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1.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110447, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364954

RESUMO

Over two million leisure boats use the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea for recreational purposes. The majority of these boats are painted with toxic antifouling paints that release biocides into the coastal ecosystems and negatively impact non-targeted species. Regulations concerning the use of antifouling paints differ dramatically between countries bordering the Baltic Sea and most of them lack the support of biological data. In the present study, we collected data on biofouling in 17 marinas along the Baltic Sea coast during three consecutive boating seasons (May-October 2014, 2015 and 2016). In this context, we compared different monitoring strategies and developed a fouling index (FI) to characterise marinas according to the recorded biofouling abundance and type (defined according to the hardness and strength of attachment to the substrate). Lower FI values, i.e. softer and/or less abundant biofouling, were consistently observed in marinas in the northern Baltic Sea. The decrease in FI from the south-western to the northern Baltic Sea was partially explained by the concomitant decrease in salinity. Nevertheless, most of the observed changes in biofouling seemed to be determined by local factors and inter-annual variability, which emphasizes the necessity for systematic monitoring of biofouling by end-users and/or authorities for the effective implementation of non-toxic antifouling alternatives in marinas. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how monitoring programs and other related measures can be used to support adaptive management strategies towards more sustainable antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Desinfetantes , Ecossistema , Pintura , Navios
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 308: 123269, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251857

RESUMO

Quorum quenching (QQ), the disruption of microbial communication, has proven to be effective as an innovative anti-biofouling strategy for membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, QQ bacteria for anaerobic environments have not been extensively analyzed in previous research. This study thus investigated facultative QQ bacterial strains that exhibit potential for use in aerobic and anaerobic MBRs. Two novel QQ strains from the genus Pseudomonas (KS2 and KS10) were isolated from anaerobic digester sludge using signal molecules as the sole carbon source. The two QQ strains exhibited significant signal molecule degradation depending on the oxygen levels and demonstrated endogenous QQ activity, with KS2 producing lactonase and KS10 producing acylase. The QQ strains significantly reduced the formation of the biofilm generated by both Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) and real sludge. Facultative QQ strains have the potential to offer a more flexible option for effective biofouling control in both aerobic and anaerobic MBRs.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Percepção de Quorum
3.
Water Res ; 176: 115748, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247995

RESUMO

Microplastic particles entering aquatic systems are rapidly colonized by microbial biofilms. The presence of microbial biomass may cause sinking of particles and as a consequence prevent their transport to the oceans. We studied microbial colonization of different polymer particles exposed in the epi-, meta- and hypolimnion of a freshwater reservoir during late summer for 47 days. Parameters measured included biofilm formation, metal sorption and sinking velocities. Microbial biofilms contained bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae as well as inorganic particles such as iron oxides. Regardless of biofilm thickness and biovolumes of different biofilm constituents, single polyethylene (PE) particles stayed buoyant, whereas the sinking velocity of single polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles did not change significantly compared to initial values. During exposition, a mixing event occurred, by which anoxic, iron-rich water from the hypolimnion was mixed with water from upper layers. This induced aggregation and sinking of hypolimnetic PE particles together with organic matter, cyanobacteria colonies and iron minerals.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais , Microplásticos , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos
4.
Water Res ; 176: 115749, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247996

