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1.
Cancer J ; 27(2): 119-125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750071

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The successful application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of relapsed and refractory B-cell malignancies has ushered in a new frontier for the immunotherapy of cancer. Despite its successes, CAR T-cell therapy presents several challenges. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) triggered by robust and exponential CAR T-cell expansion is the most common adverse effect and may be severe or life-threatening. Although modulation of the interleukin 6 axis was appreciated early on as a means to manage CRS, the exact underlying mechanisms leading to severe CRS remain to be elucidated. What is clear is that severe CRS involves recruitment of the broader immune system into a hyperinflammatory and unregulated state. Myeloid-derived cells appear to play a critical role in this regard and are at the center of active investigation. In this article, we will focus on important elements of CRS, the clinical manifestations, underlying biology, and management strategies including grading, supportive care, and treatment via immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/patologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1143-1156, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788705

RESUMO

Haematology has been at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy advancements. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) is one of the earliest forms of cancer immunotherapy and continues to cure thousands of patients. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) increases allo-HSCT efficacy and reduces graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cells have been approved for the treatment of distinct haematologic malignancies, producing durable response in otherwise untreatable patients. New target antigen identification and technological advances have enabled the structural and functional evolution of CARs, broadening their applications. Despite successes, adoptive T-cell (ATC) therapies are expensive, can cause severe adverse reactions and their use is restricted to few patients. This review considers the current status and future perspectives of allogeneic transplant and donor lymphocytes, as well as novel ATC therapies, such as CAR-T-cells in haematological malignancies by analysing their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The biological rationale for anti-cancer mechanisms and development; current clinical data in specific haematological malignancies; efficacy, toxicity, response and resistance profiles; novel strategies to improve these characteristics; and potential targets to enhance or expand the application of these therapies are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Linfócitos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Doadores de Tecidos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(8): 705-716, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel, also called bb2121), a B-cell maturation antigen-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, has shown clinical activity with expected CAR T-cell toxic effects in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 2 study, we sought to confirm the efficacy and safety of ide-cel in patients with relapsed and refractory myeloma. Patients with disease after at least three previous regimens including a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory agent, and an anti-CD38 antibody were enrolled. Patients received ide-cel target doses of 150 × 106 to 450 × 106 CAR-positive (CAR+) T cells. The primary end point was an overall response (partial response or better); a key secondary end point was a complete response or better (comprising complete and stringent complete responses). RESULTS: Of 140 patients enrolled, 128 received ide-cel. At a median follow-up of 13.3 months, 94 of 128 patients (73%) had a response, and 42 of 128 (33%) had a complete response or better. Minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative status (<10-5 nucleated cells) was confirmed in 33 patients, representing 26% of all 128 patients who were treated and 79% of the 42 patients who had a complete response or better. The median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 11.6). Common toxic effects among the 128 treated patients included neutropenia in 117 patients (91%), anemia in 89 (70%), and thrombocytopenia in 81 (63%). Cytokine release syndrome was reported in 107 patients (84%), including 7 (5%) who had events of grade 3 or higher. Neurotoxic effects developed in 23 patients (18%) and were of grade 3 in 4 patients (3%); no neurotoxic effects higher than grade 3 occurred. Cellular kinetic analysis confirmed CAR+ T cells in 29 of 49 patients (59%) at 6 months and 4 of 11 patients (36%) at 12 months after infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ide-cel induced responses in a majority of heavily pretreated patients with refractory and relapsed myeloma; MRD-negative status was achieved in 26% of treated patients. Almost all patients had grade 3 or 4 toxic effects, most commonly hematologic toxic effects and cytokine release syndrome. (Funded by bluebird bio and Celgene, a Bristol-Myers Squibb company; KarMMa ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03361748.).


