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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445572

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System, characterized by an inflammatory process leading to the destruction of myelin with neuronal death and neurodegeneration. In MS, lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier, creating inflammatory demyelinated plaques located primarily in the white matter. MS potential treatments involve various mechanisms of action on immune cells, immunosuppression, inhibition of the passage through the blood-brain barrier, and immunotolerance. Bio-nanotechnology represents a promising approach to improve the treatment of autoimmune diseases by its ability to affect the immune responses. The use of nanotechnology has been actively investigated for the development of new MS therapies. In this review, we summarize the results of the studies on natural and artificial vesicles and nanoparticles, and take a look to the future clinical perspectives for their application in the MS therapy.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/química , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Nanopartículas/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205169

RESUMO

In humans, various sites like cannabinoid receptors (CBR) having a binding affinity with cannabinoids are distributed on the surface of different cell types, where endocannabinoids (ECs) and derivatives of fatty acid can bind. The binding of these substance(s) triggers the activation of specific receptors required for various physiological functions, including pain sensation, memory, and appetite. The ECs and CBR perform multiple functions via the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1); cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), having a key effect in restraining neurotransmitters and the arrangement of cytokines. The role of cannabinoids in the immune system is illustrated because of their immunosuppressive characteristics. These characteristics include inhibition of leucocyte proliferation, T cells apoptosis, and induction of macrophages along with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. The review seeks to discuss the functional relationship between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and anti-tumor characteristics of cannabinoids in various cancers. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for cancer-both in vivo and in vitro clinical trials-has also been highlighted and reported to be effective in mice models in arthritis for the inflammation reduction, neuropathic pain, positive effect in multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes mellitus, and found beneficial for treating in various cancers. In human models, such studies are limited; thereby, further research is indispensable in this field to get a conclusive outcome. Therefore, in autoimmune disorders, therapeutic cannabinoids can serve as promising immunosuppressive and anti-fibrotic agents.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298877

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that breast cancer originates from a minor population of cancer cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can be identified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity-based flow cytometry analysis. However, novel therapeutic drugs for the eradication of CSCs have not been discovered yet. Recently, drug repositioning, which finds new medical uses from existing drugs, has been expected to facilitate drug discovery. We have previously reported that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) induced proliferation of breast CSCs. In the present study, we focused on the immunosuppressive agent FTY720 (also known as fingolimod or Gilenya), since FTY720 is known to be an inhibitor of SphK1. We found that FTY720 blocked both proliferation of ALDH-positive cells and formation of mammospheres. In addition, we showed that FTY720 reduced the expression of stem cell markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2 and Nanog via upregulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These results suggest that FTY720 is an effective drug for breast CSCs in vitro.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201484

RESUMO

The aim of this publication is to compile a summary of the findings regarding punicalagin in various tissues described thus far in the literature, with an emphasis on the effect of this substance on immune reactions. Punicalagin (PUN) is an ellagitannin found in the peel of pomegranate (Punica granatum). It is a polyphenol with proven antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic and chemopreventive activities, antiproliferative activity against tumor cells; it inhibits inflammatory pathways and the action of toxic substances, and is highly tolerated. This work describes the source, metabolism, functions and effects of punicalagin, its derivatives and metabolites. Furthermore, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects are described.


Assuntos
Taninos Hidrolisáveis/imunologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ácido Elágico/análise , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Metaboloma
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107761, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162139

RESUMO

Since the discovery of lymphocytes with immunosuppressive activity, increasing interest has arisen in their possible influence on the immune response induced by vaccines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases, and limiting chronic inflammatory diseases. However, they also limit beneficial immune responses by suppressing anti-infectious and anti-tumor immunity. Mounting evidence suggests that Tregs are involved, at least in part, in the low effectiveness of immunization against various diseases where it has been difficult to obtain protective vaccines. Interestingly, increased activity of Tregs is associated with aging, suggesting a key role for these cells in the lower vaccine effectiveness observed in older people. In this review, we analyze the impact of Tregs on vaccination, with a focus on older adults. Finally, we address an overview of current strategies for Tregs modulation with potential application to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines targeting older populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação
6.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21693, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109683

