in adverse environments.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas , Oócitos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Oócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2212658119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409896

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a crucial mediator of biological functions and is tightly regulated in health and disease. However, interrogating complex protein glycoforms is challenging, as current lectin tools are limited by cross-reactivity while mass spectrometry typically requires biochemical purification and isolation of the target protein. Here, we describe a method to identify and characterize a class of nanobodies that can distinguish glycoforms without reactivity to off-target glycoproteins or glycans. We apply this technology to immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc glycoforms and define nanobodies that specifically recognize either IgG lacking its core-fucose or IgG bearing terminal sialic acid residues. By adapting these tools to standard biochemical methods, we can clinically stratify dengue virus and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals based on their IgG glycan profile, selectively disrupt IgG-Fcγ receptor binding both in vitro and in vivo, and interrogate the B cell receptor (BCR) glycan structure on living cells. Ultimately, we provide a strategy for the development of reagents to identify and manipulate IgG Fc glycoforms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 3411123, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330072

RESUMO

Aim: Patients with diabetic ketosis often exhibit albuminuria. We previously found that acute hyperglycaemia can cause nephrotoxic injury. Here, we explored whether an excessive ketone body level causes kidney injury and the potential underlying mechanism. Methods: Fifty-six type 2 diabetes without ketosis (NDK group), 81 type 2 diabetes with ketosis (DK group), and 38 healthy controls (NC group) were enrolled. Clinical data were collected before and after controlling diabetic ketosis. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BOHB), an AKT activator, an AKT inhibitor, or plasmids encoding DAB2 were transformed into human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). Results: The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), transferrin (TF), immunoglobulin G (IgG), Beta2-microglobulin (ß2-MG), retinol-binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), and Beta-galactosidase (GAL) were higher in the DK than NC and NDK groups. The proportion of patients with an increased urinary level of TF, IgG, ß2-MG, RBP, NAG, or GAL was higher in the DK group too. After controlling ketosis, urinary microalbumin, TF, IgG, ß2-MG, and RBP decreased significantly. In HK-2 cells, albumin endocytosis and megalin expression decreased with increasing BOHB concentration. Compared with BOHB treatment, BOHB with AKT activator significantly increased the DAB2, megalin levels and albumin endocytosis; the AKT inhibitor treatment exhibited the opposite effects. Compared with BOHB treatment, megalin expression and albumin endocytosis were significantly increased after BOHB with DAB2 overexpression treatment. Conclusions: Patients with diabetic ketosis may suffer from glomerular and tubular injuries that recover after ketosis control. High concentrations of BOHB downregulate megalin expression by inhibiting the AKT/DAB2/megalin signalling pathway and albumin endocytosis in proximal renal tubules.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Humanos , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364362

RESUMO

The exact mechanisms of multiple sclerosis development are still unknown. However, the development of EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) in Th and 2D2 mice is associated with the infringement of the differentiation profiles of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells which are bound with the production of compounds that are harmful for human autoantibodies-abzymes that hydrolyze myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, and DNA. It showed that autoimmune patients' antioxidant IgG antibodies oxidise some compounds due to their peroxidase (H2O2-dependent) and oxidoreductase (H2O2-independent) activities more effectively than those in healthy humans can. It was interesting to identify whether the redox activities of the antibodies change during the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we analyzed the change in these redox activities of the IgGs from the blood of Th and 2D2 mice, which corresponded to different stages of the EAE development. The peroxidase activity in the oxidation of ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) in the Th (4-fold) and 2D2 (2-fold) mice IgGs, on average, is higher than the oxidoreductase activity is. The peroxidase activity of the Th (1.9-fold) and 2D2 (3.5-fold) mice IgGs remarkably increased during the 40 days of the spontaneous development of EAE. Forty days after the immunization of the MOG peroxidase activity, the IgGs of the Th and 2D2 mice increased 5.6-6.0 times when they were compared with those that presented no increase (3 months of age). The mice IgGs were oxidized with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (2.4-4.3-fold) and o-phenylenediamine (139-143-fold) less efficiently than they were with ABTS. However, the temper of the change in the IgG activity in the oxidation of these substrates during the spontaneous and MOG-induced development of EAE was close to that which occurred for ABTS. All of the data show that the IgG peroxidase and oxidoreductase activities of EAE mice can play an important role in their protection from toxic compounds and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Catalíticos , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Anticorpos Catalíticos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Peroxidases , Oxirredutases , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 979277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203615

