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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 909831, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911674

RESUMO

Background: Placental malaria (PM) is associated with a higher susceptibility of infants to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria. A hypothesis of immune tolerance has been suggested but no clear explanation has been provided so far. Our goal was to investigate the involvement of inhibitory receptors LILRB1 and LILRB2, known to drive immune evasion upon ligation with pathogen and/or host ligands, in PM-induced immune tolerance. Method: Infants of women with or without PM were enrolled in Allada, southern Benin, and followed-up for 24 months. Antibodies with specificity for five blood stage parasite antigens were quantified by ELISA, and the frequency of immune cell subsets was quantified by flow cytometry. LILRB1 or LILRB2 expression was assessed on cells collected at 18 and 24 months of age. Findings: Infants born to women with PM had a higher risk of developing symptomatic malaria than those born to women without PM (IRR=1.53, p=0.040), and such infants displayed a lower frequency of non-classical monocytes (OR=0.74, p=0.01) that overexpressed LILRB2 (OR=1.36, p=0.002). Moreover, infants born to women with PM had lower levels of cytophilic IgG and higher levels of IL-10 during active infection. Interpretation: Modulation of IgG and IL-10 levels could impair monocyte functions (opsonisation/phagocytosis) in infants born to women with PM, possibly contributing to their higher susceptibility to malaria. The long-lasting effect of PM on infants' monocytes was notable, raising questions about the capacity of ligands such as Rifins or HLA-I molecules to bind to LILRB1 and LILRB2 and to modulate immune responses, and about the reprogramming of neonatal monocytes/macrophages.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Placenta , Receptores Imunológicos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-10 , Receptor B1 de Leucócitos Semelhante a Imunoglobulina/genética , Receptor B1 de Leucócitos Semelhante a Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Placenta/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Gravidez , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2204336119, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858382

RESUMO

The durability of vaccine-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the durations to breakthrough infection, and the optimal timings of booster vaccination are crucial knowledge for pandemic response. Here, we applied comparative evolutionary analyses to estimate the durability of immunity and the likelihood of breakthrough infections over time following vaccination by BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson/Janssen). We evaluated anti-Spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels elicited by each vaccine relative to natural infection. We estimated typical trajectories of waning and corresponding infection probabilities, providing the distribution of times to breakthrough infection for each vaccine under endemic conditions. Peak antibody levels elicited by messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2 exceeded that of natural infection and are expected to typically yield more durable protection against breakthrough infections (median 29.6 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 10.9 mo to 7.9 y) than natural infection (median 21.5 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 3.5 mo to 7.1 y). Relative to mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2, viral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S exhibit similar peak anti-S IgG antibody responses to that from natural infection and are projected to yield lower, shorter-term protection against breakthrough infection (median 22.4 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 4.3 mo to 7.2 y; and median 20.5 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 2.6 mo to 7.0 y; respectively). These results leverage the tools from evolutionary biology to provide a quantitative basis for otherwise unknown parameters that are fundamental to public health policy decision-making.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655410

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacina BNT162/imunologia , Vacina BNT162/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/imunologia , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Soroconversão , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
4.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0014322, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658531