RESUMO

Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a side effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), nifedipine (NIF), and phenytoin (PHT). Nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a role in fibrosis in multiple organs. However, the relationship between NR4A1 and DIGO remains unclear. We herein investigated the involvement of NR4A1 in DIGO. In the DIGO mouse model, CsA inhibited the up-regulation of Nr4a1 expression induced by periodontal disease (PD) in gingival tissue, but not that of Col1a1 and Pai1. We detected gingival overgrowth (GO) in Nr4a1 knock out (KO) mice with PD. A NR4A1 agonist inhibited the development of GO in DIGO model mice. TGF-ß increased Col1a1 and Pai1 expression levels in KO mouse gingival fibroblasts (mGF) than in wild-type mice, while the overexpression of NR4A1 in KO mGF suppressed the levels. NR4A1 expression levels in gingival tissue were significantly lower in DIGO patients than in PD patients. We also investigated the relationship between nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and NR4A1. NFATc3 siRNA suppressed the TGF-ß-induced up-regulation of NR4A1 mRNA expression in human gingival fibroblasts (hGF). CsA suppressed the TGF-ß-induced translocation of NFATc3 into the nuclei of hGF. Furthermore, NIF and PHT also decreased NR4A1 mRNA expression levels and suppressed the translocation of NFATc3 in hGF. We confirmed that CsA, NIF, and PHT reduced cytosolic calcium levels increased by TGF-ß, while CaCl2 enhanced the TGF-ß-up-regulated NR4A1 expression. We propose that the suppression of the calcium-NFATc3-NR4A1 cascade by these three drugs plays a role in the development of DIGO.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Ciclosporina/toxicidade , Gengiva/patologia , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11462, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075090

RESUMO

An excessive immune response known as cytokine storm is the hallmark of severe COVID-19. The cause of this cytokine rampage is yet not known. Based on recent epidemiological evidence, we hypothesized that CD80/86 signaling is essential for this hyperinflammation, and that blocking this proinflammatory axis could be an effective therapeutic approach to protect against severe COVID-19. Here we provide exploratory evidence that abatacept, a drug that blocks CD80/86 co-stimulation, produces changes at the systemic level that are highly antagonistic of the proinflammatory processes elicited by COVID-19. Using RNA-seq from blood samples from a longitudinal cohort of n = 38 rheumatic patients treated with abatacept, we determined the immunological processes that are significantly regulated by this treatment. We then analyzed available blood RNA-seq from two COVID19 patient cohorts, a very early cohort from the epicenter of the pandemic in China (n = 3 COVID-19 cases and n = 3 controls), and a recent and larger cohort from the USA (n = 49 severe and n = 51 mild COVD-19 patients). We found a highly significant antagonism between SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity with the systemic response to abatacept. Analysis of previous single-cell RNA-seq data from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mild and severe COVID-19 patients and controls, reinforce the implication of the CD80/86 proinflammatory axis. Our functional results further support abatacept as a candidate therapeutic approach to prevent severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , China , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Espanha , Estados Unidos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 880-892, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099917

RESUMO

Multidimensional single-cell analyses of T cells have fueled the debate about whether there is extensive plasticity or 'mixed' priming of helper T cell subsets in vivo. Here, we developed an experimental framework to probe the idea that the site of priming in the systemic immune compartment is a determinant of helper T cell-induced immunopathology in remote organs. By site-specific in vivo labeling of antigen-specific T cells in inguinal (i) or gut draining mesenteric (m) lymph nodes, we show that i-T cells and m-T cells isolated from the inflamed central nervous system (CNS) in a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) are distinct. i-T cells were Cxcr6+, and m-T cells expressed P2rx7. Notably, m-T cells infiltrated white matter, while i-T cells were also recruited to gray matter. Therefore, we propose that the definition of helper T cell subsets by their site of priming may guide an advanced understanding of helper T cell biology in health and disease.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Encéfalo/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/imunologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Intravital , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/genética , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA-Seq , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Receptores CXCR6/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/transplante , Transcriptoma
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639049, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054807

