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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(9): 620-623, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disease that has been classified into two subtypes. Type 1 is believed to be mediated by immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and type 2 is related to granulocytic epithelial lesions, but the pathogenetic mechanisms in both are still unknown. The patho-mechanism of AIP type 1 is suggested to be secondary to autoimmunity or allergy due to the increased serum IgG4 and immunoglobulin E levels, abundant infiltration of IgG4, plasmacytes and lymphocytes in the pancreas, and fibrosis. Both types of AIP respond to steroid treatment. The relapse rate after remission is high and reaches 30-50% within 6-12 months in AIP type 1; however, in AIP type 2 relapse is rare. The maintenance therapy and therapeutic strategy for relapsing patients with type 1 is managed with low dose steroids, however there are no consensus guidelines. In this review we discuss the current understanding of AIP, highlighting the emerging potential role of eotaxin in pathogenesis, classification, and management of the disease.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL11/sangue , Quimiocina CCL24/sangue , Quimiocina CCL26/sangue , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/sangue , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia , Pâncreas/imunologia
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180860, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553367

RESUMO

The first cases of Zika virus infection in Colombia were reported and confirmed in October 2015. The objective of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of ZIKV infection during the pre-epidemic phase in Barranquilla, Colombia, and demonstrate the presence of virus before the Colombian Ministry of Health confirmed the first case. We conducted a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Zika virus in 390 samples obtained from a blood bank located in Barranquilla, Colombia - a city endemic for dengue, and with a recent history of a Chikungunya disease epidemic. The serum pools were tested using Euroimmun ZIKV ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of Zika virus IgG were: May 2015: 0%, June and July 2015: 2.62% (95% CI = 0.28-12.13) and August 2015: 5.35% (95% CI = 1.74-16.74). This brings to our attention the need for extending the surveillance period of this virus in order to adequately assess its teratogenic effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Zika virus/imunologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e42, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432991

RESUMO

American Tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by several species of Leishmania . Even though the direct detection of parasites has low sensitivity, it is still the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of ATL. Recent studies have shown promising results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays ( ELISAs) using recombinant antigens. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens with the standard ELISA based on soluble antigens of Leishmania (SLA) to diagnose ATL. Studies that analyzed patients with ATL and studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens and SLA were included. The Fourteen studies from PubMed, Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library (BVS), Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Virtual Health Library (IBECS), Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Elsevier Embase, Cochrane Library, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were included. The novel ELISA antigens showed a high sensitivity (93.8%-100%) and specificity (82.5-100%), a better diagnostic performance than SLA-based ELISAs (1-97.4% and 57.5-100%, respectively). Only 10 studies analyzed cross-reactions in serum samples from patients with Chagas disease, and only two studies reported a percentage of cross-reactivity. In this systematic review, the novel ELISA antigens showed better sensitivity and specificity with respect to SLA-based ELISAs. However, a meta-analysis should be performed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16934, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441884

RESUMO

RATIONALE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect almost every organ. IgG4-RD includes IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD), but lesions affecting the kidney alone or first are very rare, and a complete understanding is lacking. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings can show the typical characteristics of IgG4-RKD and provide information for accurate and rapid diagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for dizziness and instability while walking, her bilateral eyelids were also slightly swollen. She had no medical history. DIAGNOSES: CT and MRI images of the patient revealed multiple local and diffuse patchy lesions in the bilateral renal parenchyma and mass-like tissue in the bilateral renal pelvis, accompanied by right hydronephrosis. A pathological examination of renal samples showed numerous lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated approximately 50% of the IgG-positive plasma cells to be IgG4+. The serum IgG level was obviously elevated, with both C3and C4 levels were reduced. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-RKD. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received corticosteroid therapy at another hospital. OUTCOMES: The bilateral kidney lesions were smaller on follow-up CT images. LESSONS: IgG4-RKD exhibits some characteristic imaging features. Despite the relatively low incidence of IgG4-RKD, it should be included in differential diagnoses when images show multiple lesions in kidneys with mild and delayed enhancement and hypointensity on T2WI in middle-aged to elderly patients.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/sangue , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16208, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261570