RESUMO

Differentiation of infected from vaccinated hosts (DIVH) is a critical step in virus eradication programs. DIVH-compatible vaccines, however, take years to develop, and are therefore unavailable for fighting the sudden outbreaks that typically drive pandemics. Here, we establish a protocol for the swift and efficient development of DIVH assays, and show that this approach is compatible with any type of vaccines. Using porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) as the experimental model, the first step is to use Immunoglobin G (IgG) sero-dynamics (IsD) curves to aid epitope discovery (IsDAED): PCV2 Cap peptides were categorized into three types: null interaction, nonspecific interaction (NSI), and specific interaction (SI). We subsequently compared IsDAED approach and traditional approach, and demonstrated identifying SI peptides and excluding NSI peptides supports efficient diagnostic kit development, specifically using a protein-peptide hybrid microarray (PPHM). IsDAED directed the design of a DIVH protocol for three types of PCV2 vaccines (while using a single PPHM). Finally, the DIVH protocol successfully differentiated infected pigs from vaccinated pigs at five farms. This IsDAED approach is almost certainly extendable to other viruses and host species. IMPORTANCE Sudden outbreaks of pandemics caused by virus, such as SARS-CoV-2, has been determined as a public health emergency of international concern. However, the development of a DIVH-compatible vaccine is time-consuming and full of uncertainty, which is unsuitable for an emergent situation like the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Along with the development and public health implementation of new vaccines to prevent human diseases, e.g., human papillomavirus vaccines for cervical cancer; enterovirus 71 vaccines for hand, foot, and mouth disease; and most recently SARS-CoV-2, there is an increasing demand for DIVH. Here, we use the IsDAED approach to confirm SI peptides and to exclude NSI peptides, finally to direct the design of a DIVH protocol. It is plausible that our IsDAED approach is applicable for other infectious disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Circoviridae , Epitopos , Imunoglobulina G , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19 , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Circovirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/análise , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Peptídeos , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1310-1316, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting seropositivity and antibody levels after SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer because they were excluded from clinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study included 290 patients with solid tumors followed up in our medical oncology clinic between March 2021 and August 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody status was determined before the first dose of vaccine. Fifty-one patients with positive prevaccine baseline antibody tests were excluded from the study, regardless of whether they had previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. To determine the quantitative IgG antibody response of the vaccines, blood samples were collected at least 28 days after each dose of vaccine. Quantitative IgG levels against virus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA). Demographic and clinical features affecting seropositivity were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one (69.3%) patients were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac followed by one dose of BNT162b2 (Biontech) (group 1). Sixty-seven (30.7%) patients were vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2 (group 2). The proportion of patients who developed seropositivity was significantly higher in group 2 (78.6% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.012). Antibody response increased significantly after the second dose of vaccine in both groups. Female sex, being younger than 65 years, and chemotherapy status were significantly related to higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels (p = 0.033, p = 0.036, and p = 0.047, respectively). Antibody levels were significantly higher in patients who had previously received chemotherapy than in patients receiving active chemotherapy (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to evaluate basal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the first dose of vaccine and after three doses in patients with solid tumors. The rate of development of seropositivity with two doses of mRNA vaccine was found to be higher than with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. More attention should be paid to preventive measures in addition to vaccination in patients aged over 65 years and men with cancer diagnoses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
6.
Future Oncol ; 18(23): 2537-2550, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678621

RESUMO

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in cancer patients is crucial to prevent severe COVID-19 disease course. Methods: This study assessed immunogenicity of cancer patients on active treatment receiving mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine by detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibodies in serum, before, after the first and second doses and 3 months after a complete primary course of vaccination. Results were compared with healthy controls. Results: Of 112 patients, the seroconversion rate was 96%. A significant reduction in antibody levels was observed 3 months after vaccination in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors versus control participants (p < 0.001). Adverse events were mostly mild. Conclusion: Immunogenicity after mRNA-based vaccine in cancer patients is adequate but influenced by the type of anticancer therapy. Antibody levels decline after 3 months, and thus a third vaccination is warranted.


Because cancer patients are especially endangered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and have worse disease course and outcomes, it is crucial to protect them from this infection. This study was aimed at assessing protective antibodies after patients received mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Protective antibodies (e.g., anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibodies) were assessed in patients' blood before vaccination, after the first and second doses and 3 months after a complete primary course vaccination. Patients' oncological treatment was unaffected by the vaccination received. The results of protective antibodies were also compared with healthy control subjects who were vaccinated in the same manner. More than 110 cancer patients participated and agreed to have their blood samples analyzed. The rate of antibody production was 96% after a complete primary course of vaccination and was similar with that of healthy control subjects. However, there were some differences noted regarding the oncological treatment that the patients were receiving, with patients who were treated with targeted therapy achieving the highest levels of protective antibodies. Adverse events after vaccination were mostly mild and did not interfere with patients' general performance. The rate of antibody production for cancer patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is high and similar to that in healthy control subjects but varies with regard to the oncological treatment that patients are receiving. However, antibodies decline substantially after 3 months, and thus a third vaccination is desirable. There were no new safety concerns after vaccination, and most adverse events were mild and short-lived.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894700, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734170

