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1.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 126, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One hypothesis for the function of sleep is that it serves as a mechanism to conserve energy. Recent studies have suggested that increased sleep can be an adaptive mechanism to improve survival under food deprivation in Drosophila melanogaster. To test the generality of this hypothesis, we compared sleep and its plastic response to starvation in a temperate and tropical population of Drosophila melanogaster. RESULTS: We found that flies from the temperate population were more starvation resistant, and hypothesized that they would engage in behaviors that are considered to conserve energy, including increased sleep and reduced movement. Surprisingly, temperate flies slept less and moved more when they were awake compared to tropical flies, both under fed and starved conditions, therefore sleep did not correlate with population-level differences in starvation resistance. In contrast, total sleep and percent change in sleep when starved were strongly positively correlated with starvation resistance within the tropical population, but not within the temperate population. Thus, we observe unexpectedly complex relationships between starvation and sleep that vary both within and across populations. These observations falsify the simple hypothesis of a straightforward relationship between sleep and energy conservation. We also tested the hypothesis that starvation is correlated with metabolic phenotypes by investigating stored lipid and carbohydrate levels, and found that stored metabolites partially contributed towards variation starvation resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the function of sleep under starvation can rapidly evolve on short timescales and raise new questions about the physiological correlates of sleep and the extent to which variation in sleep is shaped by natural selection.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Evolução Molecular , Sono , Inanição , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(2): 229-241, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997221

RESUMO

Raoiella indica Hirst (Tenuipalpidae) is an obligate phytophagous mite that has rapidly colonized wide areas of tropical America and causes severe injuries, mainly to plants in the families Arecaceae, Heliconiaceae, Zingiberaceae and Musaceae. This study evaluates biological attributes of the species that could explain its potential as invasive pest, its capacity to survive when deprived of food and its dispersal mechanisms, including passive displacement by wind and possible phoretic association with insects. This mite has a higher resistance to starvation than other phytophagous mites, with a maximum 12 days for adult females. Its main dispersal is by wind, even at low velocities. Phoresy on insects was not observed.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ácaros/fisiologia , Inanição , Animais , Feminino
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970715

RESUMO

There is an extensive literature establishing, validating, and quantifying a wide range of responses of fishes to fasting. Our study complements this work by comparing fed and unfed treatments of hatchery-raised Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus)-an imperiled fish that is endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and its tributaries in California, USA-across a diverse suite of endpoints over a two-month time series. The experiment was conducted at 15.9°C, and individuals were sampled at 12 time points as starvation became increasingly severe. We found that hepatosomatic index and condition factor were relatively sensitive to starvation, becoming significantly depressed at Day 4 and 7, respectively. Histological analysis of liver showed elevated cytoplasmic inclusion bodies at Day 7, followed by increased glycogen depletion, single cell necrosis, and hydropic vacuolar degeneration at Day 14, 21, and 28, respectively. Of four antioxidants measured, glutathione decreased at Day 4, superoxide dismutase increased at Day 14, catalase increased at Day 56, and glutathione peroxidase was not affected by starvation. The net result was a ~2-fold increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in fasted fish that was highly inconsistent through time. RNA to DNA ratio and triglycerides in muscle were relatively insensitive to starvation, only consistently decreasing with fasting after mortality began increasing in the 'No Feeding' treatment, at Day 21. Together, these results suggest that Delta Smelt mobilize hepatic energy stores far more rapidly than lipids in muscle when subjected to fasting, leading to rapid atrophy of liver and the development of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies-possibly autophagosomes-in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Osmeriformes/metabolismo , Inanição , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/patologia , Necrose , Osmeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(9): 1076-1090, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807902

RESUMO

Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cytoplasmic components are degraded within lysosomes, allowing cells to maintain energy homeostasis during nutrient depletion. Several studies reported that the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 promotes starvation-induced autophagy by an unknown mechanism. Here we find that p27 controls autophagy via an mTORC1-dependent mechanism in amino acid-deprived cells. During prolonged starvation, a fraction of p27 is recruited to lysosomes, where it interacts with LAMTOR1, a component of the Ragulator complex required for mTORC1 activation. Binding of p27 to LAMTOR1 prevents Ragulator assembly and mTORC1 activation, promoting autophagy. Conversely, p27-/- cells exhibit elevated mTORC1 signalling as well as impaired lysosomal activity and autophagy. This is associated with cytoplasmic sequestration of TFEB, preventing induction of the lysosomal genes required for lysosome function. LAMTOR1 silencing or mTOR inhibition restores autophagy and induces apoptosis in p27-/- cells. Together, these results reveal a direct coordinated regulation between the cell cycle and cell growth machineries.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inanição/metabolismo
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(4): 483-494, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748182

