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1.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(8): e201900807, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure. METHODS: Pressure overload-induced heart failure model (abdominal aortic coarctation) was established in 40 rats, which were divided into model and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups. Ten rats receiving laparotomy excepting abdominal aortic coarctation were enrolled in sham-operated group. The 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA, respectively, for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg TIIA group the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±maximum left ventricular pressure rising and dropping rate, and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 protein levels were increased, respectively (P<0.05), and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart weight index, left ventricular weight index, serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein level were decreased, respectively (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: TIIA may alleviate ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure heart by reducing inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Pressão Ventricular
2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(11): 1047-1057, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575290

RESUMO

Introduction: The clinical use of tacrolimus is characterized by many side effects which include neurotoxicity. In contrast, tacrolimus has also shown to have neuroregenerative properties. On a molecular level, the mechanisms of action could provide us more insight into understanding the neurobiological effects. The aim of this article is to review current evidence regarding the use of tacrolimus in peripheral nerve injuries.Areas covered: Available data on tacrolimus' indications were summarized and molecular mechanisms were elucidated to possibly understand the conflicting neurotoxic and neuroregenerative effects. The potential clinical applications of tacrolimus, as immunosuppressant and enhancer of nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries, are discussed. Finally, concepts of delivery are explored.Expert opinion: It is unclear what the exact neurobiological effects of tacrolimus are. Besides its known calcineurin inhibiting properties, the mechanism of action of tacrolimus is mediated by its binding to FK506-binding protein-52, resulting in a bimodal dose response. Experimental models found that tacrolimus administration is preferred up to three days prior to or within 10 days post-nerve reconstruction. Moreover, the indication for the use of tacrolimus has been expanding to fields of dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology to improve outcomes after various indications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Animais , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
3.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(10): 973-980, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550941

RESUMO

Introduction: Pemphigus, an autoimmune disease group characterized by blisters and erosions of the skin and/or mucosal membranes has been treated with systemic corticosteroids (CS) and immunosuppressive therapies for the past few decades. Areas Covered: However, common adverse effects and complications of long-term CS and immunosuppressive drugs are limiting their long-term use. The disease results in death if not treated. Thus, currently, researchers are trying to develop new and safer therapeutic approaches. Specifically, targeted therapies to pathogenic immune pathways are under investigation. The B cell inhibitors which block CD20 and CD19 are the main new drugs investigated in clinical trials as alternatives to systemic steroids. Expert Opinion: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Level evidence shows that rituximab and short course CSs are more effective and safer than standard CS treatment. Specific BTK inhibitors have shown promise in data from a phase II international open-label study. Further studies are ongoing.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pênfigo/imunologia , Pênfigo/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2081-2098, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399186

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid that acts through the members of a family of 5 G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1 to S1P5). Among these, S1P1 is a major regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. Fingolimod, whose active metabolite, fingolimod phosphate, acts as a nonselective S1P-receptor agonist, exerts its immunomodulatory effect, at least in part, by regulating lymphocyte trafficking via downregulation of S1P1 expression on lymphocytes. Here, we describe the pharmacologic profile of a novel S1P1 agonist, ASP1126. ASP1126 preferentially activated S1P1 compared to S1P3 in rat and human guanosine-5'-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (GTPγS) assays. Oral single administration of ASP1126 decreased the number of peripheral lymphocytes and repeated dosing showed a cumulative effect on lymphopenia in both rats and monkeys. ASP1126 prolonged allograft survival in a rat heterotopic heart transplantation model in combination with a subtherapeutic dose of tacrolimus that was independent of drug-drug interactions. In addition, in nonhuman primate (NHP) renal transplantation, pretreatment with ASP1126 reduced not only the number of naive T cells and central memory T cells but also effector memory T cells in the peripheral blood, all of which could contribute to acute graft rejection and prolonged allograft survival in combination with tacrolimus. Further, we confirmed that ASP1126 has a broad ranging safety margin with respect to its effect on lung weight in rats and bradycardia in NHPs, which were the adverse events found in clinical studies of fingolimod. ASP1126 with improved safety profile has the potential to be an adjunct therapy in combination with tacrolimus in clinical transplantation.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/metabolismo , Animais , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Ratos , Esfingosina/agonistas , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
5.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2136-2140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399190

