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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781341

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Incivility in health care settings has detrimental effects on practitioners' well-being, patient outcomes, and health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence and types of perceived incivility experienced by occupational therapy practitioners in their workplaces and the relationships between perceived incivility and practitioner demographics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online survey. SETTING: Surveys were posted to occupational therapy social media sites. PARTICIPANTS: Occupational therapy practitioners throughout the United States. Outcomes and Measures: The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) was used to measure incivility and bullying. Participants answered demographic questions, and one-way analyses of variance and t tests were used to examine differences between demographic characteristics and mean scores on the NAQ-R. RESULTS: A total of 1,320 practitioners completed the survey. Although the incidence of incivility was low compared with prior research in other health professions, 11% of respondents reported being victims of bullying in the workplace. Practitioners with less experience and who worked in long-term care and skilled nursing settings were more likely to experience incivility, and occupational therapy practitioners experienced significantly less incivility than occupational therapy assistants. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Practitioners, colleagues, managers, and organizations must collaborate to foster an environment of civility and respect to mitigate the effects of incivility on patient outcomes, practitioners' well-being, and health care costs. What This Article Adds: This survey provides baseline information regarding incivility experienced by occupational therapy practitioners, an important first step in developing evidence-based interventions to promote safe and healthy workplaces.


Assuntos
Bullying , Incivilidade , Terapia Ocupacional , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682328

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of supervisors' incivility regarding employees' deviant behavior, the mediating effect of anger, and the moderating role of moral identity in the relationship between incivility and deviant behavior. To test our hypotheses, we collected data from supervisor-employee dyads in South Korean military units, applying a time-lagged design, hierarchical regression, and SPSS macro. The results elicited three relevant findings. First, supervisors' incivility was found to positively influence employees' deviant behavior. Second, employees' anger was confirmed to have a mediating effect between supervisors' incivility and employees' deviant behavior. Third, the analysis demonstrated that moral identity moderates the relationship between anger and deviant behavior, and incivility through anger has an indirect effect on deviant behavior. These findings imply that supervisors' incivility, which is readily observed within the organization, is a harmful behavior that increases anger and deviant behavior. These findings suggest that negative leadership should be minimized and employees with high moral identity should be selected to reduce deviant behavior that harms the organization.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Ira , Princípios Morais , República da Coreia , Local de Trabalho
4.
Work ; 69(4): 1271-1282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interrelations between incivility and its precursors or consequences, as well as the role of these interrelations in employees' reactions to incivility are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess different reactions to workplace incivility while identifying specific and individual-based appraisals and emotions associated with these reactions. METHOD: A qualitative research approach using semi-structured in-depth interviews, with a sample of 42 employees in a beverage manufacturing corporation in Israel to capture employees' voices regarding their incivility experiences. RESULTS: Analysis of the interviews indicated four reaction-categories: (1) Exit; (2) Voice; (3) Loyalty; and (4) Neglect, in line with the theoretical EVLN model for describing reactions to stressful conditions. In particular, the interviews revealed a dynamic reaction process and suggested that intentionality of reaction provides a third, new dimension. Additionally, an underlying emotional process rooted in appraisals and aroused emotions was evident in each of the reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Organizations that wish to reduce incivility events may wish to examine the emotions of targets of incivility, explore the underlying appraisals associated with these emotions, and be mindful of the dynamic and highly individual reaction processes involved.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Emoções , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Israel , Local de Trabalho
5.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 26(5): 361-373, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383538

RESUMO

The present study explores the "social oil" function of humility at the workgroup level. Specifically, we examine collective humility, which reflects observable and consistent patterns of behavioral regularities exhibited by teams, as an explanation for linking group humility composition to reduced group experienced incivility. Drawing on the collective personality perspective, we hypothesize that teams with a high mean on members' humility could facilitate collective humility, in turn reducing group experienced incivility. We further propose two contingency factors that influence this proposed mediation pathway: (1) high group humility diversity could neutralize the positive association between group humility mean and collective humility and (2) an elevated differentiation of group incivility exposure will weaken the negative relationship between collective humility and group experienced incivility. Relying on a time-lagged, multisourced survey from 83 professional work teams, we tested this proposed moderated mediation model and found support for our hypotheses. Our findings have implications for team building and team management regarding personnel selection for humility, reducing the diversity of humility within teams, and explicitly valuing expressed humility in workgroups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Humanos , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205422