RESUMO

Analysis of T lymphocyte proliferation and activation after antigenic or mitogenic stimulation is a vital parameter used in the diagnosis of various immuno-deficiencies and during the monitoring of treatment responses. Most applied techniques are based on the incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) or ELISPOT analysis, both rely on rather time-consuming/-intensive ex vivo protocols or encompass inherent drawbacks such as the inability to distinguish specific cell populations (3H-TdR, ELISPOT) or focus on a single cytokine (ELISPOT). Here we aimed at characterizing the rapid expression of intracellular CD154 (CD40L) as a marker for rare antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Upon stimulation with human desmoglein (Dsg) 3, the major autoantigen in PV, the expression of CD154 was significantly increased in PV patients compared to healthy controls (HC) and correlated with anti-Dsg3 IgG titers. Patients with active disease showed higher numbers of Dsg3-reactive CD4+ T cells in CXCR5+ T follicular helper cells. In remittent PV and HC, CXCR5+CD4+ T cells remained largely unaffected by Dsg3. IL-17 and IL-21 expression were significantly induced only in CD154+CD4+ T cells from PV patients, lending themselves as potential novel treatment targets. Additionally, stimulation with immunodominant Dsg3-derived epitopes strongly induced a CD4+ T cell response via CD40-CD154 interaction similar to the human Dsg3 protein. We here established a rapid ex vivo assay allowing the detection of Dsg3-reactive CD4+ T cells from activated systemically available PBMCs, which further supports the crucial concept of antigen-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of PV.


Assuntos
Pênfigo , Autoantígenos , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Timidina/metabolismo
9.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 2594091, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188428

RESUMO

The transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus is a critical mechanism for infant protection and perinatal disease. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a representative fetal disease caused by transplacental transfer of maternal IgG antibodies. However, it is unclear whether placental-related miRNAs are expressed in Rh-HDFN. Through the investigation of the miR-181a-5p and miR-125b-2-3p levels in maternal plasma using qPCR, we found that both miR-181a-5p and miR-125b-2-3p were highly expressed in maternal plasma of newborns with Rh-HDFN compared with healthy controls, indicating the potential roles of these two miRNAs in Rh-HDFN. To demonstrate whether dysregulation of miR-125b-2-3p and miR-181a-5p contributes to Rh-HDFN development, we analyze the placental miRNA-/mRNA sequencing data (GSE73714) using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), miRNA target predictive databases, and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery). The results showed that miR-125b-2-3p and miR-181a-5p could regulate several biological processes including cytoplasmic microtubule organization and angiogenesis. Moreover, core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding and protein binding were highly enriched molecular functions, indicating the potential roles of transcriptional regulation. Further pathway enrichment showed that miR-181a-5p and miR-125b-2-3p could regulate several biological pathways that were closely related to placental function, including the FoxO signaling pathway, focal adhesion, mTOR signaling pathway, and central carbon metabolism in cancer. In conclusion, the present results first revealed miRNA expression in the maternal circulation of newborns with Rh-HDFN, which could be caused by dysfunction of the placenta.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , MicroRNAs , Carbono/metabolismo , DNA , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233020

RESUMO

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered as critical contributors to cardiovascular diseases. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) is a potent intracellular oxidoreductase and serves as an essential factor that protects cells against oxidative damage. Here, we firstly provide evidence that recombinant humanized IgG1 antibody treatment upregulated the expression of MSRA in THP-1 cells to defend against oxLDL-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. It was also observed that the upregulation of MSRA is regulated by the forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO1), and the acetylation of FOXO1 increased when exposed to oxLDL but declined when treated with recombinant humanized IgG1 antibody. In addition, we identified that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) suppresses FOXO1 acetylation. Importantly, SIRT1 or FOXO1 deficiency impaired the anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic effect of recombinant humanized IgG1 antibody. Together, our results suggest that recombinant humanized IgG1 antibody exerts its anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic function by upregulation of MSRA via the Sirt1-FOXO1 axis.