RESUMO

A regulatory T (Treg) cell/T helper 17 (Th17) cell imbalance is involved in many autoimmune diseases. Rapamycin (Rapa), a clinically used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation but promote Treg cell generation. In this study, we aimed to study the mechanism of Rapa acting on Treg and Th17 cell differentiation. Purified mouse CD4+CD25- T cells were stimulated and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or Treg cells in the presence or absence of Rapa. We first confirmed that Rapa inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells and greatly promoted Treg cell generation in vitro. As metabolic pathways play a key role in T cell differentiation, we then detected the metabolic programs in Rapa-treated T cells. We found that Rapa blocked glycolysis in induced Th17 cells, evidenced by reduced glucose uptake, and inhibited expression of glucose transporter 1 and the rate-limiting enzyme HK2. In addition, the expression of c-Myc and of HIF-1α transcription factor, which regulate many genes involved in glycolysis, were inhibited by Rapa. Conversely, Rapa promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism in differentiated Treg cells, with the elevation of FAO product ß-hydroxybutyrate, and increased expression of ATGL and CPT1A, the key enzymes of FAO in differentiated Treg cells. The expression of phospho-AMPKα, the key signal in the regulation of FAO, was also promoted in Rapa-treated induced Treg cells. Together, these findings indicated that Rapa abrogated glycolysis in Th17 cells but facilitated FAO in induced Treg cells, which may underlie the mechanism by which Rapa regulates the Treg/Th17 balance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 216: 109892, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446206

RESUMO

Cyclosporine and glucocorticoids are powerful immunosuppressive agents used to treat many inflammatory diseases in dogs. Cyclosporine inhibits calcineurin-dependent pathways of T cell activation and resultant T cell cytokine production, and glucocorticoids directly inhibit genes coding for cytokines. Little work has been done comparing the effects of these agents on T cell cytokine production in dogs. Our study measured T cell interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production using flow cytometry and T cell IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in activated canine T cells incubated with cyclosporine and dexamethasone in vitro. For flow cytometric assays, diluted whole blood was cultured for 7 h in the presence of cyclosporine (10, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL) or dexamethasone (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, 1 µg/mL, and 10 µg/mL). For qRT-PCR, whole blood was cultured for 5 h with the same drugs at the same concentrations, and RNA was then extracted from leukocytes. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR both demonstrated inhibition of IL-2 and IFN-γ that was concentration-dependent in response to cyclosporine, and was more variable for dexamethasone. Quantitative RT-PCR but not flow cytometry documented significant reduction of IL-2 expression after dexamethasone treatment, while both methods showed concentration-dependent suppression of IFN-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR also revealed additional cytokine suppression at higher cyclosporine concentrations, an effect not found using flow cytometry, and may therefore be the preferred method for cytokine determination in dogs. Suppression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in activated T cells may have potential as an indicator of the efficacy of cyclosporine and glucocorticoids in suppressing canine T cell function in vivo, and may therefore be of value for characterizing the immunosuppression induced by these drugs in clinical patients.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/genética
7.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 666-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257322

RESUMO

Dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids from the rhizomes of Nuphar pumilum exhibited immunosuppressive effects using a sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell (PFC) assay, as well as an anti-metastasis effect, and rapid apoptosis-inducing effects in tumor cell lines. In particular, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids with a hydroxy group (6-hydroxythiobinupharidine, 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine, 6-hydroxythionuphlutine B) showed substantial effects, whereas dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids lacking the hydroxy group (thiobinupharidine, thionuphlutine B, 6'-hydroxythionuphlutine B, neothiobinupharidine, thionuphlutine B ß-sulfoxide, neothiobinupharidine ß-sulfoxide) and monomeric sesquiterpene alkaloids (nupharidine, 7-epideoxynupharidine, nupharolutine) showed weak activity. In this review, we summarize our studies of the biofunctional effects of these alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Nuphar/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Nuphar/metabolismo
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107720, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279929

