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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61 Suppl 12: S1-S4, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of our Military Biomarkers Research Study (MBRS) designed to assess whether biomarkers can be used to retrospectively assess deployment exposures and health impacts related to deployment environmental exposures. METHODS: The MBRS consists of four phases. Phase I was a feasibility study of stored sera. Phase II looks at associations between exposures and biomarkers. Phase III examines relationships of biomarkers and health outcomes, and Phase IV investigates in vitro biomarker changes associated with exposures to chemicals of interest. This paper briefly summarizes work already published and introduces the new reports contained in this supplement. RESULTS: Novel biomarkers were identified. These were associated with deployment exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations were noted between deployment exposures, microRNA biomarkers and metabolomic biomarkers, and deployment health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61 Suppl 12: S45-S54, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The potential health risks of deployment to sites with open burn pits remain poorly understood, in part, because personal exposure monitoring was not performed. Here, we investigated whether postdeployment serum samples contain biomarkers associated with exposure to burn pits. METHODS: A total of 237 biomarkers were measured in 800 serum samples from deployed and never-deployed subjects. We used a regression model and a supervised vector machine to identify serum biomarkers with significant associations with exposures and deployment. RESULTS: We identified 101 serum biomarkers associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins or furans, and 54 biomarkers associated with deployment. Twenty-six of these biomarkers were shared in common by the exposure and deployment groups. CONCLUSIONS: We identify a potential signature of exposure to open burn pits, and provide a framework for using postexposure sera to identify exposures when contemporaneous monitoring was inadequate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/sangue , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/sangue , Feminino , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Furanos/sangue , Humanos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/normas , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , MicroRNAs/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/sangue , Estados Unidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Chemosphere ; 230: 164-172, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103862

RESUMO

Incineration experiments with solid wastes containing approximately 3% (w/w) short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) that have recently been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the efficiency of their destruction as well as the unintentional formation of POPs and their destruction behaviors during controlled incineration. A series of experiments demonstrated that SCCPs and MCCPs in solid wastes were progressively destroyed and removed during rotary kiln combustion and downstream flue gas treatments. Destruction efficiencies of SCCPs and MCCPs exceeding 99.9999% were confirmed. SCCPs in bottom and fly ash samples were present at levels below their quantification limits (0.021 and 0.31 mg/kg), and MCCPs in the bottom and fly ash samples were likewise present at concentrations below their quantification limits (0.034 and 0.50 mg/kg). Total concentrations of toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in emission gas samples collected at the bag filter exit and final exit were 0.083-0.30 and 8.7 × 10-7 to 1.3 × 10-4 ng-TEQ/m3N, respectively, and those in bottom and fly ash samples were 0.12-0.47 and 9.0 × 10-3 to 0.14 ng-TEQ/g, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that controlled incineration of solid wastes under the current regulations for incinerators in Japan and the countries with regulations and monitoring to minimize emissions of PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs is one of the best available technologies for the environmentally sound management of wastes containing SCCPs and MCCPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Incineração/métodos , Parafina/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970588

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emissions from basic small-scale waste incinerators (SWI) may cause health risks in nearby people and are thus subject to stringent regulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/F emission and reduction of a basic SWI in the absence of air pollution controls (APCs). The results indicated that the stack gas and fly ash presented average PCDD/F levels and emission factors of 3.6 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm³ and 189.31µg I-TEQ/t and 6.89 ng I-TEQ/g and 137.85µg I-TEQ/t, respectively, much higher than those from large municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI). PCDD/Fs congener fingerprints indicated that de novo synthesis played a dominant role in the low-temperature post-combustion zone and increased the presence of high-chlorine substituted congeners. On the basis of the emission factor 327.24 µg I-TEQ/t-waste, approximately 3000 g I-TEQ dioxins might be generated in total through basic SWIs and open burning. After refitting an SWI by adding activated carbon injection with a bag filter (ACI+BG), the PCDD/F emissions decreased to mean values of 0.042 ng I-TEQ/Nm³, far below the standard of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm³, and the removal efficiency reached 99.13% in terms of I-TEQ. Therefore, it is entirely feasible to considerably reduce PCDD/F emissions by refitting basic SWI, which is positive for the future development of rural solid waste (RSW (RSW) disposal by SWI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/química , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos Sólidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Int J Cancer ; 144(3): 470-475, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259977