Assuntos
Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases , Sirtuína 1 , Apoptose , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233099

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is activated by unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides found in the genomes of pathogens such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The aim of this study was to determine the role of TLR9 in the immunopathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. For this purpose, the frequency of TLR9-positive monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, i.e., BDCA-1; myeloid dendritic cells, and BDCA-2; plasmocytoid dendritic cells) was studied, and a quantitative analysis of the concentration of TLR9 in the serum of patients diagnosed with IgAN and MPGN was undertaken. Higher frequencies of TLR9-positive DCs and monocytes in IgAN and MPGN patients were observed as compared with the control group. Patients diagnosed with GN exhibited a higher percentage of BDCA-1+CD19- and BDCA-2+CD123+ DCs than patients in the control group. Moreover, serum TLR9 concentration was shown to be significantly correlated with EBV DNA copy number/µg DNA, IgG, IgM, serum albumin, total protein in 24-h urine collection test and the frequency of BDCA-2+CD123+ DCs in peripheral blood. Our findings confirm that TLR9 may be involved in the development of IgAN and MPGN.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa , Receptor Toll-Like 9 , Citosina/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa/metabolismo , Guanosina/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-3/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1684: 463559, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257172

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin purification from different biological fluids is considered one of the most critical steps in antibody production for diagnostic, therapeutic, and research purposes. The current study aimed to elucidate the role of the different aryl substituents in triazine-based affinity ligands on the performance of an affinity chromatography purification media to separate immunoglobulin G (IgG). The biomimetic triazine-based affinity ligand was chosen as a varied containing fix spacer and support. The sepharose beads were activated by epichlorohydrin, and five types of aryl substituents were replaced in the triazine ring and covalently immobilized to the resin surface by 1, 4-diaminobutane spacer. All affinity resins with various ligands were characterized and validated using FTIR, SEM, EDX, and microscopic images. The findings revealed that using R1=3-aminophenol and R2=3-aminophenol substituents in the triazine ring, as affinity ligands attached to the sepharose surface with a 10-atom linker CAES-6B-Cl@R1= MAF, R2= MAF (No. 4), leads to better purification of IgG from human and rabbit plasma with 22.8 mg/mL resin binding capacity in 73±5% yield and 95% of purity. All results confirmed that the designed triazine-based affinity ligands could effectively purify IgG compatible with a fast and low-cost approach.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Triazinas , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Ligantes , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Triazinas/química , Sefarose/química , Biomimética , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos
13.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2131096, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211805

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide due to high recurrence rates after curative treatment and being frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage. Immune-checkpoint inhibition (ICPI) has yielded impressive clinical successes in a variety of solid cancers, however results in treatment of HCC have been modest. Vaccination could be a promising treatment to synergize with ICPI and enhance response rates. Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) were recently discovered to be widely expressed in HCC and expression in macroscopically tumor-free tissues correlated with recurrence, implying the presence of micro-satellites. To determine whether CTAs are immunogenic in HCC patients, we analyzed systemic T-cell and humoral responses against seven CTAs in 38 HCC patients using a multitude of techniques; flowcytometry, ELISA and whole antigen and peptide stimulation assays. CTA-specific T-cells were detected in all (25/25) analyzed patients, of which most had a memory phenotype but did not exhibit unequivocal signs of chronic stimulation or recent antigen encounter. Proliferative CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against these CTAs were found in 14/16 analyzed HCC patients. CTA-peptide stimulation-induced granzyme B, IL2, and TNFa in 8/8 analyzed patients, including two MAGEA1 peptides included based on in silico prediction. Finally, IgG responses were observed in 13/32 patients, albeit with low titers. The presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and IgG responses shows the immunogenicity of these CTAs in HCC-patients. We hypothesize that vaccines based on these tumor-specific antigens may boost preexisting CTA-specific immunity and could enhance therapeutic efficacy of ICPI in advanced HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1007106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36275717

RESUMO

Objective: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes persistent arthritis, and our prior study showed that approximately one third of CHIKV arthritis patients had exacerbated arthritis associated with exercise. The underlying mechanism of exercise-associated chikungunya arthritis flare (EACAF) is unknown, and this analysis aimed to examine the regulatory T-cell immune response related to CHIKV arthritis flares. Methods: In our study, 124 Colombian patients with a history of CHIKV infection four years prior were enrolled and 113 cases with serologically confirmed CHIKV IgG were used in this analysis. Patient information was gathered via questionnaires, and blood samples were taken to identify total live peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CD4+ cells, T regulatory cells, and their immune markers. We compared outcomes in CHIKV patients with (n = 38) vs. without (n = 75) EACAF using t-tests to assess means and the Fisher's exact test, chi-squared to evaluate categorical variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests in the setting of skewed distributions (SAS 9.3). Results: 33.6% of CHIKV cases reported worsening arthritis with exercise. EACAF patients reported higher global assessments of arthritis disease ranging from 0-100 (71.2 ± 19.7 vs. 59.9 ± 28.0, p=0.03). EACAF patients had lower ratios of T regulatory (Treg)/CD4+ T-cells (1.95 ± 0.73 vs. 2.4 ± 1.29, p = 0.04) and lower percentage of GARP (glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant) expression per Treg (0.13 ± 0.0.33 vs. 0.16 ± 0.24 p= 0.020). Conclusion: These findings suggest relative decreases in GARP expression may indicate a decreased level of immune suppression. Treg populations in patients with CHIKV arthritis may contribute to arthritis flares during exercise, though current research is conflicting.


