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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 427-430, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the serum anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province. METHODS: A total of 1 932 patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract were enrolled in Hainan Province from 2016 to 2019, including 376 esophageal cancer patients, 475 gastric cancer patients, 401 colorectal cancer patients, 427 hepatic cancer patients and 253 pancreatic cancer patients, and 400 healthy people served as controls. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies specific to T. gondii were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the seroprevalence was compared. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was significantly greater in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract than in healthy controls (19.82% vs. 3.75%; χ2 = 60.49, P < 0.01), and no significant difference was seen in the overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract and healthy controls (1.09% vs. 0.50%; χ2 = 1.17, P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was 15.16%, 19.58%, 21.70%, 23.65% and 17.79% in patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer and pancreatic cancer, which was all significantly greater than in healthy controls ( χ2 = 29.97, 50.29, 58.03, 67.85 and 36.59; all P < 0.01); however, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in patients with esophageal cancer (1.06%), gastric cancer (1.47%), colorectal cancer (0.75%), hepatic cancer (1.17%) and pancreatic cancer (0.79%) did not differ from that in healthy controls ( χ2 = 0.80, 2.02, 0.20, 1.11 and 0.21; all P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among various types of malignant tumors of the digestive tract ( χ2 = 10.65, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody ( χ2 = 1.33, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province, and there is a significant difference in the seroprevalence in terms of the cancer type. It is suggested that the screening for T. gondii infections should be intensified in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract to effective prevent and control the damages to patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract caused by T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Neoplasias , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 651, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa. RESULTS: The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence data suggests that Africa, as a whole, should not be considered as a high HAV endemic region; 2) the IgM anti-HAV seroprevalence data showed similar risk of acute hepatitis A infection among all age-groups; 3) South Africa could be experiencing a possible transition from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The results of this review should be interpreted with caution as the reported data represents research work with significant sociocultural, economic and environmental diversity from 13 out of 54 African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that priority should be given to collecting HAV seroprevalence data and re-assessing the current hepatitis A control strategies in Africa to prevent future disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A/mortalidade , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4723-4739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308655

RESUMO

Background: Much consideration has been paid to the toxicological assessment of nanoparticles prior to clinical and biological applications. While in vitro studies have been expanding continually, in vivo investigations of nanoparticles have not developed a cohesive structure. This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of different concentrations of chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs) in main organs, including liver, kidneys, and spleen. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n=7). Group 1 was kept as a negative control group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated intraperitoneally with Ch-AgNPs each day for 14 days at doses of 50, 25, and 10 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed as well as oxidative stress evaluations, and specific functional examinations for each organ were elucidated. Results: It was revealed that Ch-AgNPs induced dose-dependent toxicity, and the repeated dosing of rats with 50 mg/kg Ch-AgNPs induced severe toxicities. Histopathological examination showed congestion, hemorrhage, cellular degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic and renal tissue as well as lymphocytic depletion with increasing tangible macrophages in the spleen. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (MDA, ALT, AST) and the lowest levels of reduced glutathione, immunoglobulin G, M and total protein (GSH, IgG, IgM, TP) were observed in this group. On the other hand, repeated dosing with 25 mg/kg induced mild to moderate disturbance in the previous parameters, while there was no significant difference in results of pathological examination and biochemical tests between the control group and those treated with 10 mg/kg bwt Ch-AgNPs. Conclusion: Chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rats.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 581, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting one-third of the world population. Psychiatric patients have a higher risk of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection due to lack of good personal hygiene. The burden of toxoplasmosis among psychiatric patients in Ethiopia has not been studied extensively. Thus, the study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among psychiatric outpatients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital Psychiatric clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital from February to May 2018. Venous blood was collected from 304 study participants (152 psychiatric outpatients and 152 control groups). Anti-toxoplasma antibodies were determined using Onsite Toxo immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) Rapid Test. A Chi-square test was carried out to compare the two groups and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to check the association between variables. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: The seroprevalence rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was 33.6, and 16.4% in the psychiatric outpatients and the control samples, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM sero-prevalence was 1.3% in the former patients and 3.9% in the latter group. Owing cat (AOR = 2.862 95% CI = 1.445-5.666 P = 0.003), cleaning cat excreta (AOR = 2.966 95% CI = 1.317-2.652 P = 0.007), and farming (AOR = 2.058 95% CI = 1.018-4.163 P = 0.045) were found to be significantly associated with the sero-prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was significantly higher in psychiatric outpatients than the control group (p = 0.001). Cat ownership, cleaning of cat excreta, and farming were found to be statistically significantly associated with the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303921