RESUMO

Parasite life history can be affected by conditions of the host and of the external environment. Rapamycin, a known immunosuppressant of mammals, was fed to laboratory mice that were then infected with the Trichostrongylid nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri to determine if host rapamycin exposure would affect parasite survival, growth, and reproduction. In addition, adult worms from control fed mice were directly exposed to rapamycin to assess if rapamycin would affect worm viability and ex vivo reproduction. We found that host ingestion of rapamycin did not affect H. bakeri survival or growth for male or female worms, but female worms had increased reproduction both in vivo and when removed from the host and cultured ex vivo. After direct rapamycin exposure, motility of female worms was greater at low levels of rapamycin compared to high levels of rapamycin or high levels of DMSO (the vehicle used to solubilize rapamycin) in control media, but was similar to females in low levels of DMSO in control media. Male motility was not affected by the presence of rapamycin or DMSO in the media. Ex vivo egg deposition was higher when exposed to rapamycin than when cultured in control media that contained DMSO, regardless of DMSO dose. Overall, we conclude that host ingestion of rapamycin or direct exposure to rapamycin was generally favorable or neutral for parasite life history traits.


Assuntos
Heligmosomatoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Dimetil Sulfóxido/administração & dosagem , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Feminino , Heligmosomatoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heligmosomatoidea/fisiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3081, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300673

RESUMO

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a first-line-treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The redox master regulator Nrf2, essential for redox balance, is a target of DMF, but its precise therapeutic mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here we show impact of DMF on circulating monocytes and T cells in a prospective longitudinal RRMS patient cohort. DMF increases the level of oxidized isoprostanes in peripheral blood. Other observed changes, including methylome and transcriptome profiles, occur in monocytes prior to T cells. Importantly, monocyte counts and monocytic ROS increase following DMF and distinguish patients with beneficial treatment-response from non-responders. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ROS-generating NOX3 gene is associated with beneficial DMF treatment-response. Our data implicate monocyte-derived oxidative processes in autoimmune diseases and their treatment, and identify NOX3 genetic variant, monocyte counts and redox state as parameters potentially useful to inform clinical decisions on DMF therapy of RRMS.


Assuntos
Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Monócitos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Adulto , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(7): 633-639, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a lifelong autoimmune disorder that affects neuromuscular transmission. The long-term treatment plan should include immunotherapy. We investigated the long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus for the treatment of MG in real-world clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 160 MG patients treated with tacrolimus from 2005 to 2015. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification, MGFA post-intervention status, myasthenic functional score, and dose of oral prednisolone were investigated. RESULTS: Adverse events occurred in 68 patients (42.5%), most of which were minor and well-managed. Clinical severity scales improved after administration of tacrolimus, compared to the baseline. Compared to 6 months before administration of tacrolimus, prednisolone dose significantly decreased at 12 months after treatment (2.85±0.92 mg/day, p=0.002), 18 months after treatment (3.36±0.99 mg/day, p=0.001), and 24 months after treatment (3.71±0.93 mg/day, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus may be effective in reducing the severity of MG and may permit a reduction in the steroid dose prescribed to the patients. Adverse events due to tacrolimus treatment were not serious.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1084: 187-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175638