RESUMO

A paper in the International Journal of Cancer analyzed Palestinian cancer registry data in the West Bank from 1998 to 2007, showing a cluster of elevated cancer incidence in rural villages in south-west Hebron, with a 4.10 risk ratio for childhood lymphoma (p = 0.0023). The paper called for investigation of the environmental or genetic etiologies of this cluster in an otherwise unremarkable rural area.1 Our research in these same villages shows them to be the center of an extensive informal electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) dismantling industry in Palestine, operating for almost two decades. This entails extensive open-burning of e-waste components to extract valuable metals or dispose of nonvaluable waste, releasing high concentrations of hazardous contaminants, which may be an important factor in the elevated cancer incidence. We offer a first step in assessing this link. We applied a novel multitemporal object-based method to map the prevalence and intensity of e-waste burn sites in the entire Hebron Governorate (1,060 km2 ) between 1999 and 2007. A weighted standard deviation ellipse of cumulative burn activity covers a smaller area (247 km2 ) very closely matching the childhood lymphoma cluster: it contains 85% of the core cluster area (RR of 4.1), and falls almost entirely (95%) within the broader area of elevated risk (RR of 2.8). Extensive international evidence linking informal e-waste processing to elevated cancer incidence and this strong spatial association of e-waste burning activity with a distinct unexplained cancer cluster in the Palestinian context signals the urgent need for investigation and intervention.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico/estatística & dados numéricos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Sistema de Registros
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 639: 695-704, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803041

RESUMO

Incineration technology is an effective treatment method for municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, fine particulate matter emissions from two waste incineration power plants (WIPP) were characterized. Both filterable particulate matter (FPM2.5) and condensable particulate matter (CPM2.5) were collected using a direct sampling method. The FPM2.5 concentrations from stacks #1 and #2 in WIPP A were 0.87 ±â€¯0.10 and 0.68 ±â€¯0.19 mg/m3, respectively, and 3.30 ±â€¯0.65 mg/m3 was measured at stack #3 in WIPP B. Fe was the most abundant elemental component in the FPM2.5, followed by Na, Ca, Al, and K. Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-, and NH4+ accounted for the largest fraction of the total detected water-soluble ions in the FPM2.5. In the CPM2.5, Na was the most abundant elemental component, followed by Ca, Mg, and K. The total detected water-soluble ions accounted for 22.2% and 27.3% of the CPM2.5 collected from stack #1 and #2, respectively. High concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were found in CPM2.5, which could be derived from the escape of excessive NH3 in the denitrification unit and that of the NOx in the flue gas, respectively. Alcohols, aromatic compounds, and ketones were the major organic species in the CPM2.5. Both fly ash and bottom ash were collected from WIPP A. Ca was the dominant element, followed by K, Mg, Na, and Fe. The enrichment of elements in the fly ash and bottom ash were analyzed. The enrichment factors of most elements were higher than 1, except for the Ti and Sn in the bottom ash. The fly ash had a higher enrichment of Cd, As, and Ti than the bottom ash. In contrast, Cu, Ni, and Cr had higher enrichments in the bottom ash because of their low volatility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Carbono , China , Cinza de Carvão , Centrais Elétricas
8.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 740, 2017 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW) is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. METHODS: The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI) data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070) and Kebbi state (0.2172), while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868) and Osun state (0.2652). The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in rural areas significantly influenced indices of risky/safe medical waste disposal (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The study concluded that there was low compliance with standard HCW management. It was recommended that possession of HCW management guidelines, staff training on HCW disposal and provision of requisite equipment for proper treatment of HCW would promote environmental safety in HCW disposal.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Guias como Assunto , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria
9.
Waste Manag ; 61: 558-571, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161336