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite availability of an effective vaccine, the measles epidemic continue to occur in Nigeria. In February 2015, we investigated a suspected measles outbreak in an urban slum in Rigasa, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was to confirm the outbreak, determine the risk factors and implement appropriate control measures. Methods: We identified cases through active search and health record review. We conducted an unmatched case-control (1:1) study involving 75 under-5 cases who were randomly sampled, and 75 neighborhood controls. We interviewed caregivers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and vaccination status of children. We collected 15 blood samples for measles IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed using Epi-info software. Confidence interval was set at 95%. Results: We recorded 159 cases with two deaths {case fatality rate = 1.3%}. 50.3% (80) of the cases were male. Of the 15 serum samples, 11(73.3%) were confirmed IgM positive for measles. Compared to the controls, the cases were more likely to have had no or incomplete routine immunization (RI) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)]: 28.3 (2.1, 392.0), contact with measles cases [AOR (95% CI)]: 7.5 (2.9, 19.7), and having a caregiver younger than 20 years [AOR (95% CI)]: 5.2 (1.2, 22.5). Measles serum IgM was positive in 11 samples. Conclusion: We identified low RI uptake and contact with measles cases as predictors of measles outbreak in Rigasa, Kaduna State. We recommended strengthening of RI and education of care-givers' on completing RI schedule.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307670

RESUMO

Protec™ is a commercial aquafeed (Skretting Italia) containing a combination of glucans, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc (immune support pack). No research information concerning its capability to improve fish immune response is available, so in this study the potential immunomodulatory effects of Protec™ were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Head kidney (HK) leukocytes from adult fish (100 g, n = 6) were in vitro incubated with Protec™ immune support pack resulting in significantly higher respiratory burst activity and proliferation. Specifically, sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (160 µg/ml) induced a respiratory burst response similar to that promoted by zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while non-sonicated Protec™ immune support pack induced a response comparable to that of cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Moreover, the proliferation of leukocytes exposed to sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (20 µg/ml) was significantly higher than that of cells stimulated with zymosan, and it was comparable to the proliferation of cells stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and LPS. Afterwards, a feeding trial was performed in a rainbow trout farm. Two groups of juvenile rainbow trout (10 g) were acclimated for 7 weeks before the experiment and fed daily with a commercial control diet (Optiline HE, Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day. At the end of acclimation, one group of fish was fed with Protec™ diet (Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day whereas the other group continued to feed the control diet at the same level for further 4 weeks. Then, fish were sampled (HK leukocytes from n = 6 fish/group, serum from n = 12 fish/group) or intraperitoneally vaccinated against lactococcosis (n = 160/dietary group/time point). Fish fed the same diets for further 4 weeks after vaccination, then feeding returned to the control diet in both groups until the end of the trial. The specific antibody response was recorded at 4 and 8 weeks after vaccination (n = 12 fish/group). The administration of Protec™ significantly enhanced the respiratory burst activity of leukocytes and the synthesis of specific IgM against Lactococcus garvieae, whereas the serum lysozyme activity was unaffected. The present research suggests that the administration of Protec™ can improve both innate and adaptive immune response of rainbow trout, proving to be an interesting strategy for enhancing the immune reactivity of fish to vaccines.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Lactococcus , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Leucócitos/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Explosão Respiratória
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291383

RESUMO

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Malária Vivax/sangue , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(5): e12809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322747

RESUMO

We evaluated 18 DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) patients and aimed to investigate the immunological changes in this population. DGS patients with low naive CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells were defined as high-risk (HR) patients, whereas patients with normal numbers of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were defined as standard risk (SR) patients. Level of serum IgM, CD3+ T cell counts and percentages of class-switched memory B cells were significantly low in HR group compared to SR ones. Severe infections and persistent hypoparathyroidism were detected significantly higher in HR group. Patients with reduced percentages of class-switched B cells had earlier onset of infection, lower blood IgM, lower CD4+ and CD8+ T counts than patients with normal class-switched memory B cells. Decreased levels of IgM were associated with low numbers of naive CD4+ and recent thymic emigrants T cells. Monitoring the immune changes of patients with DGS would be useful to predict the severe phenotype of disease.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino
11.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(6): 608-616, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238860