RESUMO

Background: Recently trained immunity of microglia provided an opportunity to study the chronic effect of microglial activation and its metabolic rewiring in neuroimmunological diseases. Since elevated levels of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) have been proved to be associated with some chronic neuroimmunological disorders. Here, we used the trained innate immunity model to analyze the effect of BAFF, a vital regulator of the adaptive immune system, on long-term microglial activation and metabolic reprogramming in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results: In vitro, BV2 cells and mouse primary microglial cells were incubated with BAFF for 24 h (BAFF priming). After 5 days of resting, microglia were restimulated with LPS (LPS restimulation) or BAFF (BAFF restimulation). BAFF priming induced a pro-inflammatory trained immunity-phenotype of both BV2 cells and primary microglial cells, which was indicated by morphological change, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine upon LPS restimulation or BAFF restimulation. The production of lactate and NAD+/NADH ratio were elevated 5 days after BAFF priming. The activation of the Akt/mTOR/HIF-1α pathway was induced by BAFF priming and lasted for 5 days. Pretreating the BV2 cells or mouse primary microglial cells with rapamycin blocked mTOR/HIF-1α activation and cellular metabolic reprogramming induced by BAFF training. Consistently, rapamycin efficiently suppressed the trained immunity-like responses of microglia triggered by BAFF. In vivo, adult male mice were treated with BAFF by intracerebroventricular injection for priming and 7 days later with BAFF for restimulation. BAFF training activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was elevated after BAFF training. Conclusion: Our current data, for the first time, demonstrate that BAFF priming induces a proinflammatory memory-like response of microglia not only to LPS but also to BAFF itself. Rapamycin inhibits microglial priming triggered by BAFF through targeting the mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. Our data reveal a novel role of BAFF in trained immunity and that rapamycin may be a potential therapeutic target of neuroimmunological diseases.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Microglia/imunologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/imunologia , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2274: 127-138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050468

RESUMO

Spectral overlaps in fluorescence (FL) and bioluminescence (BL) commonly cause optical cross talks. The present protocol introduces five different lineages of coelenterazine (CTZ) analogues, which have selectivity to a specific luciferase, and thus cross talk-free. For example, some CTZ analogues with ethynyl or styryl groups display dramatically biased BL to specific luciferases and pH by modifying the functional groups at the C-2 and C-6 positions of the imidazopyridinne backbone of CTZ. The optical cross talk-free feature is exemplified with the multiplex system, which simultaneously illuminated antiestrogenic and rapamycin activities without optical cross talks. This unique protocol contributes to specific and high-throughput BL imaging of multiple optical readouts in mammalian cells without optical contamination.


Assuntos
Alcinos/química , Imidazóis/química , Luciferases/metabolismo , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Pirazinas/química , Estirenos/química , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Luciferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2274: 261-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050478

RESUMO

Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a commonly used assay system for studying protein-protein interactions. The present protocol introduces a conceptually unique ligand-activatable BRET system (termed BRET9), where a full-length artificial luciferase variant 23 (ALuc23), acting as the energy donor, is sandwiched in between a protein pair of interest, FRB and FKBP, and further linked to a fluorescent protein as the energy acceptor for studying protein-protein interaction. A specific ligand, rapamycin, which initiates intramolecular interactions of FRB and FKBP inside the probe, which develops molecular strain in the sandwiched ALuc23 to complete its folding, thus, the probe system greatly enhances both the overall bioluminescence (BL) spectrum and the BRET signal in the far-red (FR) region. This new BRET system provides a robust ligand-activatable platform that efficiently reports FR-BL signals in mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 620386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936035