RESUMO

The composition of glycan in immunoglobulin G (IgG) has shown to affect various diseases and can be regulated by drugs and preventive vaccination. A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) immune complex (YIC) therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients has undergone clinical trials. To explore for markers of CHB, which could be associated with responsiveness to YIC therapeutic vaccine, serum IgG glycosylation in CHB patients was analyzed.Kinetic changes of serum galactosylated IgG in 53 hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients treated with YIC were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Whole blood cytokines were assayed by cytokine binding assay kits. All samples were back assayed before treatment, during therapy and follow-up for 6 months from a previous completed clinical trial.During YIC treatment, 26 patients with lower IgG galactosylation level at baseline [galactosylation level (Gal-ratio) = -0.29, 0.18 (mean, SD)] showed sustained increase of serum galactosylated IgG, and responded to YIC treatment by HBeAg seroconversion. While those who did not respond to YIC treatment [Gal-ratio = -0.40, 0.15 (mean, SD)] failed to show similar changes. Furthermore, this kinetic increase of galactosylated IgG correlated with marked up-regulated IL-2 level, confirming that effective cellular immune responses have participated in responsiveness.For HBeAg-positive CHB patients lower serum IgG galactosylation level may serve as an indicator for selecting a suitable subpopulation of candidates for YIC therapeutic vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Galactose/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-2/sangue , Masculino , Soroconversão , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação
7.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 508-512, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269612

RESUMO

IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is characterized by biliary strictures and obstructive jaundice.Elevated levels of serum IgG4 and a multifocal IgG4-rich lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of affected organs are also the characteristics of IgG4-SC. Prednisone is recommended in the initial treatment of IgG4-SC. The differential diagnosis between IgG4-SC and cholangiocarcinoma is not easy. Comprehensively collection of medical history, paying attention to other organs involvement, and getting the pathologic diagnosis are important for diagnosis of this disease. In order to prevent misdiagnosis we should learn more about IgG4-SC. On the other hand, if we can not differentiate IgG4-SC and cholangiocarcinoma, operation may be recommended.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/diagnóstico , Colangite Esclerosante/terapia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/terapia , Adulto , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Colangite Esclerosante/sangue , Colangite Esclerosante/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/sangue , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia
8.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109886, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307667

RESUMO

The diagnosis of the early stages of paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a cumbersome task. In this study, an experimental Map-infection model of calves was used to improve the knowledge of early antibody response and to evaluate different in-house ELISAs in the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis. Calves were challenged with Map strain IS900-RFLPA (n = 3) or Map strain IS900-RFLPC (n = 2) (Argentinean isolated strains) or mock infected (n = 3), and their specific humoral response was evaluated. The diagnostic ELISA (IgG against Map protoplasmic antigen; PPA) could not detect the infection throughout the experimental period (180 days post-infection; dpi), whereas the IgG2/PPA-ELISA was able to identify infected calves at least once during the experiment. In addition, the use of crude Map extract detected most of the infections from 60 dpi onwards. Antibodies were also characterized by immunoblot: IgG2-reactivity to antigens of molecular weight lower than 50 kDa was detected in all infected calves. The experimental Map-infection model of calves used allows the study of the early humoral immune response in paratuberculosis. The evaluation of IgG2 specific to antigens lighter than 50 kDa emerges as an interesting alternative in calves naturally infected with paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 581, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting one-third of the world population. Psychiatric patients have a higher risk of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection due to lack of good personal hygiene. The burden of toxoplasmosis among psychiatric patients in Ethiopia has not been studied extensively. Thus, the study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among psychiatric outpatients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital Psychiatric clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital from February to May 2018. Venous blood was collected from 304 study participants (152 psychiatric outpatients and 152 control groups). Anti-toxoplasma antibodies were determined using Onsite Toxo immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) Rapid Test. A Chi-square test was carried out to compare the two groups and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to check the association between variables. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: The seroprevalence rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was 33.6, and 16.4% in the psychiatric outpatients and the control samples, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM sero-prevalence was 1.3% in the former patients and 3.9% in the latter group. Owing cat (AOR = 2.862 95% CI = 1.445-5.666 P = 0.003), cleaning cat excreta (AOR = 2.966 95% CI = 1.317-2.652 P = 0.007), and farming (AOR = 2.058 95% CI = 1.018-4.163 P = 0.045) were found to be significantly associated with the sero-prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was significantly higher in psychiatric outpatients than the control group (p = 0.001). Cat ownership, cleaning of cat excreta, and farming were found to be statistically significantly associated with the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291383

RESUMO

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Malária Vivax/sangue , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107714, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279927