RESUMO

The study investigates the impact of customer incivility, job stress, perceived supervisor support, and perceived co-worker support on the turnover intention of frontline employees. A survey-questionnaire approach was used to collect the point of view of frontline employees that work in five-star hotels in a metropolitan city of Korea. Four independent variables that were extracted from valid theoretical backgrounds along with four demographic variables were used in the study. The regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses, which revealed that job stress directly affected the employees' desires to leave their organization. It also showed that perceived supervisor support mitigates employee turnover, and there were significant correlations between turnover intention with the employees' marital status and job position. Gender and years of service did not affect the employees' thinking of quitting their job. Our findings help hotel entrepreneurs better understand how to deal with customer incivility and employee job stress, and better comprehend the factors that minimize employees' negative behaviors for the organization.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206238

RESUMO

The funeral and mortuary sector, including funeral homes, cemeteries and crematoria, is a largely neglected sector in regard to the study of occupational factors that can affect the quality of working life. The present study aimed at overcoming this gap by investigating job demands and resources that may affect burnout levels. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire involving funeral industry employees (N = 229) from cemetery, morgues, crematoria and funeral agencies in a Northern Italian region. The survey was cross-sectional and non-randomized. Results reveal that among job demands, stigma consciousness, supervisor incivility and work-to-family negative spillover significantly affect levels of burnout, whereas meaningfulness of work and family-to-work positive spillover may represent relevant resources to counter the onset of burnout. The results of this study contribute to new insights into the psychosocial working conditions that affect occupational wellbeing among the funeral industry sector by also giving insight into how to promote resources to prevent burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Incivilidade , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Necrotério , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 18(1)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Civil environment in nursing education enhances achieving learning outcomes. Addressing incivility can be crucial to improve academic achievements. The purpose of this study was examining the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised scale regarding nursing faculty. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted in five Arab countries using a convenience sampling strategy. Two hundred twenty-five Arab-speaking nursing faculty participated in this study. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the construct validity of the translated Arabic version of the Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised that are related to nursing faculty. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and a coefficient of 0.867 indicated strong scale reliability. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised scale that is related to nursing faculty is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to evaluate incivility among Arab-speaking nursing faculty.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Incivilidade , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070101

RESUMO

Despite the large body of research on workplace mistreatment, surprisingly few studies have examined the interaction effect of multiple interpersonal stressors on employee outcomes. To fill this gap, our research aimed to test the moderating effects of coworker incivility and customer incivility on the relationship between abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, and job performance. Analyses conducted on 651 South Korean frontline service employees revealed that abusive supervision exerted a significant indirect effect on job performance through emotional exhaustion. Customer incivility strengthened the positive relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion, as well as the indirect effect of abusive supervision on job performance through emotional exhaustion. Our post hoc analysis demonstrated a three-way interaction between abusive supervision, coworker incivility, and customer incivility; the relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion was significantly positive only when coworker incivility was high and customer incivility was low. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Desempenho Profissional , Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Local de Trabalho
11.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 42(5): 278-284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149012

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to explore 1) the relationship between nursing faculty attributes and their experiences with workplace incivility and 2) the impact of experiences with workplace incivility on the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty. BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence suggests that workplace incivility impacts the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty. This has not been explored in a quantitative manner. METHOD: A cross-sectional, correlational survey was distributed to nursing faculty teaching in the southeastern United States. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and hierarchical multivariate multiple regression. RESULTS: Faculty age, full-time status, highest degree earned, orientation programs, and program type were significantly related to experiences with workplace incivility. Workplace incivility was significantly related to an increase in headaches, sleep disturbances, and digestive problems and a decrease in subjective well-being. CONCLUSION: Workplace incivility significantly impacts the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
12.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 42(5): 291-296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155172