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most commonly recognized opportunistic pathogens and remains the most influential known parameter in shaping an individual's immune system. As such, T cells induced by CMV infection could have a long-term impact on subsequent immune responses. Accumulating evidence indicates that memory T cells developed during past bacterial and viral infection can cross-react with unrelated pathogens, including transplant antigens, and can alter responses to de novo infections, vaccines, cancers, or rejection. Therefore, careful examination of T cell responses elicited by CMV is warranted to understand their potentially beneficial or harmful roles in future major immune events. Our detailed exploration of the distribution, phenotype, TCR repertoire and transcriptome of CD4+ T cells within CMV seropositive healthy individuals using high-dimensional flow cytometry and single cell multi-omics sequencing reveals that CMV seropositivity has highly significant age-independent effects, leading to a reduction in CD4+ naïve T cells and an expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells and CD45RA+ effector memory T cells. These induced CD4+ effector memory T cells undergo a specific differentiation trajectory resulting in a subpopulation of CD57+CD27-CD28-CD244+ CD4+ T cells with cytotoxic function and TCR oligoclonality for optimal controlled coexistence with cytomegalovirus. Through gene set enrichment analysis, we found that this subpopulation is similar to virus-specific CD8+ T cells and T cells that mediate acute rejection in patients using tacrolimus and belatacept, a selective costimulation blocker. Together, these data suggest that memory CD4+ T cells induced by cytomegalovirus are formed via a distinct differentiation program to acquire cytotoxic function and can be potentially detrimental to transplant patients adopting costimulation blockade immunosuppressive regimen.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Abatacepte/farmacologia , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
FASEB J ; 35(6): e21661, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029398

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly encountered and causes high mortality in hospitalized patients; however, effective therapies for AKI have still not been established. Accordingly, we performed a rodent model with acute renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and tested the hypothesis that combined tacrolimus and melatonin therapy could be superior to either one for protecting the kidney against IR injury. Adult-male SD rat (n = 30) were equally categorized into group 1 (receiving laparotomy only), group 2 (IR treated by 3.0 cc/normal-saline), group 3 [IR + tacrolimus/0.5 mg/kg by intravenous administration at 30 minutes and at days 1/2/3 after IR], group 4 (IR + melatonin/50 mg/kg by intra-peritoneal administration at 30 minutes and 25 mg/kg at days 1/2/3 after IR] and group 5 (IR + tacrolimus +melatonin). By day 3 after IR, the creatinine/BUN levels and ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1 and significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3/4 (all P < .0001), but they did not differ between the groups 3/4. The protein expressions of oxidative-stress (p47phox/NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4), upstream (TLR4/MAL/MyD88/TRAF6/ASK1/MKK4/MKK7/NF-κB) and downstream (IL-6/INF-γ/MMP-9/IL-1ß) inflammatory signaling, MAPK-family-signaling cascades(ERK1/2, JNK/p38/c-JUN), apoptotic/autophagic (p53/caspase 3/mitochondrial-Bax, ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I), and mitochondrial-damaged (cyclophilin D/cytochrome C/DRP1) biomarkers, and the expressions of inflammatory-immune cells (F4/80, CD14/CD3/CD8) as well as the kidney injured score exhibited an identical pattern of creatinine level (all P < .0001). In conclusion, combined tacrolimus and melatonin therapy was better than either single one on protecting the kidney functional and anatomical integrity against IR injury through suppressing inflammation and the generation of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Melatonina/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
14.
Transplantation ; 105(9): 2119-2123, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Belatacept may impair humoral immunity, impacting the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in transplant recipients. We investigated immunogenicity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in kidney transplant recipients who are and are not taking belatacept. METHODS: Participants were recruited between December 9, 2020, and April 1, 2021. Blood samples were collected after dose 1 and dose 2 (D1, D2) and analyzed using either an anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme immunoassay against the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights was used to compare immunogenicity, and a weighted logistics regression was used to calculate fold change of positive response. RESULTS: Among the 609 participants studied, 24 (4%) were taking belatacept. After dose 1, 0/24 (0%) belatacept patients had detectable antibodies, compared with 77 of 568 (14%) among the equivalent nonbelatacept population (P = 0.06). After dose 2, 1/19 (5%) belatacept patients had detectable antibodies, compared with 190/381 (50%) among the equivalent nonbelatacept population (P < 0.001). Belatacept use was associated with 16.7-fold lower odds of having a positive post-D2 titer result (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Additional measures need to be explored to protect kidney transplant recipients taking belatacept. Best safety practices should be continued despite vaccination among this population.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/farmacologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , RNA Viral/análise , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
15.
Life Sci ; 277: 119618, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004252