Assuntos
Artrite , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Humanos , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Artrite/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 263, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody seropositive neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The extent of tissue damage is frequently severe, often leading to loss of visual function, and there is no curative treatment for this condition. To develop a novel therapeutic strategy, elucidating the underlying pathological mechanism using a clinically relevant experimental ON model is necessary. However, previous ON animal models have only resulted in mild lesions with limited functional impairment. In the present study, we attempted to establish a feasible ON model with severe pathological and functional manifestations using a high-affinity anti-AQP4 antibody. Subsequently, we aimed to address whether our model is suitable for potential drug evaluation by testing the effect of minocycline, a well-known microglia/macrophage inhibitor. METHODS: AQP4-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-related ON in rats was induced by direct injection of a high-affinity anti-AQP4 monoclonal antibody, E5415A. Thereafter, the pathological and functional characterizations were performed, and the therapeutic potential of minocycline was investigated. RESULTS: We established an experimental ON model that reproduces the histological characteristics of ON in seropositive NMO, such as loss of AQP4/glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, immune cell infiltration, and extensive axonal damage. We also observed that our rat model exhibited severe visual dysfunction. The histological analysis showed prominent accumulation of macrophages/activated microglia in the lesion site in the acute phase. Thus, we investigated the possible effect of the pharmacological inhibition of macrophages/microglia activation by minocycline and revealed that it effectively ameliorated axonal damage and functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We established an AQP4-IgG-induced ON rat model with severe functional impairments that reproduce the histological characteristics of patients with NMO. Using this model, we revealed that minocycline treatment ameliorates functional and pathological outcomes, highlighting the usefulness of our model for evaluating potential therapeutic drugs for ON in NMO.


Assuntos
Neuromielite Óptica , Neurite Óptica , Ratos , Animais , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Aquaporina 4 , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292974

RESUMO

The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that affects the world's popula-tion with chikungunya disease. Adaptation of the viral life cycle to their host cells' environment is a key step for establishing their infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the accumulating evidence advocates a principal role of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, in both the infection and pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, the participation of exosomes in CHIKV infec-tion and transmission is not well clarified. Here, we demonstrated that the CHIKV RNA and pro-teins were captured in exosomes, which were released by viral-infected epithelial cells. A viral genomic element in the isolated exosomes was infectious to naïve mammalian epithelial cells. The assay of particle size distribution and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed CHIKV-derived exosomes with a size range from 50 to 250 nm. Treatments with RNase A, Triton X-100, and immunoglobulin G antibodies from CHIKV-positive patient plasma indicated that in-fectious viral elements are encompassed inside the exosomes. Interestingly, our viral plaque for-mation also exhibited that infectious viral elements might be securely transmitted to neighboring cells by a secreted exosomal pathway. Taken together, our recent findings emphasize the evidence for a complementary means of CHIKV infection and suggest the role of exosome-mediated CHIKV transmission.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Exossomos , Animais , Humanos , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Exossomos/patologia , Ribonuclease Pancreático/metabolismo , Octoxinol , Células Epiteliais/patologia , RNA/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293284

RESUMO

Altitude is the main external environmental pressure affecting the production performance of Tibetan sheep, and the adaptive evolution of many years has formed a certain response mechanism. However, there are few reports on the response of ruminal microbiota and host genomes of Tibetan sheep to high-altitude environments. Here, we conducted an integrated analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), microbial diversity (16S rRNA), epithelial morphology, and epithelial transcriptome in the rumen of Tibetan sheep at different altitudes to understand the changes in ruminal microbiota-host interaction in response to high altitude. The differences in the nutritional quality of forage at different altitudes, especially the differences in fiber content (ADF/NDF), led to changes in rumen VFAs of Tibetan sheep, in which the A/P value (acetic acid/propionic acid) was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In addition, the concentrations of IgA and IgG in Middle-altitude (MA) and High-altitude Tibetan sheep (HA) were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the concentrations of IgM were significantly increased in MA (p < 0.05). Morphological results showed that the width of the rumen papilla and the thickness of the basal layer increased significantly in HA Tibetan sheep (p < 0.05). The 16S rRNA analysis found that the rumen microbial diversity of Tibetan sheep gradually decreased with increasing altitude, and there were some differences in phylum- and genus-level microbes at the three altitudes. RDA analysis found that the abundance of the Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group and the Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group increased with altitudes. Furthermore, a functional analysis of the KEGG microbial database found the "lipid metabolism" function of HA Tibetan sheep to be significantly enriched. WGCNA revealed that five gene modules were enriched in "energy production and conversion", "lipid transport and metabolism", and "defense mechanisms", and cooperated with microbiota to regulate rumen fermentation and epithelial immune barrier function, so as to improve the metabolism and immune level of Tibetan sheep at high altitude.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Ovinos , Animais , Rúmen/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Altitude , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Tibet , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo
18.
Stem Cell Res ; 64: 102935, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219983

