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1.
Urologiia ; (6): 137-141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003184

RESUMO

Postoperative stress urinary incontinence has a significant effect on reducing the quality of life of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. This review discusses the existing methods for correcting this condition, described in the world literature and which to one degree or another improve the quality of life of patients in this category. Analysis of present data shows that currently there are 4 main basic techniques during radical prostatectomy, which allow to statistically significantly improve of functional results. In particular, usage of this methodic allows reducing the frequency and degree of postoperative incontinence: 1) preservation of neurovascular bundles, 2) anterior and/or posterior reconstruction of the fascial spaces of the pelvis, 3) preservation of the maximum length of the membranous urethra, 4) reconstruction of the bladder neck. Preservation of the neurovascular bundles, anterior and/or posterior reconstruction of the pelvic fascial spaces have already proven themselves as effective techniques currently used by many surgeons. In contrast, the clinical utility of reserve the maximum possible length of the membranous urethra and reconstructive surgery of the bladder neck are relatively new techniques. Their clinical usefulness, as well as safety, continues to be studied.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Uretra , Bexiga Urinária , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/terapia
3.
JAMA ; 323(2): 149-163, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935027

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding adverse effects of contemporary treatment approaches for men with favorable-risk and unfavorable-risk localized prostate cancer could inform treatment selection. Objective: To compare functional outcomes associated with prostate cancer treatments over 5 years after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1386 men with favorable-risk (clinical stage cT1 to cT2bN0M0, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤20 ng/mL, and Grade Group 1-2) prostate cancer and 619 men with unfavorable-risk (clinical stage cT2cN0M0, PSA of 20-50 ng/mL, or Grade Group 3-5) prostate cancer diagnosed in 2011 through 2012, accrued from 5 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program sites and a US prostate cancer registry, with surveys through September 2017. Exposures: Treatment with active surveillance (n = 363), nerve-sparing prostatectomy (n = 675), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; n = 261), or low-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 87) for men with favorable-risk disease and treatment with prostatectomy (n = 402) or EBRT with androgen deprivation therapy (n = 217) for men with unfavorable-risk disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-reported function, based on the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite (range, 0-100), 5 years after treatment. Regression models were adjusted for baseline function and patient and tumor characteristics. Minimum clinically important difference was 10 to 12 for sexual function, 6 to 9 for urinary incontinence, 5 to 7 for urinary irritative symptoms, and 4 to 6 for bowel and hormonal function. Results: A total of 2005 men met inclusion criteria and completed the baseline and at least 1 postbaseline survey (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [59-70] years; 1529 of 1993 participants [77%] were non-Hispanic white). For men with favorable-risk prostate cancer, nerve-sparing prostatectomy was associated with worse urinary incontinence at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, -10.9 [95% CI, -14.2 to -7.6]) and sexual function at 3 years (adjusted mean difference, -15.2 [95% CI, -18.8 to -11.5]) compared with active surveillance. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with worse urinary irritative (adjusted mean difference, -7.0 [95% CI, -10.1 to -3.9]), sexual (adjusted mean difference, -10.1 [95% CI, -14.6 to -5.7]), and bowel (adjusted mean difference, -5.0 [95% CI, -7.6 to -2.4]) function at 1 year compared with active surveillance. EBRT was associated with urinary, sexual, and bowel function changes not clinically different from active surveillance at any time point through 5 years. For men with unfavorable-risk disease, EBRT with ADT was associated with lower hormonal function at 6 months (adjusted mean difference, -5.3 [95% CI, -8.2 to -2.4]) and bowel function at 1 year (adjusted mean difference, -4.1 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.9]), but better sexual function at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.2-18.7]) and incontinence at each time point through 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 23.2 [95% CI, 17.7-28.7]), than prostatectomy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, most functional differences associated with contemporary management options attenuated by 5 years. However, men undergoing prostatectomy reported clinically meaningful worse incontinence through 5 years compared with all other options, and men undergoing prostatectomy for unfavorable-risk disease reported worse sexual function at 5 years compared with men who underwent EBRT with ADT.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia/métodos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Conduta Expectante
4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(1): 89-97, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: Dermatitis associated with incontinence was the cause of 55% of the total of 386 skin lesion cases in our unit between July and December 2016 and 40.3% of the skin lesion cases in our unit during March and April 2017, indicating the importance of this issue. Our survey showed that the nurses in our unit scored an average of 78.9% on knowledge related to the prevention of incontinence-associated dermatitis and only 58.2% on knowledge related to incontinence-associated dermatitis care. The main reasons for the high incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis included: incorrect implementation of care, no discussion with the medical team, no incontinence care standards, no continue education, lack of related equipment for preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis, unit patient characteristics, and drugs used. PURPOSE: To reduce the incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis from 40.3% to 32.0%. RESOLUTION: A care-bundle in treating incontinence-associated dermatitis was implemented by designing an assessment flow chart for evaluating incontinence-associated dermatitis, by setting standard guidelines for incontinence-associated dermatitis care, by distributing reminder cards, special toolboxes, and by changing how the little diapers were wrapped. In-service education lessons, inter-professional collaborative practice, and regular internal audit were also executed. RESULTS: After project implementation, the knowledge score of nurses increased from 78.9% to 95.7%; the correctness of care score, as retested in November 2017, increased from 58.2% to 91.5%; and the incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis dropped to 18.5%. These improvements achieved the goals of this project. Furthermore, the sustained effect of the project measures was confirmed, with the incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis determined as 17.9% at three months after completion of the project. CONCLUSIONS: Formulating care procedures and cooperating with medical team personnel to provide creative care measures were shown to effectively decrease the incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis and improve overall quality of care. The findings of this project support the revision by hospitals of regulations and procedures related to adult incontinence-associated dermatitis to provide caregivers with basis-of-care standards and uniform care procedures and standards in support of effective patient skin care regimens.


