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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 371-377, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to spirituality well-being, ambiguity intolerance, and happiness conceptualizations, this study was purposed to investigate the influences of spiritual well-being and uncertainty tolerance on happiness with regards to the moderating roles of sex in the elderly. Meth-od: Participants included 120 elders from Shiraz City, Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHI) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Findings showed that spirituality well-being and uncertainty intolerance explain 60% of happiness variation in the elderly. But results rejected the role of sex on the prediction of happiness in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the predictive roles of spiritual well-being and ambiguity tolerance on happiness in the field of gerontology


ANTECEDENTES: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. MÉTODO: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espiritualidade , Permissividade , Felicidade , Incerteza , Saúde do Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Envelhecimento/psicologia
3.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264772

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Ciúme , Casamento/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Interação Social , Mídias Sociais
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209389

RESUMO

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a key and growing technology for many critical real-life applications, where it can be used to improve decision making. The existence of several sources of uncertainty in the IoT infrastructure, however, can lead decision makers into taking inappropriate actions. The present work focuses on proposing a risk-based IoT decision-making framework in order to effectively manage uncertainties in addition to integrating domain knowledge in the decision-making process. A structured literature review of the risks and sources of uncertainty in IoT decision-making systems is the basis for the development of the framework and Human Activity Recognition (HAR) case studies. More specifically, as one of the main targeted challenges, the potential sources of uncertainties in an IoT framework, at different levels of abstraction, are firstly reviewed and then summarized. The modules included in the framework are detailed, with the main focus given to a novel risk-based analytics module, where an ensemble-based data analytic approach, called Calibrated Random Forest (CRF), is proposed to extract useful information while quantifying and managing the uncertainty associated with predictions, by using confidence scores. Its output is subsequently integrated with domain knowledge-based action rules to perform decision making in a cost-sensitive and rational manner. The proposed CRF method is firstly evaluated and demonstrated on a HAR scenario in a Smart Home environment in case study I and is further evaluated and illustrated with a remote health monitoring scenario for a diabetes use case in case study II. The experimental results indicate that using the framework's raw sensor data can be converted into meaningful actions despite several sources of uncertainty. The comparison of the proposed framework to existing approaches highlights the key metrics that make decision making more rational and transparent.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Incerteza
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204460

RESUMO

In fields on which decisions need to be taken including health, as we are seeing nowadays in the COVID-19 crisis, decision-makers face multiple criteria and results with a random component. In stochastic multicriteria decision-making models, the risk attitude of the decision maker is a relevant factor. Traditionally, the shape of a utility function is the only element that represents the decision maker's risk attitude. The eduction process of multi-attribute utility functions implies some operational drawbacks, and it is not always easy. In this paper, we propose a new element with which the decision maker's risk attitude can be implemented: the selection of the stochastic efficiency concept to be used during a decision analysis. We suggest representing the risk attitude as a conflict between two poles: risk neutral attitude, associated with best expectations, and risk aversion attitude, associated with a lower uncertainty. The Extended Goal Programming formulation has inspired the parameter that is introduced in a new risk attitude formulation. This parameter reflects the trade-off between the two classical poles with respect to risk attitude. Thus, we have produced a new stochastic efficiency concept that we call Compromise Efficiency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
6.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 488-492, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197216

RESUMO

Research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on communication on Tinder is presented in this article. This research examines reported changes in communication about sex and health during COVID-19 and the potential implications of those changes on hookup culture and sexual health communication beyond the pandemic. Data from 29 in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 female and 9 male college students are reported. Results include discussion of how college students are managing uncertainty, particularly uncertainty about health status, changes in communication and information-seeking strategies, different COVID-19 safety measures they have employed, and the future impact on communication about sexual health post-COVID-19. Participants in this study use uncertainty reduction communication strategies to gauge whether the risks of remaining on Tinder or meeting in person are worth the benefit. Results show that the quality and quantity of communication around first time in-person meetings have been modified, as the traditional public spaces for meeting have been reduced or eliminated and replaced by private spaces. Participants stated that they communicate more frequently and more directly about health, sexual health, and infection transmission. Finally, results indicate that participants have a strong desire to be more cautious and cognizant of health and safety in the future by using some of the communication strategies they developed during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Estudantes/psicologia , Incerteza , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300576

