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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411315

RESUMO

The term inflammaging is now widely used to designate the inflammatory process of natural aging. During this process, cytokine balance is altered, presumably due to the loss of homeostasis, thus contributing to a greater predisposition to disease and exacerbation of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between pro-inflammatory markers and age in the natural aging process of healthy individuals. One hundred and ten subjects were divided into 5 groups according to age (22 subjects/group). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were quantified using the ELISA method. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was analyzed by turbidimetry according to laboratory procedures. The main findings of this study were: a positive correlation between hsCRP and IL-6 as a function of age (110 subjects); women showed stronger correlations; the 51-60 age group had the highest values for hsCRP and IL-6; women presented higher values for hsCRP in the 51-60 age group and higher values for IL-6 in the 61-70 age group; and men showed higher values in the 51-60 age group for hsCRP and IL-6. In conclusion, the natural aging process increased IL-6 and hsCRP levels, which is consistent with the inflammaging theory; however, women presented stronger correlations compared to men (IL-6 and hsCRP) and the 51-60 age range seems to be a key point for these increases. These findings are important because they indicate that early preventive measures may minimize the increase in these inflammatory markers in natural human aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(4): 480-488, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924317

RESUMO

Frailty is highly prevalent in old age and confers an important mortality risk. Although the causes of frailty are multiple, immunosenescence (IS)-predominantly driven by cytomegalovirus (CMV)-has been implicated in its pathophysiology. Thus far, research examining the association between IS and frailty states is sparse and equivocal. On the other hand, evidence is mounting in support of the view that frailty can be reversed, especially for those in the pre-frail stage. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the impact of CMV on IS and its relevance to pre-frailty. One hundred seventy-three persons aged 80 to 99 years were enrolled. Pre-frailty was defined according to Fried's criteria. Anti-CMV IgG and serum IL-6 were measured using Architect iSystem and Luminex, respectively. T-cell phenotypes were determined using flow cytometry. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 52.6%, increased with age (p = .001), and was greater in men than women (p = .044). No relationship was found between pre-frailty and positive CMV serology. Further, CMV-seropositivity was significantly associated with less naïve cells, more memory and senescence-prone phenotypes (all p < .001). After adjusting for potential confounders, only IL-6, age and sex were predictive of pre-frailty. We conclude that the presence of pre-frailty is independent from CMV infection in very old subjects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Fragilidade/etiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prevalência
3.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(4): 537-545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910544

RESUMO

In most developed countries, ageing of the population started more than a century ago and it seems to be emerged in a wide range of developing countries as well. Moreover, research into ageing has moved forward in extremely rapidly rhythms nowadays, and the scientific area is of great interest, as implications for nearly all sectors of society, including work, social, economic features, in addition to nutrition and health issues which are involved. The fragile elder population is affected and experienced more frequently infections than the younger population. Infections in elderly patients are of major medical importance because of hormonal changes, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, abnormalities of the telomeres which could cause a dysfunction of the immune system called immunosenescence and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Idoso , Autoimunidade , Tratamento Farmacológico , Hormônios/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Inflamação , Probióticos , Telômero/fisiologia
4.
Rev Med Interne ; 40(2): 105-111, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041817

RESUMO

Major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age results in a continuous improvement in life expectancy. However, understanding the underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging remains a priority in order to propose adapted care for the older population. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, and is associated with pro-inflammatory environment. In another hand, stressful events (acute or chronic) can also impact the immune system through the secretion of hormones, which are also altered with aging. Blooming evidences from psychoneuroimmunology field suggest that, in acute medical conditions, elderly people are not equal in their responses to stressors depending on many extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. These factors could interfere with elderly's ability to mount an effective immune response. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the literature (from fundamental to clinical observations) to draw a global picture of immunosenescence. Understanding this process could enable us to target fundamental age-related pathways and thus open new avenues in improving both lifespan and health span.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Longevidade/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
5.
Biogerontology ; 20(1): 49-69, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255225