Assuntos
Dermatite/prevenção & controle , Incontinência Fecal/complicações , Relações Interprofissionais , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Higiene da Pele/enfermagem , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Adulto , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Incontinência Fecal/enfermagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Incontinência Urinária/enfermagem
7.
J Urol ; 203(2): 365-371, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine national trends in the surgical management of urinary incontinence in women in the United States from 2004 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the CDM (Optum® de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart) for women 18 to 64 years old and the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) Medicare 5% Sample for women 65 years old or older. We created annual cross-sectional cohorts and assessed trends in the annual prevalence of urinary incontinence related surgical procedures overall and by age, race/ethnicity and geographic region. RESULTS: We observed a decline in the percent of women with urinary incontinence who underwent surgical treatment according to the CMS (from 4.7% in 2004 to 2.7% in 2013) and the CDM (from 12.5% in 2004 to 9.1% in 2013). This trend persisted independently of age, race/ethnicity and geographic region. Slings were the most common procedure but started to decline in 2011, ultimately decreasing by about 50% during the study period. Compared to other groups the prevalence of urinary incontinence related surgical procedures, including slings, was highest among women 35 to 54 years old and White women, and lowest among women residing in the Northeast. These sociodemographic patterns persisted with time. During the study period injection procedures remained stable, sacral neuromodulation increased slightly but remained uncommon and suspension decreased to nearly 0% of all anti-incontinence procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of female urinary incontinence experienced several shifts from 2004 to 2013, including a decline in sling procedures. Age, racial/ethnic and regional differences in treatment persisted with time. Improved understanding of the drivers of these trends may help direct future development of treatments of pelvic floor disorders.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Incontinência Urinária/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/tendências , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hautarzt ; 71(1): 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538217