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewable cells capable for multilineage differentiation and immunomodulation. MSCs are able to differentiate into all cell types of mesodermal origin and, due to their plasticity, may generate cells of neuroectodermal or endodermal origin in vitro. In addition to the enormous differentiation potential, MSCs efficiently modulate innate and adaptive immune response and, accordingly, were used in large number of experimental and clinical trials as new therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Although MSC-based therapy was efficient in the treatment of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases, unwanted differentiation of engrafted MSCs represents important safety concern. MSC-based beneficial effects are mostly relied on the effects of MSC-derived immunomodulatory, pro-angiogenic, and trophic factors which attenuate detrimental immune response and inflammation, reduce ischemic injuries, and promote tissue repair and regeneration. Accordingly, MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), which contains MSC-derived factors, has the potential to serve as a cell-free, safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Herein, we summarized current knowledge regarding identification, isolation, ontogeny, and functional characteristics of MSCs and described molecular mechanisms responsible for MSC-CM-mediated anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in the therapy of inflammatory lung, liver, and kidney diseases and ischemic brain injury.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fator de Células-Tronco , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/química , Fator de Células-Tronco/química , Fator de Células-Tronco/farmacologia
13.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(12): E707-E714, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150368

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: The effect of triptolide on spinal cord injury (SCI) and inflammatory response was observed by establishing SCI rat model. And in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the underlying mechanism of triptolide-mediated in murine microglial cell line BV2. OBJECTIVE: To determine the underlying mechanism of triptolide in suppressing the microglia activation to improve SCI. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Triptolide, as a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii, can promote spinal cord repair through inhibiting microglia activation, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. METHODS: Locomotion recovery was accessed by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score, the number of footfalls, stride length, and angle of rotation analysis. Expressions of microRNA 96 (miR-96), microglia activation marker Iba-1, and IκB kinase (IKKß)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB-related proteins were detected by qRT-PCR or western blot. Inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin -1ß were measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. The regulation of miR-96 on IKKß was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Triptolide promoted locomotion recovery of SCI rats, upregulated the expression of miR-96, decreased microglia activation marker Iba-1 and IKKß/NF-κB-related proteins, and inhibited inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß levels in spinal cord tissues and lipopolysaccharide -induced microglia. Triptolide suppressed the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines secretion in BV2 cells through up-regulating miR-96. We confirmed the interaction between miR-96 and IKKß, and IKKß expression was negatively regulated by miR-96. Finally, we determined that triptolide suppressed the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines secretion through miR-96/IKKß pathway. CONCLUSION: Triptolide suppressed microglia activation after SCI through miR-96/IKKß/NF-κB pathway. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Quinase I-kappa B/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/biossíntese , Fenantrenos/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Compostos de Epóxi/uso terapêutico , Quinase I-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 176: 378-392, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121546

RESUMO

In the past decades, triptolide has attracted considerable interests in the organic and medicinal chemistry society owing to its intriguing structure features and promising multiple pharmacological activities. However, its limited water solubility and oral bioavailability, imprecise mechanism of action and sever toxicity, scares from nature and difficulty in the synthesis have greatly hindered its clinical potential. Hence, to circumvent such problems, a lot of elegant total synthesis have been developed. With the advancement of the total synthesis, various triptolide derivatives have been synthesized and tested in the search for more drug-like derivatives for potential anticancer agents, anti-inflammatory agents, immunosuppressive agents and anti-Alzheimer's agents, etc. Meanwhile, through designing and synthesizing of various of bioactive probes, some molecular targets that are responsible for the multiple pharmacology activities as well as toxicity of triptolide have been identified. It is no doubt will help the future development of new drug-like triptolide derivatives. In order to gain a comprehensive and deep understanding of the area and provides suggestions for triptolide's further studies, i) the medicinal chemistry advancement, ii) bioactive probes-based cellular target identification and iii) clinical progress of triptolide derivatives are reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Transplant Proc ; 51(4): 1172-1179, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101194