RESUMO

AIMS: The current study aims to investigate the role of the key effector cytokines produced by CD4+T cells in the pathogenesis of Con A-induced liver injury in mice and testing whether etanercept can be repurposed to differentially regulate these cytokines. MAIN METHODS: Four groups of mice were used: group I: control group, group II: mice received 15 mg/kg Con A i.v, group III: mice received 15 mg/kg etanercept i.p, group IV: mice received both Con A and etanercept as described. Hepatic injury and necroinflammation were assessed. Infiltration of CD4+ T cells and neutrophils were evaluated. Hepatic levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and MDA were assigned and expression of NF-κB as well. KEY FINDINGS: A significant decrease in ALT, AST, and LDH levels occurred when etanercept was injected before Con A. Hepatic necrosis and infiltration of CD4+ T cells and neutrophils were reduced by etanercept. Levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and MDA were significantly decreased in group IV compared to group II while that of IL-10 was increased. Also, number of NF-κB positive cells was significantly low in group IV. SIGNIFICANCE: The study elucidates an interplay between the two effector cytokines of CD4+ T cells, TNF-α and IL-4, and their key role in Con A-induced liver injury. Additionally, our results showed that etanercept could be repurposed to differentially regulate effector cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells. Not only TNF-α, but also IL-4 signaling pathways, through which it exerts immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects leading to attenuation of Con A-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Concanavalina A/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etanercepte/farmacologia , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Hepatite/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Life Sci ; 277: 119621, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004255

RESUMO

Effective telomerase-molecular targeted cancer therapy might be a promising approach for the efficient treatment of ovarian cancer. Therefore, folate-functionalized PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were co-loaded with hTERT siRNA, Wortmannin (Wtmn), as a potent PI3K inhibitor, and magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) as a theranostic agent to gain a multifunctional NPs for targeted drug delivery as well as molecular targeted therapy. 1HNMR, FTIR, DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were applied to characterize the synthesized NPs. In vitro discharge pattern for siRNA and Wtmn from the dual drug-loaded NPs showed an early fast release followed by a constant release up to 200 h. According to the MRI analysis, by increasing the concentration of Fe3O4 in NPs, the weaker T2 signal intensity was enhanced, and a considerable contrast was detected in the MRI images. MTT assay and median-effect analysis showed that the Wtmn/siRNA-loaded MNPs-PLGA-F2 NPs display the most synergistic cytotoxicity on the SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the Wtmn/siRNA-loaded MNPs-PLGA-FA NPs could significantly reduce the expression of hTERT, AKT, and p-AKT than the single drug-encapsulated NPs (P < 0.05). Taken together, the findings showed that the multifunctional NPs relying on combinatorial therapy might have considerable potential for effective telomerase-molecular targeted therapy of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro/química , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Wortmanina/farmacologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Telomerase/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2695, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976205

RESUMO

mTOR signaling, involving mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, critically regulates neural development and is implicated in various brain disorders. However, we do not fully understand all of the upstream signaling components that can regulate mTOR signaling, especially in neurons. Here, we show a direct, regulated inhibition of mTOR by Tanc2, an adaptor/scaffolding protein with strong neurodevelopmental and psychiatric implications. While Tanc2-null mice show embryonic lethality, Tanc2-haploinsufficient mice survive but display mTORC1/2 hyperactivity accompanying synaptic and behavioral deficits reversed by mTOR-inhibiting rapamycin. Tanc2 interacts with and inhibits mTOR, which is suppressed by mTOR-activating serum or ketamine, a fast-acting antidepressant. Tanc2 and Deptor, also known to inhibit mTORC1/2 minimally affecting neurodevelopment, distinctly inhibit mTOR in early- and late-stage neurons. Lastly, Tanc2 inhibits mTORC1/2 in human neural progenitor cells and neurons. In summary, our findings show that Tanc2 is a mTORC1/2 inhibitor affecting neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/genética , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia
18.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02179, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969931