RESUMO

The repertoire of antiglycan antibodies of peripheral blood was studied using a microarray containing 487 glycan antigens: fragments of mammalian glycans (N- and O-chains of glycoproteins, as well as glycolipids) and also bacterial polysaccharides. The sera samples correspond to the third, sixth, and twelfth months of life. The infants were divided into four groups according to their nutrition type: breast milk, standard formula, and partially or extensively hydrolyzed formula. During the first year of life, the total amount of IgG decreased; presumably, the lifetime of maternal IgG in the newborns' bloodstream is much greater than is generally assumed. At the same time, the IgM content was low during the first six months and increased significantly by the twelfth month. The antiglycan IgM repertoire of one-year-old infants was still different from that of their mothers, as well as from the repertoire of unrelated donors, in particular, by the absence of antibodies against the Galß1-3GlcNAc (LeC) disaccharide, which is found in almost all healthy humans. It is noteworthy that the level of IgM of breast-fed infants was significantly lower than that of formula-fed by the twelfth month.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Mães
12.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(4): e12798, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179555

RESUMO

CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency is a rare but life-threatening primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CD40L gene. Here, we investigated a cohort of 40 genetically diagnosed CD40L-deficient patients from the Chinese mainland, analysed their clinical and genetic data, and examined CD40L expression, the proportion of T cell subsets, B cell subsets and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. The aim was to provide a complete picture of CD40L deficiency. Initial presentations of the patient cohort mainly involved recurrent fever (47.5%) and sinopulmonary infection (42.5%). Life-threatening infections (42.5%), caused by various pathogens, were the most serious threats faced by CD40L-deficient patients, while neutropenia (57.5%) remained the most common complication. Opportunistic infections, including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and invasive fungal disease associated with Talaromyces marneffei, were also common in the cohort. In addition, seven patients (17.5%) suffered BCGitis/BCGosis, which is a major problem facing a planned immunization programme in China. It was intriguing that reduced IgM levels were observed in 12.5% of patients, while normal or elevated IgA levels were shown in 47.5% of patients. Thirty-seven unique mutations were identified in 40 patients; of these, 10 were novel. Furthermore, we observed a lower percentage of NK cells, Tfh cells, and central memory CD4+ T cells, and an extremely small class-switched memory B cell population, in CD40L-deficient patients. Patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation experienced better disease remission. Taken together, our data establish the largest database about CD40L deficiency in China and provide genetic, immunologic and clinical information about Chinese CD40L-deficient patients.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/imunologia , Pneumocystis carinii/fisiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Talaromyces/fisiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Febre , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Memória Imunológica , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/genética , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e30, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241659

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii can cross the placental barrier, causing fetal infection with potentially severe sequelae. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serological screening for toxoplasmosis should be included in the basic neonatal heel prick test in order to establish criteria for the confirmation and/or exclusion of the diagnosis of congenital infection in newborns treated at three public health units in the metropolitan region of Goiania, Goias State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from newborns and later, peripheral blood samples from the mothers and their respective children were obtained to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of suspected congenital infection, by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM and IgG) and a polymerase chain reaction assay. From a total of 1,159 blood samples collected on filter paper, 43.92% were reactive to IgG and 0.17% to anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG. One hundred and twenty-seven paired samples (mother and child) were collected following consensual protocols for peripheral blood collection. Results obtained from the filter paper and peripheral blood of the newborns were 90.55% concordant. A comparison of the mother and child blood test results showed agreement regarding the detection of IgG in 90.48% of the samples. The parasite DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of one child. In view of the results obtained in this study, the inclusion of the serological screening for toxoplasmosis in the newborn heel prick test proved to be effective for the early detection of congenital T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Toxoplasma/microbiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/sangue , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Feminino , Doenças Fetais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Congênita/genética
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 61-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213273