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe nursing faculty experiences with workplace incivility and the effect it has on their health. This article reports results of the qualitative portion of a larger study. BACKGROUND: Nursing faculty have reported the physical and psychological impact of incivility on their lives. The negative effects that workplace incivility, specifically, has on nursing faculty require ongoing research and attention. METHOD: Using an electronic survey, 249 nursing faculty from one Southeastern US state responded to two open-ended questions about workplace incivility and its effects. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories related to experiences with workplace incivility emerged: the experience; personal and professional impact; a reciprocal, organizational culture problem; and survival. CONCLUSION: Nursing faculty experiences with workplace incivility constitute an organizational culture problem with both personal and professional implications.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 35(4): 171-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077158

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Incivility contributes to employee dissatisfaction, turnover, patient errors, and a disrespectful culture. Turnover rates and employee exit interviews alerted hospital leaders to uncivil behaviors exhibited by staff. A clinical nurse specialist (CNS) team captured this as an opportunity to create a civility program to develop team cohesiveness and improve patient safety. The purpose of this process improvement project was to identify uncivil behaviors in a pediatric hospital. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT/PROGRAM: Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act model, an interprofessional team led by CNSs collaborated on a program to assess, intervene, and evaluate a program to improve civility. A preprogram survey, the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, was used to assess staff perceptions of their work environment. Staff attended an education program on ways to recognize and intervene in situations involving less than standard civil behavior. Classes included communication application in uncivil situations using scenarios paired with evidence-based practice articles. Unit leaders reset behavioral expectations learned from a leader-specific class on managing unproductive behaviors. OUTCOME: Staff completed a postprogram Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised survey 6 months after conclusion of classes. Survey results indicated the civility program effected a reduction in frequency of negative behaviors indicating an overall positive shift in workplace civility. CONCLUSION: The program provided staff with tools to recognize and intervene for improving civility, which impacted the overall work environment and patient safety.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Incivilidade/prevenção & controle , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras Clínicas/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/economia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
15.
Med Lav ; 112(3): 209-218, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colleague incivility is one of the subtlest forms of workplace aggression, referring to any low-intensity deviant behavior in violation of the norms of mutual respect with ambiguous intent to harm the target. Although a large corpus of literature has identified the negative consequences of colleague incivility for workers and their organizations, there is a paucity of studies aimed at examining the role played by job characteristics in triggering this form of aggression. The present study, referring to the work environment assumption of Einarsen (2000), proposes that workplace aggression is primarily affected by factors related to deficiencies in the psychosocial work environment. In this view, the present study aimed to test whether the relationships between stressors in the psychosocial work environment (i.e., workload, role conflict, and unfair reward) and burnout (i.e., exhaustion and cynicism) are mediated by colleague incivility. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and non-randomized. In total, 659 administrative officers employed in a large-sized Italian university completed a self-report questionnaire. Regression and mediation analyses (using the SPSS PROCESS macro) were performed to test the study hypotheses. -Findings: After adjusting for control variables (i.e., superior incivility, age, gender, interactions with teaching staff, and interactions with students), the analyses indicated that colleague incivility mediated the associations of role conflict and unfair reward with the two dimensions of burnout. In contrast, the mediating role of colleague incivility in the associations of workload with exhaustion and cynicism was not supported. DISCUSSION: The present study shed light on the key role of colleague incivility in the linkage of variables describing job characteristics and job burnout. From a practical point of view, the present study suggests that in order to prevent colleague incivility, interventions such as job (re)design should be implemented.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Incivilidade , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Docentes , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
16.
J Dent Educ ; 85(10): 1588-1595, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091903