RESUMO

This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). Additionally, the new calculation method for monitoring the attainment of the targets should be applied. In 2014, ca. 240 million tonnes of municipal waste were generated in the EU. While in 1995, 17% were recycled and composted, 14% incinerated and 64% landfilled, in 2014 ca. 71% were recovered but 28% landfilled only. Considering the treatment performance of the individual EU member states, the EU 28 can be divided into three groups, namely: "Recovery Countries", "Transition Countries" and "Landfilling Countries". Using Ternary Diagram Method, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and extensively described. Therefore, for better understanding of municipal waste management performance in the last 20years, dynamic visualisation of the Eurostat table-form data on all 28 member states of the EU has been carried out in three different ways: 1. "Performance Positioning" of waste management unit(s) at a specific date; 2. "Performance dynamics" over a certain time period and; 3. "Performance development" expressed as a track(s). Results obtained show that the Ternary Diagram Method is very well suited to be used for better understanding of past developments and coherences, for monitoring of current situations and prognosis of future paths. One of the interesting coherences shown by the method is the linked development of recycling & composting (60-65%) with incineration (40-35%) performance over the last 20years in the EU 28.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , União Europeia , Incineração/métodos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Reciclagem/métodos , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
10.
Waste Manag ; 58: 3-13, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27712942

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the cost and efficiency of waste disposal associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. The following two analyses were performed: (1) a popular parametric approach, which is an ordinary least squares (OLS) method to estimate the factors that affect the disposal costs; (2) a non-parametric approach, which is a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of each municipality and clarify the best performance of the disaster waste management. Our results indicate that a higher recycling rate of disaster waste and a larger amount of tsunami sediments decrease the average disposal costs. Our results also indicate that area-wide management increases the average cost. In addition, the efficiency scores were observed to vary widely by municipality, and more temporary incinerators and secondary waste stocks improve the efficiency scores. However, it is likely that the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station influenced the results.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Desastres , Sedimentos Geológicos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Modelos Econômicos , Reciclagem , Tsunamis
11.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(3): 306-311, jul.-set. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: lil-797088

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as alterações de biomateriais restauradores e protéticos submetidos a temperaturas elevadas para o estabelecimento de parâmetros físicos que auxiliem nos casos de identificação humana em corpos carbonizados. A amostra do estudo experimental in vitro foi composta por 40 corpos de prova dividida em quatro grupos: GI (corpos de prova de cimentos de iônomero de vidro químico), GII (amálgamade prata), GIII (resina composta híbrida) e GIV (liga de cobre alumínio). Os corpos de prova foram submetidosa temperaturas de 300°C, 500°C, 700°C e 900°C. Após a incineração, os biomateriais foram submetidos a análises macroscópicas sobre as modificações de estrutura, coloração, forma e estabilidade dimensional e os dados analisados pela Análise de Variância e teste de Dunn (p<0,05). Os dados obtidos demonstraram em relação à radiopacidade uma diferença estatisticamente significante para as médias de densidade radiográfica no GI entre as temperaturas 700°C e 900°C; GIV entre as temperaturas 300°C e 900°C; 500° e 900°C. O GII atingiu seu ponto de fusão à 700ºC com aspecto pulverulento e lojas isoladas de mercúrio a 900°C. O GIII apresentou mudança estrutural nas temperaturas à 700°C e 900°C. No GIV não se constatou modificações relevantes. Assim, pode-se coligir que a resina composta micro hibrida e o amálgama apresentam severas alterações morfoestruturais enquanto o ionômero de vidro e o cobre alumínio não sofrem mudanças significativas em suas características originais. As alterações sofridas pelos materiais fornecem dados relevantes para o auxilio no processo de identificação humana de corpos carbonizados.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of restorative and prosthetic biomaterials subjected to high temperatures for the establishment of physical parameters that assist in cases of charred bodies in human identification. The sample of the experimental in vitro study was composed by 40 specimens divided into 4 groups: GI (specimens of cements of ionomer of chemical glass), GII(silver amalgam), GIII (hybrid composite resin) and GIV (copper alloy aluminum). The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, 700°C and 900°C. After incineration the biomaterials were submitted macroscopic analysis on changes of structure, color, shape and dimensional stability and all data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunn’s test (p <0.05). Regarding the radiopacity there was statistically significant difference for the mean radiographic density in GI temperatures within 700°C and 900°C; GIV temperatures within 300°C and 900°C, 500°C and 900°C. The GII has reached its melting point at 700ºC with powdery appearance and isolated stores of mercury at 900°C. The GIIIhad structural change at 700°C and 900°C. In GIV it not observed significant changes. Thus, one cangather that the micro hybrid composite resin and amalgam exhibit severe morpho structural changes while the glass ionomer aluminum and copper does not undergo significant changes in their original characteristics. The changes undergone by materials provide relevant data to aid in the identification process of human bodies charred.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Incineração/métodos , Incineração/normas , Materiais Dentários , Materiais Dentários/efeitos adversos , Odontologia Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontologia Legal/organização & administração , Odontologia Legal , Odontologia Legal/tendências , Identificação de Vítimas
12.
Waste Manag ; 52: 159-68, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27079853

RESUMO

This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size <0.425mm). From the observations, a conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed.