RESUMO

The fatty acid (FA) composition of lipids in animals is influenced by factors such as species, life stage, availability and type of food, as well as the ability to synthesize certain FAs de novo. We investigated the effect of starvation on the neutral lipid (NLFA) and phospholipid (PLFA) fatty acid patterns of the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki. Furthermore, we performed stable-isotope labeled precursors feeding experiments under axenic conditions to delineate de novo FA synthesis by profiling 13C and deuterium incorporation via single-ion monitoring. Starvation of mites resulted in a decline in the total amount of NLFAs and significantly changed the fatty acid patterns, indicating that NLFAs were metabolized selectively. Biochemical tracer experiments confirmed that oribatid mites, like other animals, can produce stearic (18:0) and oleic acid (18:1ω9) de novo. Mass spectrometric data also revealed that they appear to synthesize linoleic acid [18:2ω6,9 = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid]-an ability restricted only to a few arthropod taxa, including astigmatid mites. The physiological and biosynthesis processes revealed here are crucial to understand the potential biomarker function of fatty acids-especially 18:2ω6,9-in oribatid mites and their applicability in soil animal food web studies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácaros/metabolismo , Inanição , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Solo
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000548, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745077

RESUMO

Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here, we demonstrate that down-regulation of the secreted cytokine unpaired 2 (upd2) in Drosophila flies may mimic a starved-like state. We used a genetic knockdown strategy to investigate the consequences of upd2 on visual attention and sleep in otherwise well-fed flies, thereby sidestepping the negative side effects of undernourishment. We find that knockdown of upd2 in the fat body (FB) is sufficient to suppress sleep and promote feeding-related behaviors while also improving selective visual attention. Furthermore, we show that this peripheral signal is integrated in the fly brain via insulin-expressing cells. Together, these findings identify a role for peripheral tissue-to-brain interactions in the simultaneous regulation of sleep quality and attention, to potentially promote adaptive behaviors necessary for survival in hungry animals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603332

RESUMO

Conservation efforts are increasingly being challenged by a rapidly changing environment, and for some aquatic species the use of captive rearing or selective breeding is an attractive option. However, captivity itself can impose unintended artificial selection known as domestication selection (adaptation to culture conditions) and is relatively understudied for most marine species. To test for domestication selection in marine bivalves, we focused on a fitness-related trait (larval starvation resistance) that could be altered under artificial selection. Using larvae produced from a wild population of Crassostrea virginica and a selectively bred, disease-resistant line we measured growth and survival during starvation versus standard algal diet conditions. Larvae from both lineages showed a remarkable resilience to food limitation, possibly mediated by an ability to utilize dissolved organic matter for somatic maintenance. Water chemistry analysis showed dissolved organic carbon in filtered tank water to be at concentrations similar to natural river water. We observed that survival in larvae produced from the aquaculture line was significantly lower compared to larvae produced from wild broodstock (8 ± 3% and 21 ± 2%, respectively) near the end of a 10-day period with no food (phytoplankton). All larval cohorts had arrested growth and depressed respiration during the starvation period and took at least two days to recover once food was reintroduced before resuming growth. Respiration rate recovered rapidly and final shell length was similar between the two treatments Phenotypic differences between the wild and aquaculture lines suggest potential differences in the capacity to sustain extended food limitation, but this work requires replication with multiple selection lines and wild populations to make more general inferences about domestication selection. With this contribution we explore the potential for domestication selection in bivalves, discuss the physiological and fitness implications of reduced starvation tolerance, and aim to inspire further research on the topic.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/fisiologia , Domesticação , Larva/fisiologia , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Respiração , Inanição/metabolismo
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200970, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673558

RESUMO

Ocean warming impacts the fitness of marine ectothermic species, leading to poleward range shifts, re-shuffling of communities, and changes in ecosystem services. While the detrimental effects of summer heat waves have been widely studied, little is known about the impacts of winter warming on marine species in temperate regions. Many species benefit from low winter temperature-induced reductions in metabolism, as these permit conservation of energy reserves that are needed to support reproduction in spring. Here, we used a unique outdoor mesocosm system to expose a coastal predator-prey system, the sea star Asterias and the blue mussel Mytilus, to different winter warming scenarios under near-natural conditions. We found that the body condition of mussels decreased in a linear fashion with increasing temperature. Sea star growth also decreased with increasing temperature, which was a function of unaltered predation rates and decreased mussel body condition. Asterias relative digestive gland mass strongly declined over the studied temperature interval (ca twofold). This could have severe implications for reproductive capacity in the following spring, as digestive glands provide reserve compounds to maturing gonads. Thus, both predator and prey suffered from a mismatch of energy acquisition versus consumption in warmer winter scenarios, with pronounced consequences for food web energy transfer in future oceans.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Estrelas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Inanição , Temperatura
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511278