RESUMO

Biofouling remains to be one of major obstacles in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), calling for the development of antibiofouling membranes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), being a kind of broad spectrum bactericidal agent, have been widely used for modifying membrane; however, uncontrollable release of AgNPs and thus a short lifetime of modified membranes are thorny issues for the AgNPs-modified membranes. In this study, silica nanopollens were used as AgNPs nanocarriers for membrane modification (ASNP-M), which could improve silver delivery efficacy, avoid agglomeration and control Ag+ release towards bacteria. At a silver loading of 107.7 ± 10.9 µg Ag/cm2, ASNP-M effectively inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with an Ag+ release rate of 0.5 µg/(cm2 d). Long-term MBR tests showed that ASNP-M exhibited a significantly reduced transmembrane pressure increase rate of 0.88 ± 0.34 kPa/d which was much lower than that of two control membranes, i.e., pristine membrane (M0) (2.32 ± 0.86 kPa/d) and Ag@silica nanospheres (without spikes) modified membrane (ASNS-M) (2.25 ± 1.28 kPa/d). No significant adverse influences on the pollutant removal were also observed in the reactor. Foulants analysis revealed that biofilm of ASNP-M was thinner and comprised of mainly dead cells, and only organic matter with strong adhesion properties was allowed to attach onto the membrane surface. Bacterial community analysis suggested that the incorporation of Ag@silica nanopollens inhibited colonization of bacteria which are capable of causing membrane biofouling (e.g., Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria). These findings highlight the potential of the antibiofouling membrane to be used in MBRs for wastewater treatment and reclamation.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas Artificiais , Polivinil , Dióxido de Silício , Prata , Águas Residuárias
5.
Water Res ; 177: 115805, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311577

RESUMO

Membrane distillation (MD) works as a potential technology for the "zero liquid discharge" water treatment owing to its high concentration brine tolerance. The continuous accumulation of salts and metals in the MD system during the "zero liquid discharge" water treatment inevitably posed remarkable impacts on the biofilm formation as well as the MD performance. Hence, the biofouling mechanism of MD was deeply researched in this study with an emphasis on the roles of salt-stress (NaCl) and metal-stress (Zn and Fe) in biofilm development. The membrane flux decline of MD was effectively mitigated by the appearance of NaCl and ZnO, while that was significantly aggravated under the metal-stress of Fe. Considering the serious membrane scaling caused by NaCl crystals, a sharp flux decline was seen for the NaCl group during the later stage of MD operation. Basing on the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analysis, heat-stress, salt-stress, and metal-stress all posed certain impacts on the biofouling development in the MD system, and a more remarkable influence was observed for metal-stress. Under the salt-stress from NaCl, a thin biofilm containing high biovolume of dead cells finally formed, in which the bacterial community mainly consisted of halotolerant and thermophile species. Owing to the Zn2+-stress and oxidation-stress mechanisms of ZnO, the bacteria in the MD system were largely dead and live bacterial community in biofilms was dominated by some gram-negative species. Under the metal-stress from Fe, a rather thick biofilm containing higher biovolume of live cells clearly developed, in which the prevailing species could secret large amounts of EPS and accumulate metabolites around cells as biological surfactants, inducing aggravated membrane biofouling and high risk of membrane wetting.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Destilação , Membranas Artificiais , Metais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Water Res ; 175: 115694, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182538

RESUMO

Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system is a promising process for decentralized drinking water treatment. During the operation, membrane relaxation and shear stress could be simply achieved by intermittent filtration and water disturbance (created by occasionally shaking membrane model or stirring water in membrane tank), respectively. To better understand the impact of membrane relaxation and shear stress on the biofouling layer and stable flux in GDM system, action of daily 60-min intermission, daily flushing (cross-flow velocity = 10 cm s-1, 1 min), and the combination of the two (flushed right after the 60-min intermission) were compared. The results showed that membrane relaxation and shear stress lonely was ineffective in improving the stable flux, while their combination enhanced the stable flux by 70%. A more open and spatially heterogeneous biofouling layer with a low extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content and a high microbial activity was formed under the combination of membrane relaxation and shear stress. In-situ optical coherence tomography (OCT) observation revealed that, during intermission, the absence of pushing force by water flow induced a reversible expansion of biofouling layer, and the biofouling layer restored to its initial state soon after resuming filtration. Shear stress caused abrasion and erosion on the biofouling surface, but it exerted little effect on the interior of biofouling layer. Under the combination, however, both the surface and interior of biofouling layer were disturbed because of 1) the water vortexes caused by rough biofouling layer surface, and 2) the porous structure after 60-min intermission. This disturbance, in turn, helped the biofouling layer maintain its roughness and porosity, thereby improving the stable flux of GDM system.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Purificação da Água , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais
7.
Water Res ; 173: 115562, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044595