RESUMO

In modern manufacturing industry, the methods supporting real-time decision-making are the urgent requirement to response the uncertainty and complexity in intelligent production process. In this paper, a novel closed-loop scheduling framework is proposed to achieve real-time decision making by calling the appropriate data-driven dispatching rules at each rescheduling point. This framework contains four parts: offline training, online decision-making, data base and rules base. In the offline training part, the potential and appropriate dispatching rules with managers' expectations are explored successfully by an improved gene expression program (IGEP) from the historical production data, not just the available or predictable information of the shop floor. In the online decision-making part, the intelligent shop floor will implement the scheduling scheme which is scheduled by the appropriate dispatching rules from rules base and store the production data into the data base. This approach is evaluated in a scenario of the intelligent job shop with random jobs arrival. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperformed the existing well-known single and combination dispatching rules or the discovered dispatching rules via metaheuristic algorithm in term of makespan, total flow time and tardiness.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Incerteza
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 384, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fidelity and reliability of disease model predictions depend on accurate and precise descriptions of processes and determination of parameters. Various models exist to describe within-host dynamics during malaria infection but there is a shortage of clinical data that can be used to quantitatively validate them and establish confidence in their predictions. In addition, model parameters often contain a degree of uncertainty and show variations between individuals, potentially undermining the reliability of model predictions. In this study models were reproduced and analysed by means of robustness, uncertainty, local sensitivity and local sensitivity robustness analysis to establish confidence in their predictions. RESULTS: Components of the immune system are responsible for the most uncertainty in model outputs, while disease associated variables showed the greatest sensitivity for these components. All models showed a comparable degree of robustness but displayed different ranges in their predictions. In these different ranges, sensitivities were well-preserved in three of the four models. CONCLUSION: Analyses of the effects of parameter variations in models can provide a comparative tool for the evaluation of model predictions. In addition, it can assist in uncovering model weak points and, in the case of disease models, be used to identify possible points for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Malária , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200287

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel medical image encryption method based on multi-mode synchronization of hyper-chaotic systems is presented. The synchronization of hyper-chaotic systems is of great significance in secure communication tasks such as encryption of images. Multi-mode synchronization is a novel and highly complex issue, especially if there is uncertainty and disturbance. In this work, an adaptive-robust controller is designed for multimode synchronized chaotic systems with variable and unknown parameters, despite the bounded disturbance and uncertainty with a known function in two modes. In the first case, it is a main system with some response systems, and in the second case, it is a circular synchronization. Using theorems it is proved that the two synchronization methods are equivalent. Our results show that, we are able to obtain the convergence of synchronization error and parameter estimation error to zero using Lyapunov's method. The new laws to update time-varying parameters, estimating disturbance and uncertainty bounds are proposed such that stability of system is guaranteed. To assess the performance of the proposed synchronization method, various statistical analyzes were carried out on the encrypted medical images and standard benchmark images. The results show effective performance of the proposed synchronization technique in the medical images encryption for telemedicine application.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Dinâmica não Linear , Comunicação , Simulação por Computador , Incerteza
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206104

RESUMO

In control and monitoring of manufacturing processes, it is key to understand model uncertainty in order to achieve the required levels of consistency, quality, and economy, among others. In aerospace applications, models need to be very precise and able to describe the entire dynamics of an aircraft. In addition, the complexity of modern real systems has turned deterministic models impractical, since they cannot adequately represent the behavior of disturbances in sensors and actuators, and tool and machine wear, to name a few. Thus, it is necessary to deal with model uncertainties in the dynamics of the plant by incorporating a stochastic behavior. These uncertainties could also affect the effectiveness of fault diagnosis methodologies used to increment the safety and reliability in real-world systems. Determining suitable dynamic system models of real processes is essential to obtain effective process control strategies and accurate fault detection and diagnosis methodologies that deliver good performance. In this paper, a maximum likelihood estimation algorithm for the uncertainty modeling in linear dynamic systems is developed utilizing a stochastic embedding approach. In this approach, system uncertainties are accounted for as a stochastic error term in a transfer function. In this paper, we model the error-model probability density function as a finite Gaussian mixture model. For the estimation of the nominal model and the probability density function of the parameters of the error-model, we develop an iterative algorithm based on the Expectation-Maximization algorithm using the data from independent experiments. The benefits of our proposal are illustrated via numerical simulations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Funções Verossimilhança , Distribuição Normal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processos Estocásticos , Incerteza
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208244

RESUMO

The effects of environmental exposure on human health have been widely explored by scholars in health geography for decades. However, recent advances in geospatial technologies, especially the development of mobile approaches to collecting real-time and high-resolution individual data, have enabled sophisticated methods for assessing people's environmental exposure. This study proposes an individual environmental exposure assessment system (IEEAS) that integrates objective real-time monitoring devices and subjective sensing tools to provide a composite way for individual-based environmental exposure data collection. With field test data collected in Chicago and Beijing, we illustrate and discuss the advantages of the proposed IEEAS and the composite analysis that could be applied. Data collected with the proposed IEEAS yield relatively accurate measurements of individual exposure in a composite way, and offer new opportunities for developing more sophisticated ways to measure individual environmental exposure. With the capability to consider both the variations in environmental risks and human mobility in high spatial and temporal resolutions, the IEEAS also helps mitigate some uncertainties in environmental exposure assessment and thus enables a better understanding of the relationship between individual environmental exposure and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Humanos , Incerteza
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(744-2): 1265-1267, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219421

RESUMO

Men die more by suicide than women, but women attempt suicide more frequently. Gender does indeed shape suicidal ideas and behaviors. Due to differences in the way men express their suffering, men's depression may be underdiagnosed and undertreated. Furthermore, regarding suicidal behaviors, men use more lethal suicide methods than women. Their suicidal process seems also to progress more rapidly, which is probably related to their frequent substance use. Clinicians and researchers should consider these differences in their approach, without reducing men and women to their gender.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Suicídio , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Incerteza
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069918