RESUMO

The Korean government decided to schedule heterologous vaccinations on dialysis patients for early achievement of immunization against Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). However, the effects of heterologous immunizations in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unclear. One hundred (HD) patients from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital and Kyung Hee Medical Center and 100 hospital workers from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital were enrolled in this study. The HD patients received the mixing schedule of ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 vaccinations at 10-week intervals, while hospital workers received two doses of ChAdOx1 vaccines at 12-week intervals. Serum IgG to a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was measured 1 month after the first dose, 2 months and 4 months after the second dose. The median [interquartile range] anti-RBD IgG was 82.1[34.5, 176.6] AU/ml in HD patients and 197.1[124.0, 346.0] AU/ml in hospital workers (P < 0.001) after the first dose. The percentage of positive responses (IgG > 50 AU/ml) was 65.0% and 96.0% among the both group, respectively (P < 0.001). The anti-RBD IgG levels increased significantly by 2528.8 [1327.6, 5795.1] AU/ml with a 100.0% positive response rate in HD patients 2 months after the second dose, which was higher than those in hospital workers 981.4[581.5, 1891.4] AU/ml (P < 0.001). Moreover, anti-RBD IgG remains constantly high, and positive response remains 100% in HD patients 4 months after the second dose. This study suggests that heterologous vaccinations with ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 can be an alternative solution on HD patients for early and strong induction of humoral response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19 , Falência Renal Crônica , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina BNT162/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759653

RESUMO

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B , COVID-19 , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/administração & dosagem , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação
9.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(3): 236-245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726751

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is the most frequent symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), although it is still poorly understood due to its complexity and subjective nature. There is an urgent need to identify reliable biomarkers to improve disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major environmental risk factor associated with MS aetiology, and trials with EBV-targeted T cell therapies have reduced fatigue severity in MS patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether the serum amount of immunoglobulin (Ig)G-specific for EBV antigens could be a suitable prognostic marker for the assessment of MS-related fatigue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 194 MS patients were enrolled. We quantified EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels and B cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) concentration in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and chronic progressive MS (CPMS), and we analysed their correlation with aspects of fatigue and other clinical disease parameters. RESULTS: A complete EBV seropositivity could be detected in our cohort. After adjusting for confounding variables and covariates, neither EBNA1 nor VCA antibody titres were associated with levels of fatigue, sleepiness, depression, or with any of the clinical values such as expanded disability status scale, lesion count, annual relapse rate, or disease duration. However, patients with RRMS had significantly higher EBNA1 IgG titre than those with CPMS, whereas this was not the case under therapies targeting CD20+ cells. BAFF levels in serum were inversely proportional to anti-EBNA1 IgG. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our results show that EBNA1 IgG titre is not associated with the presence or level of fatigue. Whether the increased EBNA1 titre in RRMS plays a direct role in disease progression, or is only a consequence of excessive B cell activation, remains to be answered in future studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Fadiga , Imunoglobulina G , Esclerose Múltipla , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Fadiga/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679343

RESUMO

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunoglobulina A , Sistema Respiratório , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vírus Vaccinia , Administração Intranasal , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia
11.
Bioanalysis ; 14(9): 581-588, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548877