RESUMO

Biofouling is ubiquitous in reclaimed water distribution systems and causes various industrial, economic, and health issues. This paper investigated the anti-biofouling efficacy of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) for agricultural emitters used for two types of reclaimed water. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and X-ray diffraction were applied to determine the microbial communities and mineral compositions in biofilms. The obtained results revealed that EMF treatment significantly changed the bacterial communities and reduced their diversities in biofilm by affecting water quality parameters. Network analysis results indicated that EMFs were detrimental to the co-occurrence patterns of mutualistic relationships among bacterial species, destroyed the connectivity and complexity of the networks, and inhibited biofilm formation [decreased total biomass and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content]. EMF treatment could also decrease the deposition of mineral precipitates, reducing the carbonate and silicate content in biofilm. The decrease of EPS content appeared to reduce biofilm-induced mineral crystallization, while the ion precipitations accelerated by EMFs caused an erosive effect on biofilm. The results demonstrated that EMF treatment is an effective, chemical-free, and anti-biofouling treatment method with great potential for biofouling control in reclaimed water distribution systems.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Membranas Artificiais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Água
8.
Water Res ; 173: 115576, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044598

RESUMO

Biofouling is the undesired deposition and growth of microorganisms on surfaces, forming biofilms. The definition is subjective and operational: not every biofilm causes biofouling - only if a given a subjective "threshold of interference" is exceeded, biofilms cause technical or medical problems. These range from the formation of slime layers on ship hulls or in pipelines, which increase friction resistance, to separation membranes, on which biofilms increase hydraulic resistance, to heat exchangers where they interfere with heat transport to contamination of treated water by eroded biofilm cells which may comprise hygienically relevant microorganisms, and, most dangerous, to biofilms on implants and catheters which can cause persistent infections. The largest fraction of anti-fouling research, usually in short-term experiments, is focused on prevention or limiting primary microbial adhesion. Intuitively, this appears only logical, but turns out mostly hopeless. This is because in technical systems with open access for microorganisms, all surfaces are colonized sooner or later which explains the very limited success of that research. As a result, the use of biocides remains the major tool to fight persistent biofilms. However, this is costly in terms of biocides, it stresses working materials, causes off-time and environmental damage and it usually leaves large parts of biofilms in place, ready for regrowth. In order to really solve biofouling problems, it is necessary to learn how to live with biofilms and mitigate their detrimental effects. This requires rather an integrated strategy than aiming to invent "one-shot" solutions. In this context, it helps to understand the biofilm way of life as a natural phenomenon. Biofilms are the oldest, most successful and most widely distributed form of life on earth, existing even in extreme environments and being highly resilient. Microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which allows them to develop emerging properties such as enhanced nutrient acquisition, synergistic microconsortia, enhanced tolerance to biocides and antibiotics, intense intercellular communication and cooperation. Transiently immobilized, biofilm organisms turn their matrix into an external digestion system by retaining complexed exoenzymes in the matrix. Biofilms grow even on traces of any biodegradable material, therefore, an effective anti-fouling strategy comprises to keep the system low in nutrients (good housekeeping), employing low-fouling, easy-to-clean surfaces, monitoring of biofilm development, allowing for early intervention, and acknowledging that cleaning can be more important than trying to kill biofilms, because cleaning does not cut the nutrient supply of survivors and dead biomass serves as an additional carbon source for "cannibalizing" survivors, supporting rapid after growth. An integrated concept is presented as the result of a long journey of the author through biofouling problems.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Desinfetantes , Biofilmes , Biomassa , Água
9.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125917, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004892