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical signs, electrocardiographic signs and evolution of histopathological lesions in the heart of sheep experimentally infected by Trypanosoma vivax during the acute and chronic phases of infection as well as to investigate the presence of parasitic DNA in the heart using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-two male sheep were divided into the following four groups: G1, which consisted of six sheep infected by T. vivax that were evaluated until 20 days post-infection (dpi; acute phase); G2, which consisted of six sheep infected by T. vivax that were evaluated until 90 dpi (chronic phase); and G3 and G4 groups, which each consisted of five uninfected sheep. At the end of the experimental period, electrocardiographic evaluations and necroscopic examinations were performed. Fragments of the heart were collected and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson's trichrome, and the fragments were also evaluated by PCR for T. vivax. G2 animals presented clinical signs suggestive of heart failure and electrocardiogram alterations characterized by prolonged P, T and QRS complex durations as well as by a cardiac electrical axis shift to the left and increased heart rate. In these animals, mononuclear multifocal myocarditis and interstitial fibrosis were also observed. PCR revealed positivity for T. vivax in two G1 animals and in all G2 animals. Thus, these findings suggested that T. vivax is responsible for the occurrence of cardiac lesions, which are related to heart failure, electrocardiographic alterations and mortality of the infected animals.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Coração/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma vivax/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Pericardite/parasitologia , Pericardite/patologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Trypanosoma vivax/genética , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Trypanosoma vivax/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/mortalidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/patologia
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279928

RESUMO

In the present study, we attempted to identify antigens with high sensitivity and specificity for the serological diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. We investigated soluble proteins from the tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and excreted/secreted antigens (ESAs) from the peritoneal protein of T. gondii-infected mice. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis revealed that in both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs, the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa had high diagnostic sensitivity. Further analysis of antigenic specificity revealed that the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa were specifically recognized by the sera of toxoplasmosis patients, but other parasitic diseases were not. The protein spots between 25 and 35 kDa were selected after two-dimensional electrophoresis of both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs. GRA2, GRA7, and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) were successfully characterized from the protein spots using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy analysis. We expressed, purified, and evaluated proteins GRA2, GRA7, and TPI. TPI is a novel antigen with potential for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and composite recombinant proteins (TPI, GRA2, and GRA7) have great sera diagnostic value for the detection of the disorder.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , Western Blotting , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306646

RESUMO

Characterisation of the cellular immune response to schistosomiasis is well established for Schistosoma mansoni but a comprehensive description of T cell-mediated immune responses against S. japonicum infection is lacking. Accordingly, 20 CBA mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum and the immune response at different time points was determined. Mouse spleen and liver lymphocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with schistosomal adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and schistosomal soluble egg antigen (SEA). There was a relatively higher Th1 immune response to SWAP compared to SEA at the early phase of infection (up to week 5 post challenge). However, a Th2 immune response directed against SEA was dominant at week 6 post-infection, a time point when the highest IgG response against both SWAP and, especially, SEA was generated. The regulatory immune response was highest at the early phase of the immune response (up to week 5 post challenge) followed by a rapid decline at week 6-post infection. Before egg-laying, S. japonicum induced a regulatory T cell immune response which may limit the early Th1-mediated immune response that is believed to be protective in murine schistosomiasis. Following egg laying, the immune response was polarized to a Th2 immune response mainly directed against the eggs and this may contribute to parasite survival.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Óvulo/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 614, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in chronic hepatitis B women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS: The week 12-34 of pregnant women were screened in this prospective non-intervention study, with HBV DNA > 106 IU/mL and alanine aminotransferase > 50 IU/L. The patients were received telbivudine treatment as a treatment group or without antiviral treatment as a control group. All infants were received recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 10 µg within 12 h of birth, at week 4 and week 24, immunoglobulin G within 12 h of birth and were detected HBV markers at the range from 7 to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were finally enrolled, 139 patients in telbivudine group and 102 patients in control group. HBsAg negative rate of infants was 99.3% (135/136) in telbivudine group and was 91.9% (91/99) in control group after 7 months (P = 0.005), respectively. The incidence of undetectable HBV DNA levels (47.5%) was significantly lower in telbivudine-treated mothers than that in the controls (0%), and 75.5% patients alanine aminotransferase returned to normal in telbivudine group, and 51% in control group at delivery (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Telbivudine can safely reduce mother-to-child transmission in chronic hepatitis B women after 12 weeks of gestation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Telbivudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104698, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311644