RESUMO

Aging is associated with a chronic oxidative stress (increase of oxidants and decrease of antioxidants), which contributes to immunosenescence and therefore shorter longevity. Nevertheless, a positive social network has been related to the adequate maintenance of health and deceleration of aging. Adult prematurely aging mice (PAM) are characterized by their inadequate stress response to a T-maze, showing premature immunosenescence and oxidative stress establishment. These impairments contribute to shorter life spans in comparison to exceptional non-PAM (ENPAM). However, it is not known whether these characteristics of PAM could be prevented by a positive cohabitation. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine if the premature immunosenescence and oxidative stress shown by PAM could be avoided by the cohabitation with ENPAM, increasing their life span. Female CD1 PAM and ENPAM were divided into three experimental groups: PAM controls, ENPAM controls and a social environment experimental group, containing in the same cage ENPAM and PAM (proportion 5/2, respectively). After 2 months, mice were sacrificed and spleen, thymus, liver and heart removed. Later, several immune functions as well as oxidative stress parameters were assessed in spleen and thymus leukocytes. Also, several oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in liver and heart. The results showed that PAM, after co-housing with ENPAM, had improved immune functions and redox balance in spleen and thymus leukocytes. This improvement of redox state was also observed in liver and heart. Furthermore, all these positive effects seem to be related to the increased life span of PAM.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Longevidade/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Meio Social , Senilidade Prematura/imunologia , Senilidade Prematura/prevenção & controle , Senilidade Prematura/psicologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução
6.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 218(8): 426-434, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176236

RESUMO

La mejora de las condiciones de vida y los avances de la medicina han prolongado la esperanza y la calidad de vida, de tal forma que cada vez es mayor el número de viajeros de avanzada edad. Los cambios fisiopatológicos o los tratamientos pueden reducir la eficacia de las vacunas o facilitar interacciones medicamentosas. El viajero mayor presenta una serie de particularidades que se deben tener en cuenta a la hora de ofrecer un buen consejo pre-viaje. Esto debe incluir un correcto manejo de sus enfermedades crónicas susceptibles de agravarse durante el viaje, así como un adecuado estudio y seguimiento después del mismo. Se ha realizado una revisión narrativa de los principales problemas del viajero mayor


Improved living conditions and advances in medicine have extended life expectancy and quality of life, resulting in an increasing number of elderly travellers. Pathophysiological changes and treatments can reduce the efficacy of vaccines and facilitate drug interactions. Elderly travellers have various characteristics that should be considered when offering pre-trip counselling, which should include proper management of chronic diseases that are susceptible to worsening during the trip, as well as an appropriate study and follow-up after the trip. We performed a narrative review of the main problems of elderly travellers


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Saúde do Viajante , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Vacinação
7.
Ageing Res Rev ; 48: 1-10, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248408

RESUMO

A chronic low-grade inflammation is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. This gradually augmenting inflammatory state has been termed inflammaging. Inflammaging is associated with increased myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. This myelopoiesis-biased process increases the generation not only of mature myeloid cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, but also immature myeloid progenitors and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). It is known that the aging process is associated with a significant increase in the presence of MDSCs in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes. Consequently, MDSCs will become recruited into inflamed tissues where they suppress acute inflammatory responses and trigger the resolution of inflammation. However, if the perpetrator cannot be eliminated, the long-term presence of MDSCs suppresses the host's immune defence and increases the susceptibility to infections and tumorigenesis. Chronic immunosuppression also impairs the clearance of waste products and dead cells, impairs energy metabolism, and disturbs tissue proteostasis. This immunosuppressive state is reminiscent of the immunosenescence observed in inflammaging. It seems that proinflammatory changes in tissues with aging stimulate the myelopoietic production of MDSCs which subsequently induces immunosenescence and maintains the chronic inflammaging process. We will briefly describe the functions of MDSCs and then examine in detail how inflammaging enhances the generation MDSCs and how MDSCs are involved in the control of immunosenescence occurring in inflammaging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 546-549, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935942