RESUMO

Contemporary society is characterized by a high level of uncertainty in many domains of everyday life. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a deep economic crisis, exacerbating worldwide feelings of uncertainty and precarity. Individuals with insecure jobs have (and will) probably suffered the most from this situation. Workers with higher job insecurity have poorer psychological and physical health, display more negative work attitudes and are less satisfied about their life. However, much less is known about the impact of job insecurity and life uncertainty on consumer behavior. Using the Conservation of Resources theory as a framework, the present study examines a model in which job insecurity and life uncertainty would have a negative effect on everyday consumptions and broader life projects of individuals. Data collection was conducted in Italy in June and July 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, in the immediate aftermath of the national lockdown. In a sample of 830 workers, the results of a mediation analysis showed that job insecurity and life uncertainty had a detrimental impact of consumer behaviors, since they were significantly associated with higher propensity to sacrifice and reduce everyday short-term consumptions (e.g., buying food) and greater perceived unaffordability of broader long-term life projects (e.g., buying a house).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emprego , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
16.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 1867-1878, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068441

RESUMO

Cancer causes substantial emotional and psychosocial distress, which may be exacerbated by delays in treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased wait times for many patients with cancer. In this study, the psychosocial distress associated with waiting for cancer surgery during the pandemic was investigated. This cross-sectional, convergent mixed-methods study included patients with lower priority disease during the first wave of COVID-19 at an academic, tertiary care hospital in eastern Canada. Participants underwent semi-structured interviews and completed two questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Qualitative analysis was completed through a thematic analysis approach, with integration achieved through triangulation. Fourteen participants were recruited, with cancer sites including thyroid, kidney, breast, prostate, and a gynecological disorder. Increased anxiety symptoms were found in 36% of patients and depressive symptoms in 14%. Similarly, 64% of patients experienced moderate or high stress. Six key themes were identified, including uncertainty, life changes, coping strategies, communication, experience, and health services. Participants discussed substantial distress associated with lifestyle changes and uncertain treatment timelines. Participants identified quality communication with their healthcare team and individualized coping strategies as being partially protective against such symptoms. Delays in surgery for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in extensive psychosocial distress. Patients may be able to mitigate these symptoms partially through various coping mechanisms and improved communication with their healthcare teams.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Nova Escócia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Angústia Psicológica , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Incerteza
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065841

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant uncertainty for the global population. However, since not all population groups experience the impacts of the pandemic in the same way, the objective of this study was to identify the individual characteristics associated with the feeling of uncertainty during the lockdown that commenced in March 2020 in Greece. The study used data from the "Public Opinion in the European Union (EU) in Time of Coronavirus Crisis" survey. The sample consisted of 1050 individuals aged between 16 and 54 years. According to the analysis, which was based on a logistic regression model, the emotional status of older individuals, those who experienced income and job losses since the beginning of the pandemic, and middle-class and high-class individuals, is more likely to be described as a feeling of uncertainty. In addition, the emotional status of individuals with less concern for their own health and that of family and friends is less likely to be described as a feeling of uncertainty. Although the results related to age, income, and job losses, as regards concern for health, agree with the international literature, the limited health literacy of lower-class individuals may explain the reduced likelihood of their experiencing feelings of uncertainty. The results confirm the international literature describing several aspects of uncertainty due to the COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
18.
South Med J ; 114(6): 327-333, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Otolaryngologists in Texas have been greatly affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Executive orders and professional recommendations have changed the way otolaryngologists practice. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 on otolaryngologists in the state of Texas. METHODS: We surveyed the Texas Association of Otolaryngology to evaluate burnout, research output, and ability to respond to the pandemic. We also looked at the effect of Texas governmental executive orders GA-09 and GA-15 on work hours and patient load. RESULTS: Our survey showed no significant difference in personnel contracting COVID-19 with perception of adequate personal protective equipment (P = 0.203), population density (P = 0.445), or type of practice (P = 0.763). The phenomenon of "pandemic burnout" was prevalent, with prolonged uncertainty the primary contributing factor for burnout caused by the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The response to COVID-19 and the course of the pandemic are continuing to evolve and may play a significant role in how otolaryngologists practice and on their well-being during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Otolaringologia/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Incerteza , Carga de Trabalho
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12177, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108505

RESUMO

The stochastic model for epidemic spreading of the novel coronavirus disease based on the data set supply by the public health agencies in countries as Brazil, United States and India is investigated. We perform a numerical analysis using the stochastic differential equation in Itô's calculus for the estimating of novel cases daily, as well as analytical calculations solving the correspondent Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density distribution of novel cases, P(N(t), t). Our results display that the model based in the Itô's diffusion fits well to the results due to uncertainty in the official data and to the number of tests realized in populations of each country.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Processos Estocásticos , Incerteza
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