RESUMO

Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) describes damage to the skin caused by repeated and prolonged contact with urine and/or feces. Patients of all ages can be affected; the diagnosis is preferably used in adults and adolescents. The predilection sites are perineal, perianal, the inner thighs and the convex areas of the buttocks. Increased moisture on the skin surface, increased pH, occlusion, feces digestive enzymes and repeated skin cleansing procedures are pathophysiologically relevant factors. Typical clinical signs of IAD are erythema, erosions, excoriations and pain. Diagnosis is often difficult because there are many relevant differential diagnoses, some of which may occur together with an IAD. In particular, pressure ulcer, contact dermatitis and intertrigo need to be differentiated and treated. Effective strategies of prevention and therapy of IAD are continence management, the use of efficient, absorbent products as well as consistent skin protection and care. IAD is a skin disease that is often not or incorrectly diagnosed. It should be treated as early as possible, together with the causative factors such a fecal and/or urinary incontinence, as otherwise it can lead to an unnecessarily long duration and severity of the symptoms.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Incontinência Fecal , Incontinência Urinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Dermatite/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/complicações , Humanos , Pele , Higiene da Pele , Incontinência Urinária/complicações
9.
J Urol ; 203(1): 137-144, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347951

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared early continence recovery after surgical treatment of prostate cancer with Retzius sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and conventional robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was done by a single surgeon in 1,863 cases between October 2005 and May 2018 using the conventional and the Retzius sparing technique in 1,150 and 713, respectively. To compare continence outcomes between the groups propensity score matching was performed using 9 preoperative variables, including age, body mass index, prostate specific antigen, biopsy Gleason Grade Group, clinical T stage, prostate volume on transrectal ultrasound, and the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score), I-PSS quality of life score and International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores. Continence was assessed by the pad count every month postoperatively until month 6 and was converted to a binary outcome. RESULTS: After propensity score matching 609 cases per group were matched with no significant difference in all 9 variables. The Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that Retzius sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was associated with a significantly better continence recovery rate than conventional robot-assisted radical prostatectomy during the 6-month study period (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on propensity score matching with multiple variables and a large case series, Retzius sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy can be a candidate for future robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. It achieves better early continence recovery, a short operative time and early recovery compared to conventional robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
10.
J Urol ; 203(1): 200-205, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437120

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated surgical approaches to urinary incontinence and long-term continence outcomes after successful bladder reconstruction in a heterogeneous patient population with classic bladder exstrophy. We hypothesized that while most patients will achieve urinary continence after surgery, only a select group will void volitionally per urethra. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional database of 1,323 patients with exstrophy-epispadias complex was reviewed for patients with classic bladder exstrophy who underwent successful bladder closure and a subsequent continence procedure between 1975 and 2017. Procedures included bladder neck reconstruction, bladder neck reconstruction with augmentation cystoplasty or continent catheterizable stoma, and bladder neck closure with continent catheterizable stoma. Cloacal exstrophy, epispadias and variant exstrophy cases were excluded from analysis. Continence at last followup was defined as a dry interval of 3 or more hours without nighttime leakage. Those patients with more than 3 months of followup were assessed. RESULTS: Overall 432 patients underwent successful bladder closure (primary 71.5%, repeat 28.5%) and a urinary continence procedure. At last followup 162 (37%) underwent bladder neck reconstruction, 76 (18%) underwent bladder neck reconstruction with augmentation cystoplasty or continent catheterizable stoma, 173 (40%) underwent bladder neck closure with continent catheterizable stoma and 18 underwent other procedures. Median followup from the first continence procedure was 7.2 years (IQR 2.3-13.7). Continence was assessed in 350 patients. After isolated bladder neck reconstruction 91 of 142 patients were continent (64%, 95% CI 56-72). After bladder neck closure with continent catheterizable stoma 124 of 133 patients evaluated were continent (93%, 95% CI 87-97). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with classic bladder exstrophy require multiple reconstructive procedures to achieve continence. Only about 25% of patients are expected to void normally per urethra without reliance on catheterization or urinary diversion.