RESUMO

Quorum sensing signals regulate various functions within activated sludge processes such as formation of microbial aggregates. Disturbance of this signaling system, known as quorum quenching (QQ), provides opportunities for eliminating some problems related to biological wastewater treatment (e.g., biofouling and excess sludge production). However, it is poorly understood how and to what extent QQ systems can affect the microbial aggregation processes and the following floc formation. In particular, an in-depth structural characterization at the scale of microbial aggregate while considering nutrient conditions in the reactor is still largely disregarded. Here, we evaluated the QQ effects at the short-term time scale (i.e., after 4 h for the exogenous period and 19 h for exogenous/endogenous period), by combining advanced techniques for microbial characterization (flow cytometry, CARD-FISH, and confocal laser scanning microscopy) and conventional physical-chemical assessments. The results indicated that by implementing QQ agents (immobilized Acylase I enzyme in porous alginate beads) the abundance of single cells and suspended microbial aggregates in the supernatant did not show significant changes during the exogenous period. Conversely, at the end of the exogenous/endogenous period a significant increase of single prokaryotic cells, small and large microbial aggregates favored the growth of grazers, including free-living nanoflagellates and ciliates. Flocs became looser and thinner than those in the control reactor, thus affecting the sludge settling behavior. Inability of microbial community in degradation of soluble protein during the endogenous period confirmed that the QQ agents are likely to inhibit the secretion of protease enzyme within microbial communities of activated sludge.


Assuntos
Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Incrustação Biológica , Reatores Biológicos , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Nutrientes , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
10.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125956, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028156

RESUMO

Biofouling and organic fouling are major obstacles for polymeric membranes during application. In this work, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8@polydopamine (ZIF-8@PDA) nanoparticles were prepared by an aqueous synthesis strategy and incorporated into the polyamide (PA) selective layer to synthesize thin film nanocomposite membrane (TFN) during interfacial polymerization. The permeability and selectivity of the composite membrane were simultaneously improved with the introduction of ZIF-8@PDA. The water permeability of the TFN membrane increased to 3.74 ± 0.19 L/(m2·h·bar), which is 43.8% higher than that of the control membrane. Besides, the rejection of TFN membrane to sodium chloride is 98.68 ± 0.13%, which shows 0.99% increment than the unmodified membrane. Moreover, organic fouling and biofouling of the TFN membrane were also alleviated thanks to the introduction of the hydrophilic ZIF-8@PDA. The short-term filtration results indicate the performance of the TFN membrane is stable during operation.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Membranas Artificiais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Indóis , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Nylons , Permeabilidade , Polímeros , Água , Zeolitas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136796, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007874

RESUMO

Although in the last decades significant advances have been made to improve antifouling formulations, the main current options continue to be highly toxic to marine environment, leading to an urgent need for new safer alternatives. For anti-adherence studies, barnacles and mussels are commonly the first choice for experimental purposes. However, the use of these organisms involves a series of laborious and time-consuming stages. In the present work, a new approach for testing antifouling formulations was developed under known formulations and novel proposed options. Due to their high resilience, ability of surviving in hostile environments and high abundance in different ecosystems, medusa polyps present themselves as prospect candidates for antifouling protocols. Thus, a complete protocol to test antifouling formulations using polyps is presented, while the antifouling properties of two invasive seaweeds, Asparagopsis armata and Sargassum muticum, were evaluated within this new test model framework. The use of medusa polyps as model to test antifouling substances revealed to be a reliable alternative to the conventional organisms, presenting several advantages since the protocol is less laborious, less time-consuming and reproductive. The results also show that the seaweeds A. armata and S. muticum produce compounds with anti-adherence properties being therefore potential candidates for the development of new greener antifouling formulations.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Rodófitas , Sargassum , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125953, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069724