RESUMO

Anti-phage activity of serum is of importance in repeated phage therapy. Higher serum anti-phage activity has been associated with greater susceptibility of phages to neutralisation and phage therapy failure. In this study, in vivo and in vitro survivability and immunogenicity of four coliphages (TM1, TM2, TM3 and TM4) were investigated in naive chickens and chickens pre-immunised with phage TM1. Furthermore, two phages that displayed different survivability and immunogenicity (TM1 and TM3) were compared with respect to their efficacy in treating naive or pre-immunised (TM1) chickens suffering from colibacillosis. The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated based on body weight, relative organ weights, mortality, E. coli counts in the lungs as well as severity and frequency of internal organ lesions. At the end of the experiment, both naive and pre-immunised chickens treated with TM3 showed significantly lower mortality and higher body weights than untreated chickens and those treated with TM1. The same trend was observed in incidence and severity of organ lesions as well as relative spleen weight. However, naive chickens treated with TM1 also showed a shortened inflammation period as indicated by spleen weights. E. coli counts in the lungs of chicken treated with TM3 were lower than those of chickens treated with TM1 on days 3 and 10 post challenge. These data indicate that the outcome of phage therapy and the impact of serum anti-phage activity are highly phage-type dependent in broilers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Colífagos/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Terapia por Fagos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Inflamação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Soro , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 476, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly identified severe infectious disease caused by SFTS phlebovirus (SFTSV). SFTS monitoring has been carried out since 2010 in mainland China. We analysed the detection results of SFTSV RNA and antibody in SFTS surveillance cases to provide basic data for SFTS diagnosis. METHODS: This study was conducted in Shandong Province. Sera of SFTS surveillance cases were collected to detect SFTSV RNA and antibody by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Detection rates were calculated. SPSS 18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis to compare the detection rates of SFTSV RNA and antibodies among different sera groups. RESULTS: A total of 374 SFTS surveillance cases were enrolled. Overall, 93.3% (349/374) of the sera samples were collected within 2 weeks after onset, and 6.7% (25/374) were collected between 15 days and 45 days. Of these, 183 (48.9%) were positive for SFTSV RNA. The SFTSV RNA-positive rate peaked (52.2%) in samples collected ≤7 days after onset and then showed a decreasing trend. The detection rate of SFTSV-specific IgM antibody was 30.5% (46/151) and was highest in samples collected between 8 and 14 days (43.3%, 26/60). The positive rate of SFTSV-specific IgG antibody (17.9%, 27/151) showed an increasing trend with the specimen collection time. In total, 74.8% (113/151) of sera samples had the same SFTSV RNA and IgM antibody detection results. However, 23.2% (29/125) of SFTSV RNA-negative cases were IgM antibody-positive, and 8.6% (9/105) of IgM antibody-negative cases were SFTSV RNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: SFTSV RNA detection was preferred for SFTSV infection during disease surveillance. For highly suspected SFTS cases, IgM antibody is suggested to make a comprehensive judgement.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , RNA Viral/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/virologia
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(4)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036740

RESUMO

A 52-year-old man presented with chronic urticaria that was refractory to standard chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) treatment. Over time, he developed systemic symptoms including fatigue, weight loss, arthralgia and bone pain. His laboratory investigations also became significant for microcytic anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and IgE levels, in addition to an IgM monoclonal protein. He achieved only partial remission with typical medications for CSU including omalizumab, cyclosporine and cetirizine. After 6 years, his worsening symptoms and abnormal investigations led to a rare diagnosis of Schnitzler's syndrome and a trial of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, which caused a rapid and complete resolution of his symptoms.


Assuntos
Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Schnitzler/diagnóstico , Urticária/etiologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Injeções Subcutâneas , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Raras , Síndrome de Schnitzler/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Schnitzler/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/patologia
17.
Analyst ; 144(11): 3613-3619, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070614

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation and one of the main causes of chronic disability worldwide with high prevalence in the ageing population. RA is characterized by autoantibody production, synovial inflammation and bone destruction, and the most accepted biomarker is rheumatoid factor (RF) autoantibodies. In this work, we developed a low-cost approach for the detection and quantification of the RF marker. This colorimetric immunosensor is based on gold nanoprobe crosslinking that results in extensive aggregation in the presence of the pentameric IgM RF. Aggregation of the nanoconjugates yields a color change from red to purple that can be easily observed by the naked eye. The interaction between nanoconjugates and the specific target was confirmed via dynamic light scattering (DLS), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. This conceptual system shows a LOD of 4.15 UA mL-1 IgM RF (clinical threshold is set for 20 IU mL-1). The one-step biosensor strategy herein proposed is much faster than conventional detection techniques, without the need for secondary antibodies, additional complex washing or signal amplification protocols. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on target induced aggregation of gold nanoprobes for quantitative colorimetric autoantibody detection.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Ouro/química , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Limite de Detecção , Tamanho da Partícula , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia
18.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 990-997, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085486