Assuntos
Extrofia Vesical/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Incontinência Urinária/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Arch Esp Urol ; 72(10): 1032-1037, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Enuresis is one of the most frequently seen psycho-social problems in childhood, which causes anxiety and stress in the child, thus affecting his/her self-respect and quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine the role of bladder function or psychologic factors or both as factors causing enuresis. METHODS: This study on pediatric patients with primary enuresis included 30 patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MonoNE), 30 patients with polysymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PolyNE), and 30 healthy controls, making a total of 90 subjects with an age range of 8-18. In all subjects, the levels of serum and urinary Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) were measured, in addition to urinary creatinine levels and calculated as BDNF/Cr ng/mg creatinine (BDNF/ Cr). RESULTS: The serum BDNF results of the PolyNE group (0.949±0.587) were significantly lower than those of the control group (1.158±0.587) (p=0.014). The urinary BDNF results of the PolyNE group (1.107±0.360) were significantly higher than those of both the MonoNE (0.657±0.272) and the control (0.670±0.271) groups (p<0.0001). The BDNF/Cr results of the PolyNE group (1.472±0.714) were significantly higher than those of the MonoNE group (0.956±1.017) and the control group (0.931±0.618) (p=0.044 and p=0.032, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to bladder-specific problems, it is possible for anxiety and psychological stress-induced problems to occur in PolyNE. Therefore, in addition to the increasing number of studies on the bladder in enuresis, further studies on the neurogenic and psychogenic aspects of enuresis should be carried out.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Enurese Noturna , Estresse Psicológico , Incontinência Urinária , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/urina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enurese Noturna/sangue , Enurese Noturna/psicologia , Enurese Noturna/urina , Qualidade de Vida , Bexiga Urinária
16.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1196-1203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808408

RESUMO

AIMS: Radical prostatectomy (RP) can result in urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED), which negatively impact quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a perioperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) program versus usual care on early recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after RP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 59 eligible men, 31 were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group 1 (Control, N=15) received usual post-RP care; and Group 2 (Physical therapy, N=16) received two pre-RP physical therapist-guided PFMT sessions, including exercises and electromyographic biofeedback, and verbal and written instructions to continue PFMT until RP, which was then resumed after urethral catheter removal. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire were used to evaluate UI and ED, respectively. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Three months after RP, the UI rate was 72.7% and 70.0% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P >0.05). The severity and frequency of UI and its impact on QoL were evaluated by the ICIQ-Short Form, with scores of 6.9±6.26 in Group 1 and 7.0±5.12 in Group 2 (P >0.05). The IIEF-5 scores were similar in Groups 1 and 2 (5.73±7.43 vs. 6.70±6.68, respectively) (P >0.05). CONCLUSION: Our pre-RP protocol of two physical therapist-assisted sessions of PFMT plus instructions did not signifi cantly improve urinary continence or erectile function at 3 months after RP.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/reabilitação , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Prostatectomia/reabilitação , Incontinência Urinária/reabilitação , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neurorretroalimentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia
17.
Radiologe ; 59(Suppl 1): 28-39, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832702

RESUMO

Interventional therapies are emerging modalities for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Their aim is to reduce the morbidity associated with radical therapies (rT) by minimizing damage to non-cancerous tissue, with priority given to sparing key structures such as the neurovascular bundles, external sphincter, bladder neck, and rectum, while maintaining local cancer control. Interventional ablative technologies deliver energy in different ways to destroy cancer cells. The most widely investigated techniques are brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, cryotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Although functional outcomes of focal therapies have been encouraging, with generally low rates of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, robust medium- and long-term oncological outcomes are not available for all techniques. To date, major controversies in focal therapy concern appropriate patient selection, efficacy of focal therapies, as well as treatment paradigms based on the dominant index lesion hypothesis. This review articles discusses the current status of interventional therapies and the oncological and functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
18.
Br J Nurs ; 28(22): 1486-1488, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835939

RESUMO

Ian Peate, Editor in Chief, British Journal of Nursing, discusses treatment options for women experiencing urge, stress or mixed urinary incontinence and why a pelvic health pathway is needed.