RESUMO

CD16A is a receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G, and is involved in the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of nature killer cells(Zhu et al., 2020) and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infections(Wan et al., 2020). However, the role of CD16A in human embryonic stem cell modeled development has been merely documented. Hence, to illustrate the role of CD16A in the human cell development, we reported a CD16A knockout human embryonic stem(hESC) cell line via CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene knockout. The CD16A mutated cell line displayed normal karyotype, pluripotent stem cell marker gene expression and differentiation potential.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(21): 7039-7050, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184689

RESUMO

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy due to its potent immune-activating effects. There are several IL-15 molecules currently in clinical trials but facing shortages of poor half-life, circulation instability, or complicated production and quality control processes. The aim of this study is to design a novel IL-15 superagonist to set out the above difficulties, and we constructed F4RLI consisting of the GS-linker spaced IgG4 Fc fragment, soluble IL-15 Rα (sIL-15Rα), and IL-15(N72D). Using a single plasmid transient transfection in HEK293E cells, the matured F4RLI was secreted in the form of homodimer and got purified by an easy step of protein A affinity chromatography. The F4RLI product can significantly stimulate the proliferation of human CD3+CD8+ T cells and NK cells in vitro. Meanwhile, F4RLI greatly extended the half-life and prolonged the exposure of IL-15 in mice nearly by 28- and 200-fold, respectively, in comparison with that of the IL-15 monomer. In vivo, F4RLI vastly expanded mouse splenic CD8+ T lymphocytes, illustrating its potential in tumor immunotherapy. Further studies showed that the combination of F4RLI with the immune checkpoint blocker atezolizumab played a synergistic effect in treating MC38 mouse tumor by increasing the percentage of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissue. Moreover, the combination therapy of F4RLI with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab resulted in significant tumor growth suppression in a xenograft human HT-29 mouse model. Overall, our results demonstrate a homodimeric IL-15 superagonist F4RLI with advances in manufacturing processes and biopharmaceutical applications for cancer immunotherapy. KEY POINTS: • The homodimeric structure of F4RLI facilitates its easy production processes and quality control. • The fusion with Fc and sIL-15Rα extends the plasma half-life of IL-15 by about 28-fold. • F4RLI can play synergistic antitumor activity with the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor or angiogenesis inhibitor.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Interleucina-15 , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meia-Vida , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interleucina-15/agonistas , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
20.
Cells ; 11(20)2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291195

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation of skeletal muscle is the common feature of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Given the rarity of the disease and potential difficulty of routinely obtaining target tissue, i.e., standardized skeletal muscle, our understanding of immune signatures of the IIM spectrum remains incomplete. Further insight into the immune topography of IIM is needed to determine specific treatment targets according to clinical and immunological phenotypes. Thus, we used high-dimensional flow cytometry to investigate the immune phenotypes of anti-synthetase syndrome (ASyS), dermatomyositis (DM) and inclusion-body myositis (IBM) patients as representative entities of the IIM spectrum and compared them to healthy controls. We studied the CD8, CD4 and B cell compartments in the blood aiming to provide a contemporary overview of the immune topography of the IIM spectrum. ASyS was characterized by altered CD4 composition and expanded T follicular helper cells supporting B cell-mediated autoimmunity. For DM, unsupervised clustering identified expansion of distinct B cell subtypes highly expressing immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and CD38. Lastly, terminally differentiated, cytotoxic CD8 T cells distinguish IBM from other IIM. Interestingly, these terminally differentiated CD8 T cells highly expressed the integrin CD18 mediating cellular adhesion and infiltration. The distinct immune cell topography of IIM might provide the framework for targeted treatment approaches potentially improving therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão , Miosite , Humanos , Miosite/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
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