RESUMO

AIM: Small-for-size grafts have become more important, especially in living donor liver transplants. The Pringle maneuver, used to reduce blood loss, and the immunosuppressive medications used to prevent graft rejection in liver transplants have different side effects on liver regeneration. We researched the effect of situations where tacrolimus and the Pringle maneuver were applied or not on liver regeneration in rats with partial hepatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was completed with 35 Wistar Albino rats. The subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups: Group 1 had the abdomen opened and no other procedure was performed; Group 2 underwent a 70% hepatectomy; Group 3 underwent a 15-minute Pringle maneuver + 70% hepatectomy; Group 4 underwent a 70% hepatectomy + 5 days of 1 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal tacrolimus; and Group 5 underwent a 150 minute Pringle maneuver + 0% hepatectomy + 5 days of 1 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal tacrolimus. All rats were sacrificed on the seventh postoperative day, remaining liver tissue was weighed, and weight indices created. The remaining liver tissue was stained with phosphohistone H3 and the mitotic index calculated. RESULTS: The groups that underwent the Pringle maneuver, 70% hepatectomy, and tacrolimus administration were compared with the control group in terms of mitotic index and weight index, but no statistically significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: Suppression of regeneration forms a risk after liver transplantation with small-volume grafts. As a result, research on the effect of tacrolimus combined with the Pringle maneuver is important, especially for transplantations using segmented liver grafts. In our study, we showed that the use of tacrolimus had no negative effect on liver regeneration.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Regeneração Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatectomia/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058839

RESUMO

Given advancements in cancer immunity, cancer treatment has gained breakthrough developments. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, are the most promising drugs in the field and have been approved to treat various types of cancer, such as metastatic melanoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma. However, whether PD-1 inhibitors should be administered to renal transplant patients with advanced cancer remains unclear because the T-cells produced after administration of these inhibitors act against not only tumor antigens but also donor alloantigens. Thus, the use of PD-1 inhibitors in kidney-transplanted patients with advanced cancer is limited on account of the high risk of graft failure due to acute rejection. Hence, finding optimal treatment regimens to enhance the tumor-specific T-cell response and decrease T-cell-mediated alloreactivity after administration of a PD-1 inhibitor is necessary. Thus far, no recommendations for the use of PD-1 inhibitors to treat cancer in renal transplant patients are yet available, and very few cases reporting kidney-transplanted patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors are available in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we review the published cases and suggest feasible approaches for renal transplant patients with advanced malignancy treated by a PD-1 inhibitor. Of the 22 cases we obtained, four patients maintained intact grafts without tumor progression after treatment with a PD-1 inhibitor. Among these patients, one maintained steroid dose before initiation of anti-PD1, two received immunosuppressive regimens with low-dose steroid and calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-elimination with sirolimus before initiation of anti-PD-1 therapy, and one received combined anti-PD-1, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and chemotherapy with unchanged immunosuppressive regimens. mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and anti-VEGF may act as regulators of tumor-specific and allogenic T-cells. However, more studies are necessary to explore the optimal therapy and ensure the safety and efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in kidney-transplanted patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 4536-4544, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059034

RESUMO

The present study examined the efficacy of the topical 15d­PGJ2­poloxamer 407 hydrogel in an atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model. The 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel was prepared and characterized. The examined rats possessed AD­Like cutaneous lesions, which were induced using 2,4­dinitrochlorobenzene, the rats were then treated with a hydrogel vehicle, 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel or tacrolimus for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to quantify the IgE levels. Subsequently, skin biopsies were stained with toluidine blue to identify mast cells and immunohistochemistry was performed for ROR­Î³t and TNF­α. Histological analyses demonstrated that 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel significantly decreased mast cell infiltration (P<0.05) when compared with the AD­group. Tacrolimus at 0.1% exhibited decreased mast cell infiltration; however, this difference was not statistically significant from the AD­group. Topical 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel and Tacrolimus 0.1% significantly reduced the serum levels of IgE (P<0.05) compared with the AD­group. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in ROR­Î³t and TNF­α positive cell expression (P<0.05) in the 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel group compared with the AD­group. In summary, topical administration of 15d­PGJ2 hydrogel had a beneficial effect on AD symptoms, suggesting that this formulation may be a useful strategy for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dinitroclorobenzeno/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Prostaglandina D2/análogos & derivados , Administração Tópica , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Prostaglandina D2/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(12): 4825-4838, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053913