RESUMO

Aim: To develop a method for the quantitation of effector functionless mouse surrogate IgG1 drug molecules in mouse matrices. Materials & methods: A panel of antibodies that bound specifically to N297G mutation-containing mouse IgG molecules was generated in rats. The panel was screened to identify an antibody that could be used as both the capture and detection reagent in an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Results & conclusion: The quantitative assay developed with the N297G-specific antibody passed acceptance criteria across multiple IgG1 fragment crystallizable (Fc)-containing protein formats and provides accurate quantitation of the total levels of mouse surrogate protein Fc present in in vivo mouse serum samples. These results are useful in understanding drug integrity and the development of precise pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunoglobulina G , Animais , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Testes Imunológicos , Camundongos , Ratos , Soro
12.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 54(4): 556-564, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607955

RESUMO

Age has been found to be one of the main risk factors for the severity and outcome of COVID-19. However, differences in SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody responses among COVID-19 patients of different age groups remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the IgG/IgM responses to 21 SARS-CoV-2 proteins and 197 peptides that fully cover the spike protein against 731 sera collected from 731 COVID-19 patients aged from 1 to We show that there is no overall difference in SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in COVID-19 patients in the 4 age groups. By antibody response landscape maps, we find that the IgG response profiles of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are positively correlated with age. The S protein linear epitope map shows that the immunogenicity of the S-protein peptides is related to peptide sequence, disease severity and age of the COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis indicates that low S1 IgG responses are enriched in patients aged <50 and high S1 IgG responses are enriched in mild COVID-19 patients aged >60. In addition, high responses of non-structural/accessory proteins are enriched in severe COVID-19 patients aged >70. These results suggest the distinct immune response of IgG/IgM to each SARS-CoV-2 protein in patients of different age, which may facilitate a deeper understanding of the immune responses in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19 , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
13.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632710

RESUMO

Serological detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and neutralizing antibodies (Abs) is commonly undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination. However, the relative efficiency of different SARS-CoV-2 Ab detection systems has not been extensively investigated. Here, we evaluated serological test systems in vaccinated Japanese. SARS-CoV-2 N, S, and neutralizing Abs in sera of 375 healthy subjects a mean 253 days after vaccination were assessed. The sensitivity of Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche S) and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S IgG (Fujirebio S) was 100% and 98.9%, respectively, with a specificity of 100% for both. The sensitivity of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Ab (MBL Neu) was 2.7%, and the specificity was 100%. Fujirebio S correlated with Roche S (rho = 0.9182, p = 3.97 × 10-152). Fujirebio S (rho = 0.1295, p = 0.0121) and Roche S (rho = 0.1232, p = 0.0170) correlated weakly with MBL Neu. However, Roche S did correlate with MBL Neu in patients with COVID-19 (rho = 0.8299, p = 1.01 × 10-12) and in healthy subjects more recently after vaccination (mean of 90 days, rho = 0.5306, p = 0.0003). Thus, the Fujirebio S and Roche S results were very similar, but neither correlated with neutralizing antibody titers by MBL Neu at a later time after vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Japão , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
14.
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1440-1444, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. METHODS: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunização Secundária , Transplantados , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Breast Dis ; 41(1): 229-239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in breast cancer has been reported, suggesting a potential association between HCMV infection and breast carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between HCMV infection and immune activation and inflammatory markers in breast cancer. METHODS: HCMV DNA was detected from all patients using real-time PCR, Anti HCMV IgM and IgG antibodies were measured. IL-17 and IL-22 concentrations were detected by ELISA. Assessment of NLR and PLR was done, and cell proliferation was assessed using MTT assay. RESULTS: The results revealed a significantly increased prevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and HCMV DNA in patients compared to both benign and control groups where positive HCMV prevalence was significantly associated with vascular invasion, proliferation rate, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and elevated IL-17 serum level. Furthermore, we demonstrated that increased serum IL-17 in patients was markedly associated with tumor stage, vascular invasion, and high NLR. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that HCMV infection may have vital roles in breast cancer pathogenesis. Moreover, altered peripheral blood cells and cytokines may result in disordered immune response in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/imunologia , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/virologia , Interleucina-17/sangue
16.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0033622, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404082