RESUMO

In conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment systems, Gram-negative bacterial population appears to be always outnumbered Gram-positive community. Thereby, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), major signaling molecules utilized by Gram-negative bacteria, have been targeted for biofouling control in quorum quenching (QQ) based studies. This study investigated the impact of AHL and autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-degrading QQ consortium on the selective accumulation of microbial communities in a QQ MBR (MBR-QQb). The results show that addition of the QQ consortium (in the form of beads) increased the filtration time of MBR-QQb by 3.5 times. The distribution of mixed liquor extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), especially the tightly bound (TB) proteinous EPS and the floc size were strongly affected by the QQ activity, and the endless 'battle' between QQ and quorum sensing (QS). More importantly, QQ induced the significant suppression of Gram-negative bacterial community. The average abundance of Gram-positive bacteria at the genus level in the biocake of MBR-QQb (51%) was significantly higher than that of the control MBR (11%) and the MBR with vacant beads (28%). These findings suggest that an unintended condition is created to favor the growth of Gram-positive bacteria in QQ MBRs, resulting in a distinct microbial social network in both bulk sludge and biocake.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Microbiota , Percepção de Quorum , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Incrustação Biológica , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos/microbiologia
13.
Water Res ; 171: 115452, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901683

RESUMO

The electric field assisted membrane bioreactor (MBR) is an effective technique to alleviate membrane fouling. In this study, the spontaneous electric field was introduced into the MBR to observe the growth process of cake layer on the membrane surface. The external resistance for spontaneous electric field MBR (S-50) and S-500 were 50 Ω and 500 Ω respectively. During the experiments, S-50 maintained the highest electric field intensity of 11.83 mV/cm. The reduction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in activated sludge, transmembrane pressure (TMP) growth rate reached 52.8% and 51.7% respectively. After 28 days operation, S-50 obtained the minimum contaminant specific biovolume (23.316 µm3/µm2), which was 68.2% lower than that of it in Control-MBR. The metal oxide or metal hydroxide were distributed in the cake layer. EPS played a significant role in the formation and growth of the cake layer. Based on the results obtained in this study, the growth of the biofouling layer on the membrane surface could be divided into three stages. EPS first deposited on the membrane surface, and then microorganisms embedded in the cake layer to form clusters. After that, EPS and total cells further increased and led to a faster biovolume growth rate. Subsequently, the biovolume growth rate decreased in the cake layer. The spontaneous electric field delayed the deposition of EPS on the membrane surface. The produced H2O2 and •OH were beneficial to the degradation of organics, causing the smaller contaminant biovolume on the membrane surface. This work aims to provide a theoretical basis for the practical application of the electric field to control membrane fouling.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Membranas Artificiais , Reatores Biológicos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Esgotos
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 2012-2021, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916753

RESUMO

Electrochemical membrane filtration has proven to be successful for microbial removal and separation from water. In addition, membrane fouling could be mitigated by electrochemical reactions and electrostatic repulsion on a reactive membrane surface. This study assessed the filtration performances and fouling characteristics of electrochemically reactive ceramic membranes (a Magneli phase suboxide of TiO2) when filtering algal suspension under different dc currents to achieve anodic or cathodic polarization. The critical flux results indicate that when applying positive or negative dc currents (e.g., 1.25-2.5 mA·cm-2) to the membrane, both significantly mitigated membrane fouling and thus maintained higher critical fluxes (up to 14.6 × 10-5·m3·m-2·s-1 or 526 LMH) compared to the critical flux without dc currents. Moreover, applying dc currents also enhanced membrane defouling processes and recovered high permeate flux better than hydraulic and chemical backwash methods. Moreover, fouling kinetics and the cake layer formation were further analyzed with a resistance-in-series model that revealed many important but underexamined parameters (e.g., cake layer resistance and cake layer thickness). The cake layer structures (e.g., compressibility) were shown to vary with the electrochemical activity, which provide new insight into the biofouling mechanisms. Finally, the algogenic odor, geosmin, was shown to be effectively removed by this reactive membrane under positive dc currents (2.5 mA·cm-2), which highlights the multifunctional capabilities of electrochemically reactive membrane filtration in biomass separation, fouling prevention, and pollutant degradation.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Cerâmica , Filtração , Cinética , Membranas Artificiais
15.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125446, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995891