RESUMO

There is limited knowledge of the true prevalence and distribution of coxiellosis in dairy and beef cattle populations in Australia. For this to occur, apparent prevalence estimates need to be reliably adjusted, accounting for diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the test used. However, there are few tests available with known diagnostic specifications suitable to inform screening and surveillance activities in the Australian context. We initially modified and optimised a human indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) test for the detection of IgG antibodies against phase I and/or phase II Coxiella burnetii in bovine sera and determined an optimal screening dilution cut-off to be 1:160. Direct comparison of the modified IFA with the commercial IDEXX enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Q Fever Ab Test IDEXX Laboratories, United States of America) was performed by testing 458 serum samples from four distinct cattle populations across the east coast of Australia and New Zealand. Cross classified test results were then analysed using Bayesian latent class modelling, to validate the tests in the absence of a gold standard reference test. Results from this analysis indicate that the IFA, at a 1:160 serum dilution, has an estimated DSe of 73.6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI) 61.1, 85.9) and DSp of 98.2% (95% CrI 95.1, 99.7). The commercial IDEXX ELISA kit was found to have a higher DSe of 87.9% (95% CrI 73.9, 96.4) and similar DSp of 97.7% (95% CrI 93.2, 99.7). Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of the IFA and ELISA methods, specifically for use in cattle will enable more accurate interpretation of prevalence estimates of C. burnetii exposure to be reported for cattle in Australia and other countries.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/normas , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4723-4739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308655

RESUMO

Background: Much consideration has been paid to the toxicological assessment of nanoparticles prior to clinical and biological applications. While in vitro studies have been expanding continually, in vivo investigations of nanoparticles have not developed a cohesive structure. This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of different concentrations of chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs) in main organs, including liver, kidneys, and spleen. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n=7). Group 1 was kept as a negative control group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated intraperitoneally with Ch-AgNPs each day for 14 days at doses of 50, 25, and 10 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed as well as oxidative stress evaluations, and specific functional examinations for each organ were elucidated. Results: It was revealed that Ch-AgNPs induced dose-dependent toxicity, and the repeated dosing of rats with 50 mg/kg Ch-AgNPs induced severe toxicities. Histopathological examination showed congestion, hemorrhage, cellular degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic and renal tissue as well as lymphocytic depletion with increasing tangible macrophages in the spleen. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (MDA, ALT, AST) and the lowest levels of reduced glutathione, immunoglobulin G, M and total protein (GSH, IgG, IgM, TP) were observed in this group. On the other hand, repeated dosing with 25 mg/kg induced mild to moderate disturbance in the previous parameters, while there was no significant difference in results of pathological examination and biochemical tests between the control group and those treated with 10 mg/kg bwt Ch-AgNPs. Conclusion: Chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rats.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 1-9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282365

RESUMO

Oral immunization is a commonly employed route for inducing local immunity. However, the application of oral immunization is limited by the short-term persistence of immunity, particularly for inactivated viruses. The ultimate goal for mucosal vaccination is to stimulate protective immunological memory. In the intestine, long-term persistence of immunity is related to CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells. In this study, piglets were orally immunized with Bacillus subtilis spores (B.s) plus whole inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV WIV), followed by booster oral immunization. Initially, the results showed that B.s plus PEDV WIV enhanced the anti-PEDV capability on mucosal surfaces, as evidenced by plaque reduction neutralization tests in serum and intestinal fluid. Elevated antigen-specific IgG titers in the serum and IgA titers in saliva, feces and nasal washing liquid were also observed. Meanwhile, B.s plus PEDV WIV increased the area of Peyer's patches and the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the ileum of piglets. Similarly, the percentage of CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells were upregulated and proliferation ability of antigen-specific memory T-cell was strengthened in intestinal mucosal-associated lymphocytes, which was accompanied with increased expression of CCR9 after oral immunization with B.s plus PEDV WIV. In addition, the activation of memory T-cells is correlated with the increased mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4, as well as interleukin-6 and induced by B.s. Collectively, the study provided further insight into the potential immunopotentiator ability of B.s to assist PEDV WIV in the potentiation of immunity by upregulating memory CD4+CD8+ T cells via oral immunization.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunização/métodos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Esporos/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Cima , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 10-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282366