RESUMO

Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated biological aging, immune dysfunction, and premature morbidity and mortality. Changes in the relative proportions of T cell subpopulations are thought to be a characteristic of immunological aging; however, understanding of whether these changes are associated with chronic psychological stress is incomplete. This study investigated associations between chronic caregiving stress and distributions of T cell phenotypes in a sample of high stress mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (caregivers; n = 91) and low stress mothers of neurotypical children (controls; n = 88). Immune markers assessed were naïve (CD45RA + CD62L+), central memory (CD45RA-CD62L+), and effector memory (CD45RA-CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We also examined the ratio of effector to naïve (E:N) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and antidepressant use, caregivers displayed higher percentages of effector memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as lower percentages of naïve CD8+ T cells and central memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells compared to controls. Caregivers also displayed significantly higher E:N ratios for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings were also independent of cytomegalovirus infection status. Furthermore, higher parental stress, across both groups, was related to several immune parameters. These findings provide preliminary evidence that chronic parental caregiving stress is associated with changes in relative proportions of T cell subpopulations that are consistent with accelerated immunological aging.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Selectina L/análise , Selectina L/sangue , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/análise , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia
9.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 73(12): 1643-1650, 2018 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878083

RESUMO

Older adults suffer a disproportionate burden of influenza-related morbidity and mortality typically attributed to defects in the aging immune system collectively known as immunosenescence. While the age-related decline in the adaptive immune system has been well characterized, little is known about how aging affects the principal site of influenza infection-the nasal epithelium. In human nasal epithelial cell cultures (hNECs) from older adults, we found similar or increased levels of cytokines during influenza infection compared with hNECs from younger individuals. However, hNECs from older individuals demonstrated decreased mRNA expression for several key proteins that affect clearance of infected cells, including MHC-I and transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). These findings were confirmed at the level of protein expression. In vivo studies corroborated the in vitro differences in MHC-I and TAP gene expression and also revealed important decreases in the expression of key influenza-specific antiviral mediators MX1 and IFITM1. Furthermore, epithelial cell-cytotoxic T lymphocyte co-cultures demonstrate that CTL cytotoxic activity is dose-dependent on MHC-I antigen presentation. Taken together, these results indicate that aging is associated with important changes in the nasal epithelium, including antigen presentation and antiviral pathways, which may contribute to increased severity of disease in older adults through impaired clearance of infected cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 6039171, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706800

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by the progressive decline of physiological function and tissue homeostasis leading to increased vulnerability, degeneration, and death. Aging-related changes of the innate and adaptive immune system include decline in the preservation and enhancement of many immune functions, such as changes in the number of circulating monocytic and dendritic cells, thymic involution, T cell polyfunctionality, or production of proinflammatory cytokines, and are defined as immunosenescence. Inflammatory functions are increased with age, causing the chronic low-grade inflammation, referred to as inflamm-aging, that contribute, together with immunosenescence, to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the link between the immune and nervous systems and how the immunosenescence and inflamm-aging can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia
12.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 82: 39-48, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305168

RESUMO

Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging. With increasing age, cotton rats showed reduced frequencies of T cells, impaired induction of antibodies to RSV, higher incidence of aberrations of organs and signs of lipemia. Moreover, old animals expressed high biological heterogeneity, but the age-related reduction of T cell frequency was only observed in those specimens that displayed aberrant organs. Thus, cotton rats show age-related alterations of lymphocytes that can be classified by links with health status.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ratos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios
13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 41: 64-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101043

RESUMO

The human ageing process encompasses mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of the immune response. MS and EAE are frequently characterised by a chronic pathology and a protracted disease course which thereby creates the potential for exposure to the inherent, on-going effects and consequences of ISC. Collective evidence is presented to confirm the occurrence of established and unendorsed biological markers of ISC during the development of both diseases. Moreover, results are discussed from studies during the course of MS and EAE that reveal a premature upregulation of ISC-related biomarkers which indicates untimely alterations to the adaptive immune system. The effects of ISC and a prematurely aged immune system on autoimmune-associated neurodegenerative conditions such as MS and EAE are largely unknown but current evaluation of data justifies and encourages further investigation.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo
14.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 73(6): 720-728, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126143