RESUMO

Rude and disrespectful behaviors are ubiquitous and pervasive in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of witnessed rudeness on dental student psychomotor performance. Using an experimental, between-subjects design, 71 2nd (Sophomore) year dental students witnessed either an experimental (rude) or control (neutral) condition in which a confederate lab manager interacted in a rude or neutral manner with a prospective lab assistant candidate. Students then performed a mock prosthodontics psychomotor examination as part of the fixed prosthodontics preclinical course. Results indicated that those students who arrived at the experimental session cognitively depleted (+1 SD above the mean) and were exposed to the rude condition were significantly more likely to make critical errors when performing a posterior bridge preparation, compared to those students in the control group. There were no significant differences between the rude and control conditions for participants who were not cognitively depleted (-1 SD below the mean). Overall, the findings indicate that for those dental students suffering from cognitive depletion, merely witnessing rudeness can have adverse impacts on psychomotor performance and potentially, eventual patient care.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Estudantes de Odontologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostodontia
17.
Nurs Forum ; 56(4): 1044-1051, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men comprise the minority of entry-level baccalaureate nursing students and are at increased risk of experiencing gender-associated incivility. PROBLEM: Uncivil peer-to-peer behavior can negatively affect students' mental and physical well-being, and learning experience. Nursing faculty must be able to identify and address gender-associated incivility among students. AIM: The purpose of this quality improvement program was to train nursing faculty to prevent, identify, and manage gender-associated incivility in the educational environment. METHODS: A day-long interactive workshop utilizing trigger films, small group discussions, and interactive theater was developed to train nursing faculty to implement proactive and reactive techniques to address uncivil behavior which will enhance the learning environment for all students. Utilizing Kirkpatrick's Model of Evaluation, participants were surveyed at the conclusion of the workshop and four months postworkshop to evaluate their learning and its implementation. RESULTS: Participants gained greater understanding of the impact of gender-associated incivility and felt both empowered and better prepared to manage gender-associated conflict. CONCLUSION: Similar approaches may be useful for schools of nursing that wish to empower their nursing faculty to support an equitable nursing education environment free of gender-associated incivility.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Incivilidade , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(5): 232-239, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace incivility is a common problem in nursing, and novice nurses are particularly vulnerable to incivility. METHOD: Cognitive rehearsal training to defend against incivility was presented to resident nurses. RESULTS: Three months after the educational intervention, 55% of nurses reported that they had witnessed incivility in the past month and 45% reported that they had responded to the incivility when it occurred. CONCLUSION: Most of the nurses expressed that the training improved their ability to manage incivility. Responses to open-ended comments revealed that incivility adversely affects the workplace and that leaders also may benefit from education on incivility and cognitive rehearsal. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(5):232-239.].


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Enfermagem , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Incivilidade/prevenção & controle , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermagem/normas , Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem/tendências , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805428

RESUMO

Employed people (N = 826) completed questionnaires including the Social Encounters Scale that assessed civility, incivility, and intimidation from supervisors, coworkers, and respondents on identical frequency scale. Factor analyses, correlations, and profile analysis addressed the first research question by demonstrating the benefits of assessing various dimensions of workplace social dynamics on a common rating scale. A subsample (N = 275 completed a second survey, confirming consistency over time. To address the second research question a Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified five social profiles: Civil, Low Contact, Uncivil Coworkers, Uncivil Supervisor, and Uncivil. These profiles were associated with distinct perceptions of the work environment, addressing the third research question. To address the fourth research question, crosstabulation with a profile structure based on the Maslach Burnout Scale demonstrated close links of workplace social culture with psychological connections with work.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Incivilidade , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924009

RESUMO

Uncivil behavior involves an attack on social norms related to the protection of public property and respect for community life. However, at the same time, the low-frequency and relatively low-intensity damage caused by most of these behaviors could lead to incivilities being considered a typically human action. The purpose of this set of studies is to examine the automatic associations that people establish between humanness and both civic and uncivil behaviors. Across three studies, uncivil behaviors were more strongly associated with human pictures than animal pictures (study 1) and with human-related words than animal-related words (study 2). We replicated study 2 with uncivil behaviors that do not prime graphically human beings (study 3). Overall, our results showed that uncivil behaviors and civic behaviors were clearly associated with human concepts. Our findings have direct implications for the conceptualization of humanness and its denial.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Animais , Humanos
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