RESUMO

The autophagy-endolysosomal pathway is an evolutionally conserved degradation system that is tightly linked to a wide variety of physiological processes. Dysfunction of this system is associated with many pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, monitoring the cellular autophagy-endolysosomal activity is crucial for studies on the pathogenesis as well as therapeutics of such disorders. To this end, we here sought to create a novel means exploiting Keima, an acid-stable fluorescent protein possessing pH-dependent fluorescence excitation spectra, for precisely monitoring the autophagy-endolysosomal system. First, we generated three lines of transgenic (tg) mouse expressing monomeric Keima-fused MAP1LC3B (mKeima-LC3B). Then, these tg mice were subjected to starvation by food-restriction, and also challenged to neurodegeneration by genetically crossing with a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; i.e., SOD1H46R transgenic mouse. Unexpectedly, despite that a lipidated-form of endogenous LC3 (LC3-II) was significantly increased, those of mKeima-LC3B (mKeima-LC3B-II) were not changed under both stressed conditions. It was also noted that mKeima-LC3B-positive aggregates were progressively accumulated in the spinal cord of SOD1H46R;mKeima-LC3B double-tg mice, suggestive of acid-resistance and aggregate-prone natures of long-term overexpressed mKeima-LC3B in vivo. Next, we characterized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mKeima-LC3B-tg mice. In contrast with in vivo, levels of mKeima-LC3B-I were decreased under starved conditions. Furthermore, when starved MEFs were treated with chloroquine (CQ), the abundance of mKeima-LC3B-II was significantly increased. Remarkably, when cultured medium was repeatedly changed between DMEM (nutrient-rich) and EBSS (starvation), acidic/neutral signal ratios of mKeima-LC3B-positive compartments were rapidly and reversibly shifted, which were suppressed by the CQ treatment, indicating that intraluminal pH of mKeima-LC3B-positive vesicles was changeable upon nutritional conditions of culture media. Taken together, although mKeima-LC3B-tg mice may not be an appropriate tool to monitor the autophagy-endolysosomal system in vivo, mKeima-LC3B must be one of the most sensitive reporter molecules for monitoring this system under in vitro cultured conditions.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Endossomos/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Inanição , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3148, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561715

RESUMO

Macroautophagy ("autophagy") is the main lysosomal catabolic process that becomes activated under nutrient-depleted conditions, like amino acid (AA) starvation. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a well-conserved negative regulator of autophagy. While leucine (Leu) is a critical mTORC1 regulator under AA-starved conditions, how Leu regulates autophagy is poorly understood. Here, we describe that in most cell types, including neurons, Leu negatively regulates autophagosome biogenesis via its metabolite, acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA). AcCoA inhibits autophagy by enhancing EP300-dependent acetylation of the mTORC1 component raptor, with consequent activation of mTORC1. Interestingly, in Leu deprivation conditions, the dominant effects on autophagy are mediated by decreased raptor acetylation causing mTORC1 inhibition, rather than by altered acetylation of other autophagy regulators. Thus, in most cell types we examined, Leu regulates autophagy via the impact of its metabolite AcCoA on mTORC1, suggesting that AcCoA and EP300 play pivotal roles in cell anabolism and catabolism.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Leucina/metabolismo , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Autofagossomos , Linhagem Celular , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Inanição/metabolismo
11.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(3): 323-328, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540819

RESUMO

Ketosis is a metabolic situation involving an increase in blood and urine concentrations of ketones that, when prolonged, leads to acidosis. Moderate ketosis usually appears after a fast of a few hours, but its prolongation exposes to hyperketosis. Observation: A 25-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for cohercitive vomiting. She was fasting for a long time in a spiritual setting and had a restricted diet limited to water and vitamin supplements. Clinical and biological assessment was in favour of fasting ketoacidosis. Evolution was favorable with intravenous hydration, poly-ionic and micronutrient supplementation and a gradual resumption of oral feeding. Conclusion: We report the case of a patient with fasting ketoacidosis. Besides consequences of this ketoacidosis, the challenge was also in resuming oral feeding in order to avoid a potentially fatal inappropriate renutrition syndrome.