RESUMO

As in human populations, advances in nutrition and veterinary care have led to an increase in the lifespan of companion animals. Detrimental physiological changes occurring later in life must be understood before interventions can be made to slow or reduce them. One important aspect of human aging is upregulation of the inflammatory response and increase in oxidative damage resulting in pathologies linked to chronic inflammation. To determine whether similar processes occur in the aging dog, changes in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated in 80 Labrador retrievers from adulthood to the end of life. Serum levels of immunoglobulin M (p < .001) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (p < .001) increased with age, whereas no effect of age was detected for immunoglobulin G or C-reactive protein unless the last year of life was included in the analysis (p = .002). Baseline levels of heat shock protein 70 decreased with age (p < .001) while those after exposure to heat stress were maintained (p = .018). However, when excluding final year of life data, a decline in the heat shock protein 70 response after heat stress was observed (p = .004). These findings indicate that aging dogs undergo changes similar to human inflammaging and offer the possibility of nutritional or pharmacological intervention to delay or reduce these effects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/imunologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Nutrients ; 9(12)2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29231875

RESUMO

Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation. In order to test metabolically active bacteria, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system that allows the survival of both obligate anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). The first aim was to optimize the culture medium to enable growth and active metabolism of F. prausnitzii while maintaining the viability and barrier integrity, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), of the Caco-2 cells. This was achieved by supplementing the apical cell culture medium with bacterial culture medium. The second aim was to test the effect of F. prausnitzii on TEER across Caco-2 cell layers. Live F. prausnitzii did not improve TEER, which indicates that its benefits are not via altering tight junction integrity. The optimization of the novel dual-environment co-culturing system performed in this research will enable the investigation of new probiotics originating from indigenous beneficial bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/imunologia , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/imunologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestino Grosso/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia
16.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 52(extr.2): 1-14, nov. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168739

RESUMO

La gripe es un importante problema de salud pública, particularmente en las personas mayores, con una significativa carga clínica y económica y con una alta mortalidad. En España, durante la temporada 2015- 2016, se han notificado 3.101 casos graves hospitalizados confirmados por gripe, de los que han fallecido el 11% (352 casos). Además, hay un gran aumento de costes económicos y sanitarios por sus complicaciones y los mayores de 65 años representan aproximadamente el 64% del total de costes de la gripe. La vacuna antigripal estacional es la estrategia fundamental, y los estudios de coste-beneficio y coste-efectividad así lo demuestran. Uno de los objetivos prioritarios es mejorar la respuesta inmune de las vacunas, y una línea importante de investigación es la búsqueda e inclusión en las vacunas de adyuvantes o inmunoestimuladores. En este informe de posicionamiento se evalúa la vacunación en las personas mayores y la importancia de la vacuna adyuvada en los mayores, que refuerza la inmunogenicidad mediante una revisión crítica de la bibliografía relacionada con la mayor evidencia disponible sobre su inmunogenicidad, efectividad y evaluación económica (AU)


Flu is a major public health problem, particularly for older people, and creates an important clinical and economic burden. A high mortality rate was reported in Spain during the period 2015 to 2016; 3,101 serious cases were hospitalised with a confirmed diagnosis of flu, of which 11% died (352 cases). Furthermore, financial and health costs are greatly increased by the complications of flu; people aged over 65 years represent approximately 64% of the total costs. Seasonal flu vaccination is the fundamental strategy, as demonstrated by cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness studies. A priority objective is to improve the vaccine’s immune response and the search for and inclusion of adjuvants and immunostimulants in vaccines is a major line of research. This positioning report evaluates vaccination for older people and the importance of the adjuvanted vaccine in the elderly in strengthening immunogenicity, by means of a critical review of the literature based on the best evidence available on its immunogenicity and effectiveness, and an economic assessment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Vacinas contra Influenza/análise , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13700, 2017 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057949