RESUMO

Finding novel and effective drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke is warranted because there is not a definitive treatment for this prevalent disease. Due to the relevance between the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor and several neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, it seems that fingolimod (FTY720), as an agonist of S1P receptor, can be a useful therapeutic strategy in these patients. FTY720 is the first oral drug approved by the US food and drug administration for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Three important mechanisms for neuroprotective effects of FTY720 have been described. First, the functional antagonistic mechanism that is associated with lymphopenia and reduced lymphocytic inflammation. This effect results from the down-regulation and degradation of lymphocytes' S1P receptors, which inhibits lymph node lymphocytes from entering the bloodstream. Second, a functional agonistic activity that is mediated through direct effects via targeting S1P receptors on the membrane of various cells including neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells of blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS), and the third, receptor-independent mechanisms that are displayed by binding to specific cellular proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways or affect epigenetic transcriptions. Therefore, we review these mechanisms in more detail and describe the animal model and in clinical trial studies that support these three mechanisms for the neuroprotective action of FTY720 in ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Lisofosfolipídeos , Propilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 591154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017323

RESUMO

Systems-level insights into inflammatory events after vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) are critical to the success of immunomodulatory strategies of these complex procedures. To date, the effects of tacrolimus (TAC) immunosuppression on inflammatory networks in VCA, such as in acute rejection (AR), have not been investigated. We used a systems biology approach to elucidate the effects of tacrolimus on dynamic networks and principal drivers of systemic inflammation in the context of dynamic tissue-specific immune responses following VCA. Lewis (LEW) rat recipients received orthotopic hind limb VCA from fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched Brown Norway (BN) donors or matched LEW donors. Group 1 (syngeneic controls) received LEW limbs without TAC, and Group 2 (treatment group) received BN limbs with TAC. Time-dependent changes in 27 inflammatory mediators were analyzed in skin, muscle, and peripheral blood using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Dynamic Bayesian Network (DyBN) inference, and Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA) to define principal characteristics, central nodes, and putative feedback structures of systemic inflammation. Analyses were repeated on skin + muscle data to construct a "Virtual VCA", and in skin + muscle + peripheral blood data to construct a "Virtual Animal." PCA, DyBN, and DyNA results from individual tissues suggested important roles for leptin, VEGF, various chemokines, the NLRP3 inflammasome (IL-1ß, IL-18), and IL-6 after TAC treatment. The chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α; and IP-10 were associated with AR in controls. Statistical analysis suggested that 24/27 inflammatory mediators were altered significantly between control and TAC-treated rats in peripheral blood, skin, and/or muscle over time. "Virtual VCA" and "Virtual Animal" analyses implicated the skin as a key control point of dynamic inflammatory networks, whose connectivity/complexity over time exhibited a U-shaped trajectory and was mirrored in the systemic circulation. Our study defines the effects of TAC on complex spatiotemporal evolution of dynamic inflammation networks in VCA. We also demonstrate the potential utility of computational analyses to elucidate nonlinear, cross-tissue interactions. These approaches may help define precision medicine approaches to better personalize TAC immunosuppression in VCA recipients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Membro Posterior/transplante , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Transplante de Órgãos , Ratos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/métodos
20.
J Vet Sci ; 22(3): e33, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908207

RESUMO

Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes high mortality in chickens but measures to reduce the mortality have not been explored. Chickens (8-9 weeks) were treated with 3 agents before and during vvIBDV inoculation. Dexamethasone treatment reduced the mortality of infected chickens (40.7% vs. 3.7%; p < 0.001), but treatment with aspirin or vitamin E plus selenium did not affect the mortality. The bursa of Fabricius appeared to have shrunk in both dead and surviving chickens (p < 0.01). The results indicate that dexamethasone can reduce mortality in vvIBDV-infected chickens and may provide therapeutic clues for saving individual birds infected by the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/farmacologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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