RESUMO

In the present study, to assess the immunotoxicity of cypermethrin (CYP) in fish, Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.15, 0.5, and 1.5 µg/L) of CYP for 28 d and subjected to pathogen challenge trials for 2 d. After 28 d of CYP exposure, the levels of Immunoglobulin M (IgM), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after treatment with 1.5 µg/L CYP. Moreover, an induction of inflammatory cytokine transcripts (tnfa, il-6, il-8, and il-12) was observed (p < 0.05) after treatment with 1.5 µg/L CYP. After challenge with Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens), plasma lysozyme (LYS) activity at 24 and 48 hours post-injection (hpi) was significantly decreased in the 0.5 and 1.5 µg/L CYP treatment groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, liver Complement component 3 (C3) and CRP contents at 24 hpi were significantly decreased in the 1.5 µg/L CYP treatment group (p < 0.05), whereas significant decreases in liver C3 and IgM contents were observed at 48 hpi (p < 0.05). Inhibition of expression of Toll-like receptor-nuclear factor kappa B (TLR-NF-kB) signaling pathway-related genes was observed in the CYP treatment groups and resulted in significant down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines (il-1ß and il-12) in the 1.5 µg/L CYP treatment group at 48 hpi (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the mortality in the 0.5 and 1.5 µg/L CYP treatments was significantly increased at 48 hpi (p < 0.05). These results indicated that environmentally relevant concentrations of CYP suppressed the Chinese rare minnow immune system and reduced immune defense against bacterial infection, thereby causing subsequent mortality. Meanwhile, our results demonstrated that a subsequent host resistance challenge is an effective method for determining the immunotoxicity of chemicals (e.g., CYP).


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas fluorescens/imunologia , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(4): 367-377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081465

RESUMO

The risk of exposure of slaughterhouse workers to Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus-infected animals in Nigeria was assessed by determining the prevalence of anti-RVF IgM in cattle, goats and sheep slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 290 animals in Bodija Municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Nigeria in January and February 2017 and analyzed for the presence of RVF virus using IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of the virus RNA. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data. Overall, an IgM prevalence of 0.7% (2/290) was found among the blood samples of the animals, suggesting recent exposure to the virus. Antibody was detected in the sera from a cow and one goat. RVF virus RNA was not detected in the 2 IgM positive blood samples. There was no statistically significant relationship between RVF IgM infection and some variables of the animals, including age, sex and breed (p ≥ 0.05). Results of this study indicate active RVF virus transmission in domestic livestock in Nigeria. The study emphasizes the need to embark on monitoring of human and animal populations to prevent outbreak of the virus in the country.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Cabras , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Nigéria , Febre do Vale de Rift/imunologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/imunologia , Ovinos
20.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1793-1803, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079211

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that immunostimulatory complexes containing Quil-A saponin and various antigens are effective in stimulating the immune response and can be used as vaccine preparations for animals and humans. However, Quil-A saponin possesses toxicity and haemolytic activity. In the present work, a saponin-containing preparation named "Glabilox" was isolated from the roots of a Glycyrrhiza glabra L. plant by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that Glabilox has no toxicity or haemolytic activity and can form stable immunostimulatory complexes. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with an immunostimulating complex containing Glabilox and H7N1 influenza virus antigens stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immunity. Vaccination of chickens with the same immunostimulating complex protected 100% of the animals after experimental infection with a homologous virus. Comparative studies showed that the immunogenic and protective activity of immunostimulatory complexes containing Quil-A and immunostimulatory complexes containing Glabilox are comparable to each other. The results of these studies indicated that Glycyrrhiza glabra saponins show great promise as safe and effective adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glycyrrhiza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Cães , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Lipídeos/imunologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Raízes de Plantas/imunologia , Saponinas de Quilaia/imunologia , Saponinas/imunologia , Vacinação
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