RESUMO

In animals, physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive and actuarial senescence remain poorly understood. Immunosenescence, the decline in the ability to display an efficient immune response with increasing age, is likely to influence both reproductive and actuarial senescence through increased risk of disease. Evidence for such a link has been reported from laboratory animal models but has been poorly investigated in the wild, where variation in resource acquisitions usually drives life-history trade-offs. We investigated immunosenescence patterns over 7 years in both sexes of two contrasting roe deer populations (Capreolus capreolus). We first measured twelve immune markers to obtain a thorough identification of innate and adaptive components of immunity and assessed, from the same individuals, the age-dependent variation observed in parasitic infections. Although the level of innate traits was maintained at old age, the functional innate immune traits declined with increasing age in one of two populations. In both populations, the production of inflammatory markers increased with advancing age. Finally, the adaptive response declined in late adulthood. The increasing parasite burden with age we reported suggests the effective existence of immunosenescence. Age-specific patterns differed between populations but not between sexes, which indicate that habitat quality could shape age-dependent immune phenotype in the wild.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Imunossenescência , Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Gerontology ; 63(6): 515-523, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768257

RESUMO

Advancements in the field of biomedicine, including the control of infectious diseases through antibiotics and vaccination practices and the prevention of chronic disorders, have led to reduced mortality, increased life expectancy and, as such, growth of the older population. Ageing is accompanied by profound morphological and physiological alterations. In particular, the immune system undergoes a complex series of remodeling/restructuring events, involving almost all compartments - both the innate and the adaptive system. This process is termed immunosenescence or immune dysregulation and, basically, includes 3 events: a reduction in immune response, an increase in the inflammatory and oxidation background (inflammaging and oxi-inflammaging), and a production of autoantibodies. While there is an increase in autoimmunity in the elderly, this does not always translate into an increase in autoimmune diseases, which represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality and affect 5-10% of the world population. Each disease involves a specific age group. Generally speaking, most autoimmune diseases have a decreased peak age of onset, except for very few diseases such as giant cell arteritis and primary biliary cirrhosis, which are more prevalent among the elderly, or inflammatory bowel disease, which has 2 peaks of onset, the first one in young subjects and the other in those older than 60 years. Autoimmune disorders in the elderly have unique clinical presentations, and insidious and atypical symptoms may constitute a challenge for the physician. They are generally milder than in adults and can be controlled by a proper therapeutic treatment. However, despite advancements both in basic and clinical sciences, further studies and investigations are warranted and should be carried out in order to dissect the molecular framework induced by ageing.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Humanos
19.
Prog Neurobiol ; 157: 2-28, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782588

RESUMO

The interaction between the nervous and immune systems during aging is an area of avid interest, but many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to the complexity of the aging process, but also to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between both the nervous and immune systems. Aging of the brain drives whole body systemic aging, including aging-related changes of the immune system. In turn, the immune system aging, particularly immunosenescence and T cell aging initiated by thymic involution that are sources of chronic inflammation in the elderly (termed inflammaging), potentially induces brain aging and memory loss in a reciprocal manner. Therefore, immunotherapeutics including modulation of inflammation, vaccination, cellular immune therapies and "protective autoimmunity" provide promising approaches to rejuvenate neuroinflammatory disorders and repair brain injury. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries linking the aging immune system with the development of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we discuss potential rejuvenation strategies, focusing aimed at targeting the aging immune system in an effort to prevent acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration during aging.


Assuntos
Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Imunoterapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Neural/imunologia , Degeneração Neural/terapia
20.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 19(10): 75, 2017 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852965

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on traumatic stress-related accelerated aging, including a focus on cellular mechanisms and biomarkers of cellular aging and on the clinical manifestations of accelerated biological aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple lines of research converge to suggest that PTSD is associated with accelerated aging in the epigenome, and the immune and inflammation systems, and this may be reflected in premature onset of cardiometabolic and cardiovascular disease. The current state of research paves the way for future work focused on identifying the peripheral and central biological mechanisms linking traumatic stress to accelerated biological aging and medical morbidity, with an emphasis on processes involved in inflammation, immune functioning, oxidative stress, autonomic arousal, and stress response. Ultimately, such work could help reduce the pace of biological aging and improve health and wellness.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Senilidade Prematura/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Epigenômica , Humanos , Imunossenescência/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/fisiopatologia
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