Assuntos
Incineração/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Resíduos Sólidos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Epidemiol Prev ; 39(1): 28-35, 2015.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to identify the biomarkers to use in order to evaluate the level and trend of exposure to environmental pollutants from a plant which retrieves and refines precious metals and burns toxic waste. DESIGN: human biomonitoring cross sectional study on a small sample of population resident in the study area. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: blood and urinary samples, and questionnaires from volunteers resident at least for 10 years in Civitella in Val di Chiana area (Arezzo Province, Tuscany Region, Central Italy), where the plant is located, and in a control area; they had to be 5-year non-smokers or ex-smokers, in good health status and non occupationally exposed to heavy metals and/or combustion products. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: geometric mean and 95th percentile (P95) of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) blood concentrations, and of the urinary concentrations of antimony (Sb), silver (Ag), arsenic (As), Cd, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), Hg, nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), 1-hydroxypyrene, and trans, trans-muconic acid in the two populations; quantity and pattern of porphyrins in the 24-hour urines of Civitella volunteers. Student's "t" test calculated on the means of data with logarithmic transformation was used to compare the two groups. In case of significant differences linear regression analyses have been performed using questionnaire information. The distribution of observed data was compared with specific reference values. RESULTS: Sb, Cd, and Ni concentrations were significantly higher in Civitella population (39 subjects), while Cr concentration was higher in the control group (18 subjects). No correlations with the individual characteristics have been observed. The 30.3%of subjects who gave their 24- hour urine had a distorted pattern of porphyrins. CONCLUSION: the results confirmed the need to perform human biomonitoring in the Civitella area, increasing the number of samples, using urine as biological matrix, and monitoring at least Sb, Cd, Ni, Pt, Ag, and porphyrins.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Resíduos Perigosos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Metalurgia , Metais Pesados/urina , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Metais Pesados/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porfirinas/urina , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Sórbico/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 508: 435-44, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25506906

RESUMO

To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Tailândia
15.
Waste Manag ; 35: 135-40, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25458765

RESUMO

Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N2O and CH4 were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010-August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NOx removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. N2O emissions from incineration plants with NOx removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0g N2O tonne(-1) waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t(-1)) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N2O GJ(-1)), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6g N2O t(-1); 4.5 ± 0.9g N2O GJ(-1)). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120g N2O t(-1) (10.4g N2O GJ(-1)) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N2O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N2O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N2O - the enrichment of (14)N(15)NO relative to (15)N(14)NO - was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17-19‰ may be characteristic for N2O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6g CH4 t(-1) (0.2 ± 0.5g CH4 GJ(-1)), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion.


Assuntos
Incineração/métodos , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Metano/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Suíça
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 493: 795-805, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000575