RESUMO

Multiple wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as an excellent material, have been used in various applications including preparation of polymer-MWCNTs composite membranes. However, few reports have combined the magnetic Ni@MWCNTs with polyether sulfone (PES) membrane to improve its antifouling performance to humic acid (HA), sodium alginate (SA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and yeast (YE) solutions. In this study, the Ni@MWCNTs was generated by immersing MWCNTs into Ni2+ solution where in-situ reduction reaction was launched by the adsorbed Ag+ on MWCNTs. Since the loaded Ni endowed magnetism to MWCNTs, the Ni@MWCNTs can be easily attracted onto the membrane surface by an external magnetic field during the phase inversion process. The morphology measurements confirmed that the Ni@MWCNTs headed out of the PES-Ni@MWCNTs membrane surface. Because the MWCNTs played a role of free channels for water molecules, the composite membrane water flux reached to threefold flux of the pristine membrane. Moreover, the PES-Ni@MWCNTs membranes displayed the obviously enhanced antifouling ability during all the three alternative filtration cycles of water and BSA, SA, YE and HA solutions. In addition, the optimal PES-Ni@MWCNTs membrane demonstrated a flux recovery rate (FRR) of 67.89%, 85.53%, 60.28 and 90.12% for BSA, SA, YE and HA, respectively, which were not only much higher than that of the pristine membrane, but also exhibited significant improvements comparing with the previous studies. Further results of extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory indicated that the modified membrane possessed advantageous interaction energies with contaminant molecules over the pristine membrane.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Campos Magnéticos , Membranas Artificiais , Nanotubos de Carbono , Polímeros , Sulfonas , Adsorção , Alginatos/efeitos adversos , Filtração , Substâncias Húmicas/efeitos adversos , Permeabilidade , Soroalbumina Bovina/efeitos adversos , Água/química
16.
Biofouling ; 36(1): 14-31, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928216

RESUMO

The impact of feed water quality on biofilm formation during membrane distillation (MD) was investigated in this study, particularly emphasizing the interrelationship between organics, salts, and microbes. Two types of typical natural surface waters in Nanjing, China, were chosen as feed solutions for long-term MD operation, including the Qinhuai River and Xuanwu Lake. The biofilms that developed under different feed water qualities exhibited distinct Foulant compositions and structures, causing different flux decline trends for the MD system. Accordingly, two typical patterns of biofilm formation were suggested for the MD operation of the two different kinds of surface waters in this study. Organics from a primal feed solution and dead bacteria were the key to the establishment of a biofilm on the membrane, and this needs to be effectively removed from the MD system through pre-treatment and process control strategies. Finally, a feasible strategy for MD biofouling control was suggested.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Destilação , Água Doce , Membranas Artificiais , Politetrafluoretileno/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , China , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Qualidade da Água
17.
Biofouling ; 36(1): 73-85, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985280

RESUMO

A CUSUM chart method is presented as an alternative tool for continuous monitoring of an electromagnetic field-based (EMF) antifouling (AF) treatment of a heat exchanger cooled by seawater. During an initial experimental phase, biofilm growth was allowed in a heat exchanger formed of four tubes until sufficient growth had been established. In two of the tubes, continuous EMF treatment was then applied. The heat transfer resistance and heat duty (heat transfer per unit time) results showed that biofilm adhesion was reduced by the EMF treatment. EMF treatments resulted in a 35% improvement in the heat transfer resistance values. The proposed CUSUM chart method showed that the EMF treatment increased the useful life of the heat exchanger by ∼20 days. Thus, CUSUM charts proved to be an efficient tool for continuous monitoring of an AF treatment using data collected online and can also be used to reduce operation and maintenance costs.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Temperatura Alta , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Monitoramento Biológico/instrumentação
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136361, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926417