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first identified human tumor virus, is etiologically associated with various kinds of malignant and benign diseases, accounting for 265,000 cancer incident cases and 164,000 cancer deaths in 2017. EBV prophylactic vaccine development has been gp350 centered for several decades. However, clinical studies show that gp350-centered vaccines fail to prevent EBV infection. Advances in the EBV infection mechanisms shed light on gB and gHgL, the two key components of the infection apparatus. In this study, for the first time, we utilized recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to display EBV gB (VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G) or gHgL (VSV-ΔG-gHgL). In vitro studies confirmed successful virion production and glycoprotein presentation on the virion surface. In mouse models, VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G or VSV-ΔG-gHgL elicited potent humoral responses. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G were prone to prevent B cell infection, while those elicited by VSV-ΔG-gHgL were prone to prevent epithelial cell infection. Combinatorial vaccination yields an additive effect. The ratio of endpoint neutralizing antibody titers to the endpoint total IgG titers immunized with VSV-ΔG-gHgL was approximately 1. The ratio of IgG1/IgG2a after VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G immunization was approximately 1 in a dose-dependent, adjuvant-independent manner. Taken together, VSV-based EBV vaccines can elicit a high ratio of epithelial and B lymphocyte neutralizing antibodies, implying their unique potential as EBV prophylactic vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one of the most common human viruses and the first identified human oncogenic virus, accounted for 265,000 cancer incident cases and 164,000 cancer deaths in 2017 as well as millions of nonmalignant disease cases. So far, no prophylactic vaccine is available to prevent EBV infection. In this study, for the first time, we reported the VSV-based EBV vaccines presenting two key components of the EBV infection apparatus, gB and gHgL. We confirmed potent antigen-specific antibody generation; these antibodies prevented EBV from infecting epithelial cells and B cells, and the IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicated balanced humoral-cellular responses. Taken together, we suggest VSV-based EBV vaccines are potent prophylactic candidates for clinical studies and help eradicate numerous EBV-associated malignant and benign diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Vesiculovirus , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Vesiculovirus/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
17.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 329-333, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385939

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize changes of serum immunoglobulin levels before and after chemotherapy in children with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), so as to investigate the effects of chemotherapy and rituximab on serum immunoglobulin levels in children with BL. Methods: Clinical data of 223 children with newly diagnosed Burkitt lymphoma at Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2009 to April 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. They were treated according to the modified LMB 89 regimen and some of them received combined rituximab therapy during the chemotherapy. The serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG) before chemotherapy, at the time of discontinuing chemotherapy, as well as 6, 12, 24, 36 months after chemotherapy were collected. Changes of serum IgA, IgM and IgG with time among different treatment groups were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: According to risk group, 223 children were devided into group B(n=53)and group C(n=170). Before chemotherapy, 109 cases (48.9%) were combined with hypogammaglobulinemia. The serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels of all the patients were (0.9±0.7), 1.2 (0.5, 1.3) and (7.2±2.9) g/L before chemotherapy, (0.5±0.4), 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) and (6.3±2.3) g/L at the time of discontinuing chemotherapy (t=13.63, Z=-11.99, t=4.57, all P<0.05). There were statistical difference in IgA, IgM levels of group B and IgA, IgM, IgG levels of group C before chemotherapy and at the time of discontinuing chemotherapy (t=8.86, Z=-6.28, t=11.19, Z=-10.15, t=4.50, all P<0.05). The differences of serum IgA and IgG levels at the time after chemotherapy among patients treated with chemotherapy alone and those treated with chemotherapy combined rituximab in group B and C were significant (F=5.38, P=0.002 and F=4.22, P=0.007). Conclusions: Approximately half of children with BL have already existed hypogammaglobulinemia at initial diagnosis prior to the start of treatment. The modified LMB 89 regimen have significant effect on humoral immunity of children with BL. In the process of immune reconstruction after chemotherapy, rituximab has more significant effect on serum IgA and IgG levels in BL patients.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia , Linfoma de Burkitt , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
18.
Cytokine ; 154: 155874, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397248