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva
4.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 21(3): 145-161, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483715

RESUMO

This Review discusses the major advances and changes made over the past 3 years to our understanding of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell efficacy and safety. Recently, the field has gained insight into how various molecular modules of the CAR influence signalling and function. We report on mechanisms of toxicity and resistance as well as novel engineering and pharmaceutical interventions to overcome these challenges. Looking forward, we discuss new targets and indications for CAR T cell therapy expected to reach the clinic in the next 1-2 years. We also consider some new studies that have implications for the future of CAR T cell therapies, including changes to manufacturing, allogeneic products and drug-regulatable CAR T cells.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Ativação Linfocitária , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 121, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged myelosuppression following CD19-directed CAR T-cell transfusion represents an important, yet underreported, adverse event. The resulting neutropenia and multifactorial immunosuppression can facilitate severe infectious complications. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the clinical course of a 59-year-old patient with relapsed/refractory DLBCL who received Axicabtagene-Ciloleucel (Axi-cel). The patient developed ASTCT grade I CRS and grade IV ICANS, necessitating admission to the neurological ICU and prolonged application of high-dose corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. Importantly, neutropenia was profound (ANC < 100/µl), G-CSF-refractory, and prolonged, lasting more than 50 days. The patient developed severe septic shock 3 weeks after CAR transfusion while receiving anti-fungal prophylaxis with micafungin. His clinical status stabilized with broad anti-infective treatment and intensive supportive measures. An autologous stem cell backup was employed on day 46 to support hematopoietic recovery. Although the counts of the patient eventually started to recover, he developed an invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which ultimately lead to respiratory failure and death. Postmortem examination revealed signs of Candida glabrata pancolitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the increased risk for fatal infectious complications in patients who present with profound and prolonged cytopenia after CAR T-cell therapy. We describe a rare case of C. glabrata pancolitis associated with multifactorial immunosuppression. Although our patient succumbed to a fatal fungal infection, autologous stem cell boost was able to spur hematopoiesis and may represent an important therapeutic strategy for DLBCL patients with CAR T-cell associated bone marrow aplasia who have underwent prior stem cell harvest.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Antígenos CD19/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/etiologia , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Antígenos CD19/efeitos adversos , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/terapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 710, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514714

RESUMO

Antibody-based therapeutics have experienced a rapid growth in recent years and are now utilized in various modalities spanning from conventional antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Many next generation antibody therapeutics achieve enhanced potency but often increase the risk of adverse events. Antibody scaffolds capable of exhibiting inducible affinities could reduce the risk of adverse events by enabling a transient suspension of antibody activity. To demonstrate this, we develop conditionally activated, single-module CARs, in which tumor antigen recognition is directly modulated by an FDA-approved small molecule drug. The resulting CAR T cells demonstrate specific cytotoxicity of tumor cells comparable to that of traditional CARs, but the cytotoxicity is reversibly attenuated by the addition of the small molecule. The exogenous control of conditional CAR T cell activity allows continual modulation of therapeutic activity to improve the safety profile of CAR T cells across all disease indications.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(3): e216-e228, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460558

RESUMO

Therapy with genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting the CD19 antigen is promising for a number of refractory or relapsed B-cell malignancies. Information on the infectious complications of this immunotherapeutic strategy is scarce and difficult to interpret, as many factors influence infection incidence and outcomes. CAR T-cell therapy is usually given to patients with haematological cancers who have been heavily pretreated and are severely immunosuppressed. Moreover, the risk of infection is increased by the administration of lymphodepleting chemotherapy before CAR T-cell infusion, and by the development of complications such as cytokine release syndrome or immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, which are managed with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies, or corticosteroids, or both. On-target, off-tumour toxicities, such as B-cell aplasia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and persistent or biphasic cytopenia, are common. In this Review, we evaluate the reported infectious complications of CAR T-cell therapy and associated risk factors and offer perspectives on its infection risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Agamaglobulinemia/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Viroses/etiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440664