RESUMO

Capsaicin, which inhibits the attachment and growth of fouling organisms, is a bioactive substance that is generally recognized as a highly active environmental algaecide agent. Its derivatives are simple in structure and have been proven to have low toxicity and be environmentally friendly. Six capsaicin derivatives were synthesized via Friedel-Crafts alkylation and characterized using melting point (MP) analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The inhibition effect and toxicity of these compounds towards Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum), Skeletonema costatum (S. costatum) and Chaetoceros curvisetus (C. curvisetus) were tested. The capsaicin derivatives all showed inhibitory effects. In particular, compound E with over 95% (3 mg·L-1) inhibition and intermediate toxicity was superior to the other compounds, reflecting an environmentally friendly effect. This finding indicates that capsaicin derivatives possess the potential to become environmentally friendly algaecide agents. The fouling resistance of capsaicin derivatives incorporated into the coatings as antifouling agents was measured in the marine environment. The results showed that capsaicin derivatives possess excellent fouling resistance, with only a small amount of algae and muck attached to the tested panel at 90 days. The above results provide a scientific basis for the application of capsaicin derivatives as environmentally friendly antifouling agents.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Incrustação Biológica , Capsaicina/química , Diatomáceas
19.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125787, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959357

RESUMO

Numerous advantages of forward osmosis (FO) include operation at low or no hydraulic pressure, high rejection of a wide range of contaminants, and low irreversible fouling. The FO has been investigated to reduce effluent discharge in wastewater reclamation. The application of wastewater effluent as a feed stream to FO yields fouling on the active layer of the FO membrane. Fouling was examined using two compounds (i.e., alginate and humic acid) with distinguished hydrophobic properties. The repeated filtration and surface wash were applied and flux decline and reversibility of physical cleaning were evaluated. In addition, the characteristics of fouling cakes and concentrates were also analyzed. The foulants showed different behaviors in flux decline. The thick cake layer of alginate was obvious and the cake enhanced concentration polarization was also observed. The recovery results along with the FTIR spectra and FE-SEM images proved that the surface cleaning was not effective to detach foulants, especially for alginate fouling. The osmotic backwash showed greater flux recovery for alginate fouling than humic acid fouling, which indicated that restoring membrane pores or disturbing cake layers by osmotic backwash might be successful for the foulants for strong interactions between foulants and foulants. The concentrates were mostly composed of humic substances and low-molecular weight neutrals. The differences in the relative portions of the major components were occurred in the concentrates implying that the organic properties of the feed water and also interactions of foulants and membranes should be evaluated prior to determination of disposal options for concentrates.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Alginatos , Filtração , Substâncias Húmicas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
20.
Water Res ; 172: 115511, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986400

RESUMO

High-pressure membrane filtration (reverse osmosis and nanofiltration) is used to purify different water sources, including wastewater, surface water, groundwater and seawater. A major concern in membrane filtration is the accumulation and growth of micro-organisms and their secreted polymeric substances, leading to reduced membrane performance and membrane biofouling. The fundamental understanding of membrane biofouling is limited despite years of research, as the means of microbial interactions and response to the conditions on the membrane surface are complicated. Here, we discuss studies that investigated the microbial diversity of fouled high-pressure membranes. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have shown that Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales, Sphingomonadales and Xanthomonadales frequently obtain a high relative abundance on fouled membranes. The bacterial communities present in the diverse feed water types and in pre-treatment compartments are different from the communities on the membrane, because high-pressure membrane filtration provides a selective environment for certain bacterial groups. The biofilms that form within the pre-treatment compartments do not commonly serve as an inoculum for the subsequent high-pressure membranes. Besides bacteria also fungi are detected in the water treatment compartments. In contrast to bacteria, the fungal community does not change much throughout membrane cleaning. The stable fungal diversity indicates that they are more significant in membrane biofouling than previously thought. By reviewing the biodiversity and ecology of microbes in the whole high pressure membrane filtration water chain, we have been able to identify potentials to improve biofouling control. These include modulation of hydrodynamic conditions, nutrient limitation and the combination of cleaning agents to target the entire membrane microbiome.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Purificação da Água , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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