RESUMO

The study deals with the seasonal variability of PM exposure and the effect that biomass combustion has upon it in the urban environment. The study is based on measurements, chemical analyses and modeling results performed in Thessaloniki (Greece). The measurements campaign included the assessment of outdoor and indoor air quality and the evaluation of biomass use for domestic heating. The outdoor measurements highlighted a significant increase of PM10 (from 30.1 to 73.1 µg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (from 19.4 to 62.7 µg/m(3)) concentrations during the transition from the warm to the cold period of the year 2012 compared to 2011. The increase in ambient air PM during the winter was attributed to the use of biomass burning for space heating. The latter was verified by the presence of levoglucosan in the PM (concentrations up to 8 µg/m(3)), especially for samples taken from the urban background site. Outdoor PM concentrations were also modeled using an artificial neural network model taking into account major meteorological parameters; the latter explained more than 90% of PM10 and PM2.5 day-to-day variability. Indoor concentrations followed a similar pattern, while in the case of fireplace use, average daily concentrations rise to 10 µg/m(3) and 14 µg/m(3) for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Indoor air concentrations were affected the most by the ambient air particle infiltration. Indoor air quality went down after 3h of open fire biomass combustion for space heating. Personal exposure was significantly determined by overall indoor air quality. Yet, dynamic exposure analysis revealed that peaks of intake do not correspond to peaks of ambient air PM concentrations altering thus total exposure patterns. Thus, cost-effective public health protection has to aim at reducing the exposure profile of susceptible population sub-groups combining awareness raising, emission reduction measures and financial incentives to influence the choice of space heating systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Grécia , Humanos , Saúde da População Urbana
17.
Environ Int ; 69: 120-32, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public concern about potential health risks associated with incineration has prompted studies to investigate the relationship between incineration and risk of cancer, and more recently, birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the relationship between waste incineration and the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Literature searches were performed within the MEDLINE database, through PubMed and Ovid interfaces, for the search terms; incineration, birth, reproduction, neonatal, congenital anomalies and all related terms. Here we discuss and critically evaluate the findings of these studies. RESULTS: A comprehensive literature search yielded fourteen studies, encompassing a range of outcomes (including congenital anomalies, birth weight, twinning, stillbirths, sex ratio and infant death), exposure assessment methods and study designs. For congenital anomalies most studies reported no association with proximity to or emissions from waste incinerators and "all anomalies", but weak associations for neural tube and heart defects and stronger associations with facial clefts and urinary tract defects. There is limited evidence for an association between incineration and twinning and no evidence of an association with birth weight, stillbirths or sex ratio, but this may reflect the sparsity of studies exploring these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence-base is inconclusive and often limited by problems of exposure assessment, possible residual confounding, lack of statistical power with variability in study design and outcomes. However, we identified a number of higher quality studies reporting significant positive relationships with broad groups of congenital anomalies, warranting further investigation. Future studies should address the identified limitations in order to help improve our understanding of any potential adverse birth outcomes associated with incineration, particularly focussing on broad groups of anomalies, to inform risk assessment and waste policy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Incineração/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Razão de Masculinidade
18.
Waste Manag ; 33(12): 2781-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23910245

RESUMO

Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , França
19.
Int J Public Health ; 58(5): 725-35, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23887611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Potential health hazards for the environment and people living nearby landfills and incinerators are claimed to be related to several methods of waste management. Independent systematic review of the scientific literature is a key procedure to support the lay public and policy makers to achieve informed decisions. METHODS: The study design and potential biases of papers retrieved in this comprehensive literature search were analyzed. RESULTS: The most consistent result is that the risks of congenital anomalies and hospitalization due to respiratory disease are likely to be real nearby special waste landfills. From the very little information on exclusively urban waste depots it is reasonable to say that correct management of landfill does not increase the risk of these health effects. It is confirmed that historically incinerators are an important source of pollution and harm for the health of populations living nearby; however, changes in technology are producing more reassuring results. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate level of confidence is possible in limited areas of knowledge, implying the need to overcome the limitations of current studies about exposure assessment and to control confounders at the individual level.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 458-460: 499-507, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23697849

RESUMO

The burgeoning of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal issue and climate change have drawn massive attention from people. On the one hand, Hong Kong is facing a controversial debate over the implementation of proposed landfill extension (LFE) and advanced incineration facility (AIF) to curb the MSW disposal issue. On the other hand, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is taking concerted efforts to reduce the carbon intensity in this region. This paper discusses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from four proposed waste disposal scenarios, covering the proposed LFE and AIF within a defined system boundary. On the basis of the data collected, assumptions made, and system boundary defined in this study, the results indicate that AIF releases less GHG emissions than LFE. The GHG emissions from LFE are highly contributed by the landfill methane (CH4) emissions but offset by biogenic carbon storage, while the GHG emissions from AIF are mostly due to the stack discharge system but offset by the energy recovery system. Furthermore, parametric sensitivity analyses show that GHG emissions are strongly dependent on the landfill CH4 recovery rate, types of electricity displaced by energy recovery systems, and the heating value of MSW, altering the order of preferred waste disposal scenarios. This evaluation provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for MSW management practices in reducing GHG emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Estufa , Incineração/instrumentação , Eliminação de Resíduos/instrumentação , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/instrumentação , Hong Kong , Incineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
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