Assuntos
Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18103, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder outlet obstruction, and overactive bladder are major causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Tumor compression of the urinary bladder resulting in LUTS was clinically observed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) presenting with LUTS have not been reported before. Herein, we report a patient with extraluminal GIST of the ileum who had LUTS without gastrointestinal symptoms during the clinical course. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 68-year-old man visited the genitourinary outpatient department because of frequent urination with mild dysuria. He also complained of poor appetite, fatigue, and body weight loss of 10 kg over 6 months. A large presacral solid mass lesion compressing the bladder and surrounded by the bowel with gas content was identified through abdominal computed tomography. DIAGNOSIS: GIST of the ileum with mesenteric invasion was revealed by pathological examination. INTERVENTIONS: Exploratory laparotomy with removal of the pelvic tumor and segmental resection of the ileum was performed. OUTCOMES: Now, he received adjuvant imatinib target therapy for 1 year with stable condition. CONCLUSION: Extravesical compression or invasion of the urinary bladder by a pelvic mass lesion is common but is rarely accompanied by GISTs of the ileum. Specific findings identified through imaging should alert the surgeon to this specific entity and prepare thoroughly before surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Neoplasias do Íleo/patologia , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/complicações , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias do Íleo/complicações , Neoplasias do Íleo/cirurgia , Masculino , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
20.
Actas urol. esp ; 43(10): 526-535, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185258

RESUMO

Contexto y objetivo: La incontinencia urinaria es el efecto secundario con mayor impacto en la calidad de vida después de la prostatectomía radical. El objetivo de nuestro artículo es revisar la evidencia científica actual sobre las variaciones quirúrgicas descritas para preservar la continencia urinaria después de la prostatectomía radical. Adquisición de la evidencia: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en PubMed, Cochrane y ScienceDirect según los criterios PRISMA (Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses), utilizando los términos: urinary continence, urinary incontinence, urinary leakage, radical prostatectomy, open radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic prostatectomy, robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, robotic prostatectomy y los criterios de selección PICO. Se identificaron 1.603 referencias de las que se seleccionaron 27 publicaciones que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, 6 fueron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y 4 metaanálisis. Síntesis de la evidencia: Las técnicas más empleadas para alcanzar una continencia urinaria precoz son la preservación del cuello vesical, de las bandeletas neurovasculares y la reconstrucción del rabdoesfínter, siendo esta la técnica con mayor evidencia, ya que existen 3 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Pese que algunas variaciones técnicas han conseguido mejorías en los resultados funcionales, la ausencia de consenso en la definición de incontinencia urinaria y la manera de evaluarla no permiten elaborar recomendaciones técnicas basadas en evidencia científica de calidad. Conclusiones: La reconstrucción del rabdoesfínter es la única técnica que ha demostrado mejoría en la recuperación precoz de la continencia urinaria tras la prostatectomía radical. La evidencia científica actual es heterogénea y limitada, por lo que son necesarios estudios aleatorizados bien diseñados para evaluar las modificaciones técnicas


Background and objective: Urinary incontinence is the adverse effect with more impact on patients’ quality of life after undergoing radical prostatectomy. The objective of this study is to review the present evidence that describes the variations on surgical techniques which aim to preserve urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. Evidence acquisition: We searched the literature on PubMed, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) statement, using the PICO review protocol. The search terms were urinary continence, urinary incontinence, urinary leakage, radical prostatectomy, open radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic prostatectomy, robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, robotic prostatectomy. We identified 1,603 registers, and 27 articles were reviewed for meeting the inclusion criteria. Six of them are randomized clinical trials and 4 of them, meta-analysis. Evidence synthesis: The surgical techniques more frequently used to achieve early urinary continence are bladder neck and neurovascular bundles preservation, as well as the reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter. The latter has been presented in three randomized clinical trials. Even though some approaches have obtained improved functional outcomes, the lack of consensus on the definition of urinary incontinence and its measurement methods have not advocated for the creation of technical recommendations based on scientific evidence. Conclusions: The reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter is the only technique that has shown improved functional results through randomized trials. The current evidence is limited and heterogenous, and more studies with consistent criteria are needed in order to establish a standard surgical technique


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/reabilitação , Incontinência Urinária/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Robótica , Uretra/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
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