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected and killed millions of people, but little is known about the risk factors that lead to the development of severe, mild or asymptomatic conditions after infection. The individual immune response and the balance of cytokines and chemokines have been shown to be important for the prognosis of patients. Additionally, it is essential to understand how the production of specific antibodies with viral neutralizing capacity is established. In this context, this study aimed to identify positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 in a large population of blood donors (n = 7837) to establish their immune response profile and to evaluate its viral neutralization capacity. The prevalence found for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 5.6% (n = 441), with male blood donors (61.9%) being more prevalent among the positive ones. The results showed that positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 have high serum concentrations of chemokines, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10. The analyses showed that the positivity index for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, which, in turn, is significantly related to lower serum concentrations of CCL5 and CXCL10. The results allow us to hypothesize that the development and maintenance of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected individuals occurs in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment well regulated by IL-10 with great capacity for recruiting cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Quimiocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama , Interleucina-10 , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
19.
BMC Urol ; 22(1): 35, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and tumefactive lesions that can involve nearly every organ system. Involvement of the prostate is rare but has been reported in limited cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old man of Asian descent with a history of sinusitis and priapism presented to hospital with rigors and voiding symptoms. He was diagnosed with IgG4-RD one month prior to presentation, following pathological analysis of a submandibular mass that demonstrated chronic sclerosing sialadenitis. On presentation, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and prostate serum antigen levels were all within normal limits. Examination was notable for a large, firm prostate, and a foley catheter was inserted. Contrast CT of the abdomen was unremarkable. Further workup revealed elevated serum IgG4 levels (9.22 g/L) and he was subsequently started on prednisone 35 mg daily. Imaging to screen for systemic IgG4-RD involvement demonstrated paravertebral soft tissue involvement and he was given rituximab 1000 mg IV × 2 doses. MRI revealed diffuse prostatitis. Five days after starting prednisone and one day after his first dose of rituximab, he successfully passed trial of void and was discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: IgG4-related prostatitis is a rare and underrecognized manifestation of IgG4-RD. Our case highlights the need to consider IgG4-related prostatitis as an etiology of urinary obstruction in young individuals. Resolution of symptoms following treatment with steroids may be diagnostic of IgG4-related prostatitis, and may potentially avoid the need for invasive diagnostic procedures such as prostate biopsy.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Prostatite/complicações , Prostatite/diagnóstico , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Priapismo/etiologia , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Prostatite/imunologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Urinários/tratamento farmacológico , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico
20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263679, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reported cases of COVID-19 may be underestimated due to mild or asymptomatic cases and a low testing rate in the general population. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population and how it compares with the data on SARS-CoV-2 cases reported by a national health surveillance system (SNVS 2.0). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a population-based, seroepidemiological, cross-sectional study in the city of Puerto Madryn, a middle size city in the Province of Chubut, Argentina. The study period was between March 3 and April 17, 2021. The sample size was calculated using the technique of calculation of confidence intervals for a proportion. Participants were selected using stratified and cluster probability sampling. A total of 1405 subjects were invited to participate in the study. Participants were divided into the following four age groups: 1) 0 to 14, 2) 15 to 39, 3) 40 to 64, and 4) 65 or older. After informed consent was obtained, a blood sample was taken by puncture of the fingertip, and a structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate demographics, socioeconomic status, level of education, comorbidities and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 seroprevalence was documented using an immunoenzymatic test for the in vitro detection of IgG antibodies specific to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 987 participants completed the survey. Seropositivity in the full study population was 39,2% and in those under 15 years of age, 47.1%. Cases reported by the SNSV 2.0 amounted to 9.35% of the total population and 1.4% of those under 15 years of age. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in the general population is four times higher than the number of cases reported by the SNVS 2.0 in the city of Puerto Madryn. For each child under the age of 15 identified by the SNVS 2.0 with COVID-19, there are more than 30 unrecognized infections. Seroepidemiological studies are important to define the real extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a particular community. Children may play a significant role in the progression of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
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