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) has a vast clinical spectrum from the hormone-sensitive setting to castration-resistant metastatic disease. Thus, chemotherapy regimens and the administration of androgen receptor axis-targeted (ARAT) agents for advanced PCa have shown limited therapeutic efficacy. Scientific advances in the field of molecular medicine and technological developments over the last decade have paved the path for immunotherapy to become an essential clinical modality for the treatment of patients with metastatic PCa. However, several immunotherapeutic agents have shown poor outcomes in patients with advanced disease, possibly due to the low PCa mutational burden. Adoptive cellular approaches utilizing chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) targeting cancer-specific antigens would be a solution for circumventing the immune tolerance mechanisms. The immunotherapeutic regimen of CAR-T cell therapy has shown potential in the eradication of hematologic malignancies, and current clinical objectives maintain the equivalent efficacy in the treatment of solid tumors, including PCa. This review will explore the current modalities of CAR-T therapy in the disease spectrum of PCa while describing key limitations of this immunotherapeutic approach and discuss future directions in the application of immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic PCa and patients with advanced disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Lancet ; 396(10266): 1885-1894, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-edited donor-derived allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offer a novel form of CAR-T-cell product that is available for immediate clinical use, thereby broadening access and applicability. UCART19 is one such product investigated in children and adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Two multicentre phase 1 studies aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and antileukaemic activity of UCART19 in children and adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. METHODS: We enrolled paediatric or adult patients in two ongoing, multicentre, phase 1 clinical trials to evaluate the safety and antileukaemic activity of UCART19. All patients underwent lymphodepletion with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without alemtuzumab, then children received UCART19 at 1·1-2·3 × 106 cells per kg and adults received UCART19 doses of 6 × 106 cells, 6-8 × 107 cells, or 1·8-2·4 × 108 cells in a dose-escalation study. The primary outcome measure was adverse events in the period between first infusion and data cutoff. These studies were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02808442 and NCT02746952. FINDINGS: Between June 3, 2016, and Oct 23, 2018, seven children and 14 adults were enrolled in the two studies and received UCART19. Cytokine release syndrome was the most common adverse event and was observed in 19 patients (91%); three (14%) had grade 3-4 cytokine release syndrome. Other adverse events were grade 1 or 2 neurotoxicity in eight patients (38%), grade 1 acute skin graft-versus-host disease in two patients (10%), and grade 4 prolonged cytopenia in six patients (32%). Two treatment-related deaths occurred; one caused by neutropenic sepsis in a patient with concurrent cytokine release syndrome and one from pulmonary haemorrhage in a patient with persistent cytopenia. 14 (67%) of 21 patients had a complete response or complete response with incomplete haematological recovery 28 days after infusion. Patients not receiving alemtuzumab (n=4) showed no UCART19 expansion or antileukaemic activity. The median duration of response was 4·1 months with ten (71%) of 14 responders proceeding to a subsequent allogeneic stem-cell transplant. Progression-free survival at 6 months was 27%, and overall survival was 55%. INTERPRETATION: These two studies show, for the first time, the feasibility of using allogeneic, genome-edited CAR T cells to treat patients with aggressive leukaemia. UCART19 exhibited in-vivo expansion and antileukaemic activity with a manageable safety profile in heavily pretreated paediatric and adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The results this study are an encouraging step forward for the field of allogeneic CAR T cells, and UCART19 offers the opportunity to treat patients with rapidly progressive disease and where autologous CAR-T-cell therapy is unavailable. FUNDING: Servier.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Masculino
10.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(11): e816-e826, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown remarkable activity in patients with refractory or relapsed acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Various anti-CD19 CAR T-cell constructs have been trialled and responses vary widely among different studies. We aimed to systematically analyse the outcomes of patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia treated with anti-CD19 CAR T cells and identify factors associated with differences in outcomes. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials that reported data on the outcomes of adult or paediatric patients that were treated with anti-CD19 CAR T cells for relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia, reported between Jan 1, 2012, and April 14, 2020. Studies with two patients or fewer were excluded and summary data were extracted from the reports. The primary outcome was the number of patients who had complete remission at any time after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell infusion. This study is not registered in PROSPERO. FINDINGS: From 1160 studies, we identified 40 potentially appropriate studies, 35 (88%) of which met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis (n=953 patients). The pooled complete remission was 80% (95% CI 75·5-84·8) and heterogeneity between studies was moderate (I2=56·96%). In the prespecified subgroup analyses, 195 (75% [95% CI 66·9-82·9, I2=35·22%]) of 263 patients in adult studies and 242 (81% [72·9-87·2, I2=54·45%]) of 346 patients in paediatric studies achieved complete remission, p=0·24. The pooled complete remission did not significantly differ with anti-CD19 CAR T-cell construct type or single-chain variable fragment clone, but was higher with autologous T-cell origin (727 [83%, 78·5-86·5, I2=44·34%] of 901 patients), compared with allogeneic T-cell origin (29 [55%, 30·6-79·0, I2=62·64%] of 52 patients; p=0·018). 242 (26% [95% CI 18·5-34·1]) of 854 patients developed grade 3 or worse cytokine release syndrome and 97 (12% [6·6-19·2]) of 532 developed grade 3 or worse neurotoxicity. There was no difference in the proportion of patients who achieved complete remission or who had cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity between different anti-CD19 CAR T-cell constructs. The risk of bias was assessed as low in 17 studies and moderate in 18 studies. INTERPRETATION: The high response rates after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy can be used to guide the use of therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Comparison studies are required to further determine differences in efficacy between different anti-CD19 CAR T-cell constructs in the setting of relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic leukaemia. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Mayo Clinic K2R Research Pipeline, and Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Transplante Autólogo
11.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 839-852, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel) is an autologous, CD19-directed, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell product. We aimed to assess the activity and safety of liso-cel in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas. METHODS: We did a seamless design study at 14 cancer centres in the USA. We enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas. Eligible histological subgroups included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade B-cell lymphoma with rearrangements of MYC and either BCL2, BCL6, or both (double-hit or triple-hit lymphoma), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from any indolent lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma grade 3B. Patients were assigned to one of three target dose levels of liso-cel as they were sequentially tested in the trial (50 × 106 CAR+ T cells [one or two doses], 100 × 106 CAR+ T cells, and 150 × 106 CAR+ T cells), which were administered as a sequential infusion of two components (CD8+ and CD4+ CAR+ T cells) at equal target doses. Primary endpoints were adverse events, dose-limiting toxicities, and the objective response rate (assessed per Lugano criteria); endpoints were assessed by an independent review committee in the efficacy-evaluable set (comprising all patients who had confirmed PET-positive disease and received at least one dose of liso-cel). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02631044. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2016, and July 5, 2019, 344 patients underwent leukapheresis for manufacture of CAR+ T cells (liso-cel), of whom 269 patients received at least one dose of liso-cel. Patients had received a median of three (range 1-8) previous lines of systemic treatment, with 260 (97%) patients having had at least two lines. 112 (42%) patients were aged 65 years or older, 181 (67%) had chemotherapy-refractory disease, and seven (3%) had secondary CNS involvement. Median follow-up for overall survival for all 344 patients who had leukapheresis was 18·8 months (95% CI 15·0-19·3). Overall safety and activity of liso-cel did not differ by dose level. The recommended target dose was 100 × 106 CAR+ T cells (50 × 106 CD8+ and 50 × 106 CD4+ CAR+ T cells). Of 256 patients included in the efficacy-evaluable set, an objective response was achieved by 186 (73%, 95% CI 66·8-78·0) patients and a complete response by 136 (53%, 46·8-59·4). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia in 161 (60%) patients, anaemia in 101 (37%), and thrombocytopenia in 72 (27%). Cytokine release syndrome and neurological events occurred in 113 (42%) and 80 (30%) patients, respectively; grade 3 or worse cytokine release syndrome and neurological events occurred in six (2%) and 27 (10%) patients, respectively. Nine (6%) patients had a dose-limiting toxicity, including one patient who died from diffuse alveolar damage following a dose of 50 × 106 CAR+ T cells. INTERPRETATION: Use of liso-cel resulted in a high objective response rate, with a low incidence of grade 3 or worse cytokine release syndrome and neurological events in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas, including those with diverse histological subtypes and high-risk features. Liso-cel is under further evaluation at first relapse in large B-cell lymphomas and as a treatment for other relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. FUNDING: Juno Therapeutics, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/epidemiologia , Antígenos CD19/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD19/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Leucaférese/métodos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/classificação , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Segurança , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Bull Cancer ; 107(7-8): 830-842, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758364