RESUMO

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia. In August 2018, there was an outbreak in China and in April 2019, ASFV was reported in Vietnam and Cambodia. Since no vaccine or treatment exists, a vaccine is needed to safeguard the swine industry. Previously, we evaluated immunogenicity of two adenovirus-vectored cocktails containing ASFV antigens and demonstrated induction of unprecedented robust antibody and T cell responses, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated protective efficacy of both cocktails by intranasal challenge of pigs with ASFV-Georgia 2007/1. A nine antigen cocktail-(I) formulated in BioMize adjuvant induced strong IgG responses, but when challenged, the vaccinees had more severe reaction relative to the controls. A seven antigen cocktail-(II) was evaluated using two adjuvants: BioMize and ZTS-01. The BioMize formulation induced stronger antibody responses, but 8/10 vaccinees and 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint at 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, the ZTS-01 formulation induced weaker antibody responses, but 4/9 pigs succumbed to the disease while the 5 survivors exhibited low clinical scores and no viremia at 17 days post-challenge, whereas 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint. Overall, none of the immunogens conferred statistically significant protection.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adenoviridae , Administração Intranasal , Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Suínos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Viremia , Virulência
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 587, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years Pakistan has faced frequent measles outbreaks killing hundreds of children despite the availability of vaccine for decades. This study was undertaken to determine the persistence of maternal transferred measles antibody levels in infants before measles vaccination with relation to their feeding practices. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at district Islamabad over 1 year between 1st October 2013 to 30th Sept. 2016. Any infant less than 9 months of age, not suffering from an acute or debilitating illness and not vaccinated was enrolled in the study. After taking written informed consent from parents / guardians, information was collected on a pretested questionnaire. About 3 cc venous blood was taken to quantify any measles IgG antibodies. Data was analyzed by using Epi Info 7.2 version. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-four infants were enrolled and were divided into three age groups, 1-90, 91-180 and 181-270 days age groups. Mean age of infants was 4.4 months ±3.2 SD. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. A level of maternal measles IgG antibodies ≥12 U/ml was taken as protective. Of total 384 infants, 91(24%) had protective measles antibody titters (> 12 U/ml). and 65 (73%) of them were on breast milk. Highest antibody levels were found in 1-90 days age group. Analysis showed that 181-270 days aged infants had 3.1875 more odds of having unprotected/ low levels of antibodies against measles than children aged less than 180 days. Age group < 180 days found to be statistically significant with protective IgG levels (OR: 3.1875, P value: < 0.000063). CONCLUSION: Measles protective antibodies were found in infants < 180 days age group. Breast feeding provides early protection against measles. Levels drop down to low levels immediately after birth and then after 06 months. It is, therefore, recommended that measles vaccination should be considered for administration at 6 months or even earlier if measles immunity is desired.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Sarampo/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 26, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is a severe syndrome, with world-wide occurrence, affecting farmed mink (Neovison vison) kits during the lactation period. Kits affected by PWD often display clinical signs such as: yellow-white diarrhea, greasy skin, and dehydration. In severe cases the kits eventually die. It is common practice to treat PWD using antimicrobials; however the effect is not well documented. Due to the multifactorial etiology of PWD vaccine development is not feasible. The role played by the immune status of the mink kits with respect to their susceptibility to PWD is not well studied. To elucidate the possible association between PWD and total IgG serum concentration in young kits we analyzed blood collected from kits from 100 litters on two mink farms during the same breeding period, one farm being a case farm with high prevalence of PWD, and the other being a control farm with no cases of PWD. RESULTS: Kits affected by PWD had a significantly reduced weight gain compared to unaffected control kits. Litters born later in the breeding period came down with PWD at an earlier age than litters born at the start of the breeding period. We found that PWD affected kits had significantly lower concentrations of serum IgG compared to unaffected kits at 13-15 days of age (the last blood sampling point of the study). CONCLUSION: The results in this study suggest that PWD affected kits less efficiently absorbed IgG from maternal milk or had a lower intake of maternal milk, potentially contributing to the exacerbation of disease. A lower intake of IgG and/or less absorption from maternal milk could also pre-dispose kits for PWD. Future studies will be needed to elucidate if the circulating level of IgG is directly related to protection against disease and to investigate if administration of IgG could be helpful in alleviating and/or preventing PWD in mink kits.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/imunologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vison/imunologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/sangue , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/patologia , Vison/sangue , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
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