Assuntos
Jejum/efeitos adversos , Cetose/etiologia , Inanição/complicações , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Acidose/etiologia , Acidose/terapia , Adulto , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/diagnóstico , Cetose/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral , Inanição/sangue , Inanição/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12239-12248, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430326

RESUMO

The ability to tolerate and thrive in diverse environments is paramount to all living organisms, and many organisms spend a large part of their lifetime in starvation. Upon acute glucose starvation, yeast cells undergo drastic physiological and metabolic changes and reestablish a constant-although lower-level of energy production within minutes. The molecules that are rapidly metabolized to fuel energy production under these conditions are unknown. Here, we combine metabolomics and genetics to characterize the cells' response to acute glucose depletion and identify pathways that ensure survival during starvation. We show that the ability to respire is essential for maintaining the energy status and to ensure viability during starvation. Measuring the cells' immediate metabolic response, we find that central metabolites drastically deplete and that the intracellular AMP-to-ATP ratio strongly increases within 20 to 30 s. Furthermore, we detect changes in both amino acid and lipid metabolite levels. Consistent with this, both bulk autophagy, a process that frees amino acids, and lipid degradation via ß-oxidation contribute in parallel to energy maintenance upon acute starvation. In addition, both these pathways ensure long-term survival during starvation. Thus, our results identify bulk autophagy and ß-oxidation as important energy providers during acute glucose starvation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Metabolismo Energético , Glucose/deficiência , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Oxirredução , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Inanição
13.
Gene ; 752: 144782, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442577

RESUMO

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) play an important role in muscle energy metabolism, and Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an essential regulator of BCAA metabolism in muscle under nutritional deficiency. In this study, we analyzed the effect of normal feeding (starvation for 0 day), starvation for 3, 7, 10, 15 days, and refeeding for 7 days after 15 days of starvation on the expression of KLF15 and BCAA metabolism in muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtles by a fasting-refeeding trial. The results showed that the level of KLF15 transcription was increased first and then decreased in muscle during short-term starvation, and the protein level was gradually increased. Both the mRNA and protein level of the KLF15 returned to normal feeding level after refeeding for 7 days. The changing trend of the activities of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was consistent to that of KLF15 mRNA, but at the transcription level, the expression of BCAT mRNA was consistent with the change of enzyme activity as well as ALT continued to increase in muscle under starvation. In addition, BCAA content showed a trend that decreased first and then increased under starvation, while the alanine (Ala) was the contrary. The above results indicated that the regulatory role of KLF15 in BCAA catabolism of muscle in Chinese soft-shelled turtles under nutritional deficiency, which might be activated the catabolism of BCAA in muscle to provide energy and maintain the homeostasis by KLF15-BACC signaling axis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/genética , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Inanição/metabolismo , Tartarugas/genética , Tartarugas/metabolismo
14.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 14, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415097

RESUMO

Cells can sense changes in their extracellular environment and subsequently adapt their biomass composition. Nutrient abundance defines the capability of the cell to produce biomass components. Under nutrient-limited conditions, resource allocation dramatically shifts to carbon-rich molecules. Here, we used dynamic biomass composition data to predict changes in growth and reaction flux distributions using the available genome-scale metabolic models of five eukaryotic organisms (three heterotrophs and two phototrophs). We identified temporal profiles of metabolic fluxes that indicate long-term trends in pathway and organelle function in response to nitrogen depletion. Surprisingly, our calculations of model sensitivity and biosynthetic cost showed that free energy of biomass metabolites is the main driver of biosynthetic cost and not molecular weight, thus explaining the high costs of arginine and histidine. We demonstrated how metabolic models can accurately predict the complexity of interwoven mechanisms in response to stress over the course of growth.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Células CHO/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Genoma , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Inanição , Yarrowia/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456074

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to famine may have long-term consequences in adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to explore the association between famine exposure in fetal life (Chinese famine in 1959-1961) and obesity risk in adulthood. A total of 8054 subjects (3422 male, 4632 female) were recruited from the cross-sectional 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS). The subjects born in 1960 and 1961 were selected as the exposed group, while the subjects born in 1963 were selected as the unexposed group. Multiple linear or logistic regression was performed to examine the association between fetal exposure to famine and risk of obesity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), obesity, central obesity) adjusting for gender, education level, economic status, physical exercise, sedentary time, smoking, drinking, the intake of livestock and poultry and the intake of cereal and beans. Compared with the unexposed group, WC increased by 0.52 cm after adjusting the covariates (p = 0.021) and females in the exposed group had a significantly higher prevalence of central obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.15 (1.01,1.31) after adjusting the confounders (p = 0.030). WC increased by 0.71 cm, 1.21 cm after adjusting the covariates compared with the unexposed group among the total subjects and the female subjects in urban areas (p = 0.021, p = 0.001). The female subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity and central obesity, with ORs of 1.34 (1.04,1.71) (p = 0.022), 1.28 (1.07,1.53) (p = 0.008) respectively. Our results suggest that fetal exposure to the Chinese famine increased obesity risk in adulthood, and the association was stronger in female and urban subjects.