RESUMO

Arginase I has been documented to impair T cell function and attenuate cellular immunity, however, there is little evidence to reveal the effect of arginase I on macrophage function. Recently, recombinant human arginase I (rhArg) has been developed for cancer therapy and is in clinical trial for hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the potential immunosuppression induced by rhArg limited its therapeutic efficacy. To improve the clinical outcome of rhArg, addressing the immune suppression appears to be particularly important. In this study, we found that rhArg attenuated macrophage functions, including inhibiting macrophage cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokine secretion, MHC-II surface expression, and phagocytosis, thereby inducing immunosuppression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated macrophages. Notably, we observed that rhArg downregulated autophagy in activated macrophages. Moreover, application of trehalose (an autophagy inducer) significantly restored the impaired immune function in activated macrophages, suggesting the essential role of autophagy in rhArg-induced immunosuppression. To further illustrate the effect of autophagy in immunosuppression, we then observed the effect of 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor) on the immune function of macrophages. As expected, inhibiting autophagy by 3-MA attenuated immune functions in activated macrophages. Collectively, this study elucidated that rhArg induced immunosuppression in activated macrophages via inhibiting autophagy, providing potential strategy to ameliorate the immune suppression which is of great significance to cancer therapy and facilitating the development of rhArg as a potential therapy for malignant carcinomas.


Assuntos
Arginase/imunologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Animais , Arginase/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Trealose/farmacologia
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(18): 2162-2176, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143068

RESUMO

Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) include many different forms of inflammatory arthritis and can affect the spine (axial SpA) and/or peripheral joints (peripheral SpA) with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) being the prototype of the former. Extra-articular manifestations, like uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently observed in the setting of SpA and are, in fact, part of the SpA classification criteria. Bowel involvement seems to be the most common of these manifestations. Clinically evident IBD is observed in 6%-14% of AS patients, which is significantly more frequent compared to the general population. Besides, it seems that silent microscopic gut inflammation, is evident in around 60% in AS patients. Interestingly, occurrence of IBD has been associated with AS disease activity. For peripheral SpA, two different forms have been proposed with diverse characteristics. Of note, SpA (axial or peripheral) is more commonly observed in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis. The common pathogenetic mechanisms that explain the link between IBD and SpA are still ill-defined. The role of dysregulated microbiome along with migration of T lymphocytes and other cells from gut to the joint ("gut-joint" axis) has been recognized, in the context of a genetic background including associations with alleles inside or outside the human leukocyte antigen system. Various therapeutic modalities are available with monoclonal antibodies against tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-23 and interleukin-17, being the most effective. Both gastroenterologists and rheumatologists should be alert to identify the co-existence of these conditions and ideally follow-up these patients in combined clinics.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Espondiloartropatias/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Espondiloartropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Espondiloartropatias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 593-596, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140860

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and debilitating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system in which the autoimmune T cells destroy myelin, thus causing lesion, damage, and neuronal dysfunction. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS that is particularly useful for testing new therapeutic approaches against MS. Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is one of the oldest and widely used medicines in the world, and recently it has been shown that low-dose aspirin is capable of suppressing the disease process of EAE in mice. One of the root causes of this autoimmune disease process is the decrease and/or suppression of Foxp3-expressing anti-autoimmune regulatory T cells (Tregs) and associated increase in autoimmune T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells. Aspirin upregulates Tregs and decreases Th1 and Th17 responses. Accordingly, the suppression of Tregs abrogates the protective effect of aspirin on EAE, indicating that aspirin protects EAE via Tregs. While there are several mechanisms for the maintenance of Tregs under immune insults, aspirin increases the level of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an immunomodulatory cytokine, and IL-11 alone is sufficient to protect Tregs. Being a multifunctional molecule, aspirin stimulates the activation of cAMP-response element-binding (CREB) to promote the recruitment of CREB to the IL-11 gene promoter and stimulate the transcription of IL-11 in splenocytes. Therefore, it appears that low-dose aspirin protects EAE via CREB-mediated stimulation of IL-11-Treg pathway and that aspirin may have therapeutic importance in MS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
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