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized oncological management in several tumor types, allowing prolonged tumoral responses. Thus, they are administered over long periods of time and can give specific autoimmune adverse reactions that may have a potential impact on quality of life (QoL). Most of phase III trials with ICI have included an assessment of QoL. In metastatic setting, in comparison with chemotherapy or targeted therapies, they indicate an absence of degradation of the QoL scores or even an improvement of these scores. In adjuvant setting, the deterioration of QoL scores is not clinically significant, regardless of the ICI used. In addition, there is no impairment of quality of life in patients with prolonged treatment duration. However, the measurement of QoL under ICI remains a challenge because of the specificities of these treatments and adapted measurement scales are being developed to improve the assessment of the impact of these treatments on patients' QoL.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Qualidade de Vida , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2215-2229, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856140

RESUMO

The B cell surface antigen CD19 is a target for treating B cell malignancies, such as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The BiTE® immuno-oncology platform includes blinatumomab, which is approved for relapsed/refractory B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with minimal residual disease. Blinatumomab is also being evaluated in combination with other agents (tyrosine kinase inhibitors, checkpoint inhibitors, and chemotherapy) in various treatment settings, including frontline protocols. An extended half-life BiTE molecule is also under investigation. Patients receiving blinatumomab may experience cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity; however, these events may be less frequent and severe than in patients receiving other CD19-targeted immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy. We review BiTE technology for treating malignancies that express CD19, analyzing the benefits and limitations of this bispecific T cell engager platform from clinical experience with blinatumomab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Custo-Benefício , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/economia , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Pré-Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Evasão Tumoral
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12929, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640079

RESUMO

After prolonged extracorporeal multiplication in physiological culture media, there can be curative infusions of a cancer patient's own cytotoxic T cells (adoptive T cell transfer; ACT), which must achieve efficient activation in potentially adverse tumour microenvironments. With spectacular, yet irregular, success, improvements are needed. Developing lymphoid cells are biologically selected, not only for 'near-self' reactivity (positive selection), but also to avoid self-reactivity (negative selection). Thus, success requires harnessing near-self cells while avoiding extreme autoimmune phenomena. Abrupt metabolic changes accompanying T cell activation to leave the G0 stage and enter the G1 stage of the cell cycle (eg enhanced glycolysis) are accompanied by increased transcription of the G0S9 gene that mediates salvage synthesis of NAD+ from nicotinamide; the latter has recently been shown to increase the efficiency of ACT. Despite theoretical and experimental advances, there has not been parallel progress in simulating in vivo conditions with culture media that were initially formulated for their positive benefits for tumour cell lines (cell survival and proliferation). Yet for lymphoid cells, inhibition or death (ie immunological tolerance) is as important as their activation and proliferation (immunological response). Thus, use of media optimized for the latter may mask the former. The resilience of established culture protocols may have been partly politically driven. However, unphysiological conditions have sometimes yielded fortuitous insights. Optimization of culture media for specific tissues must consider the nature of problems addressed in research settings and the need to avoid mishaps in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Reprogramação Celular , Meios de Cultura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Leukemia ; 34(10): 2704-2707, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594100

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell is a safe and effective therapy of B-cell cancers but it is unknown if this is so in persons with prior hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied 70 subjects with advanced B-cell cancers receiving CAR-T-cell therapy, 12 of whom had chronic HBV-infection (HBsAg positive) and 29 with resolved HBV-infection (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive). Safety and efficacy were compared with 29 subjects without HBV-infection. HBV was reactivated in 2 subjects with chronic HBV-infection and 1 with resolved HBV-infection. There was no HBV-related hepatitis flare. Responses to CAR-T-cell therapy in the three cohorts were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the incidence or severity of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicity between the cohorts. Our data suggest that chronic and resolved HBV-infection do not affect the safety and efficacy of CAR-T-cell therapy.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia de Células B/terapia , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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