Assuntos
Fome Epidêmica , Obesidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Inanição , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Gene ; 745: 144647, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247738

RESUMO

AIMS: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are regulated by the availability of their respective acyl-CoAs. Among these histone PTMs, the metabolic origin of histone butyrylation (Kbu) is still poorly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The impact of starvation on the levels of Kbu was determined by western blotting on histones extracted from the liver of fed and fasted C57BL/6 mice and immunohistochemistry on liver paraffin sections. KEY FINDINGS: Using animal model we provide evidence that the stimulation of ketogenesis following starvation, in addition to histone beta-hydroxybutyrylation (Kbhb), also leads to an increase in histone butyrylation (Kbu). Using an immunohistochemistry (IHC) approach we report first that hepatocytes contained butyrylated histones with important cell-to-cell heterogeneity. More importantly, our investigations based on western blotting and IHC also proposed that the basal levels of Kbu differ between male and female mice, with female mouse hepatocytes containing higher levels of butyrylated histones. Starvation enhanced solely histone Kbu levels in the liver of males but not females. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of a sex-dependent large-scale stimulation of histone acylation. Our data also point to different basal metabolic conditions of the male and female liver cells with a sex-dependent impact on the hepatocytes' epigenome.


Assuntos
Histonas/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Inanição/patologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Acilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hepatócitos/patologia , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Harefuah ; 159(4): 263-265, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: War is usually accompanied by devastating consequences such as famine, diseases, social and economic destruction and more. Research projects or accounts on hunger were rarely made during the war itself. This review describes these attempts with an emphasis on the heroic "Hunger Disease " research that was carried out within the Warsaw ghetto.


Assuntos
Judeus , Inanição , Humanos , Fome , Judaísmo , Socialismo Nacional
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9932-9941, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312819

RESUMO

Cellular starvation is typically a consequence of tissue injury that disrupts the local blood supply but can also occur where cell populations outgrow the local vasculature, as observed in solid tumors. Cells react to nutrient deprivation by adapting their metabolism, or, if starvation is prolonged, it can result in cell death. Cell starvation also triggers adaptive responses, like angiogenesis, that promote tissue reorganization and repair, but other adaptive responses and their mediators are still poorly characterized. To explore this issue, we analyzed secretomes from glucose-deprived cells, which revealed up-regulation of multiple cytokines and chemokines, including IL-6 and IL-8, in response to starvation stress. Starvation-induced cytokines were cell type-dependent, and they were also released from primary epithelial cells. Most cytokines were up-regulated in a manner dependent on NF-κB and the transcription factor of the integrated stress response ATF4, which bound directly to the IL-8 promoter. Furthermore, glutamine deprivation, as well as the antimetabolic drugs 2-deoxyglucose and metformin, also promoted the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Finally, some of the factors released from starved cells induced chemotaxis of B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, suggesting that nutrient deprivation in the tumor environment can serve as an initiator of tumor inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Inanição/genética , Inanição/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
20.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(4): 268-271, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238745

RESUMO

We report a case of a 29-year-old woman with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II who developed severe ketoacidosis after short-term starvation. She was hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection. Although her symptoms improved after administration of intravenous antibiotic agents, her food intake gradually decreased. On the 7th day of hospitalization, she experienced abdominal pain followed by vomiting, after which she was unable to eat. Approximately 12 h later, she suffered from shock, accompanied with disturbance of consciousness, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit. She was diagnosed with ketoacidosis based on arterial blood gas analyses and urine test results. On receiving continuous infusion of glucose and insulin, her ketoacidosis was rapidly resolved and her symptoms completely recovered by the next day. To prevent the recurrence of ketoacidosis, we provided a diet plan based on indirect calorimetry results. However, ketoacidosis recurred twice, at 12 months and 16 months after discharge, both within 24 h of the onset of the fasting state. In addition to insufficient glycogen storage because of chronic malnutrition, poor gluconeogenesis or poor ketone body consumption due to skeletal muscle atrophy was believed to increase the risk of acute-onset, severe ketoacidosis after short-term starvation. Clinicians must note that patients with SMA are prone to ketoacidosis and that they must be promptly treated.


Assuntos
Cetose/etiologia , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/complicações , Inanição/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cetose/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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