Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34.182
Filtrar
3.
BMJ ; 368: m165, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959618
4.
BMJ ; 368: l6925, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate pharmaceutical or medical device industry funding of patient groups. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar from inception to January 2018; reference lists of eligible studies and experts in the field. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Observational studies including cross sectional, cohort, case-control, interrupted time series, and before-after studies of patient groups reporting at least one of the following outcomes: prevalence of industry funding; proportion of industry funded patient groups that disclosed information about this funding; and association between industry funding and organisational positions on health and policy issues. Studies were included irrespective of language or publication type. REVIEW METHODS: Reviewers carried out duplicate independent data extraction and assessment of study quality. An amended version of the checklist for prevalence studies developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute was used to assess study quality. A DerSimonian-Laird estimate of single proportions with Freeman-Tukey arcsine transformation was used for meta-analyses of prevalence. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) was used to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome. RESULTS: 26 cross sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 studies estimated the prevalence of industry funding, which ranged from 20% (12/61) to 83% (86/104). Among patient organisations that received industry funding, 27% (175/642; 95% confidence interval 24% to 31%) disclosed this information on their websites. In submissions to consultations, two studies showed very different disclosure rates (0% and 91%), which appeared to reflect differences in the relevant government agency's disclosure requirements. Prevalence estimates of organisational policies that govern corporate sponsorship ranged from 2% (2/125) to 64% (175/274). Four studies analysed the relationship between industry funding and organisational positions on a range of highly controversial issues. Industry funded groups generally supported sponsors' interests. CONCLUSION: In general, industry funding of patient groups seems to be common, with prevalence estimates ranging from 20% to 83%. Few patient groups have policies that govern corporate sponsorship. Transparency about corporate funding is also inadequate. Among the few studies that examined associations between industry funding and organisational positions, industry funded groups tended to have positions favourable to the sponsor. Patient groups have an important role in advocacy, education, and research, therefore strategies are needed to prevent biases that could favour the interests of sponsors above those of the public. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017079265.


Assuntos
Associações de Consumidores/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Administração Financeira/legislação & jurisprudência , Associações de Consumidores/ética , Associações de Consumidores/legislação & jurisprudência , Revelação/ética , Revelação/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Administração Financeira/ética , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Política Organizacional
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 15, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897837

RESUMO

The transglutaminases form a large family of intracellular and extracellular enzymes that catalyze cross-links between protein molecules. Transglutaminases crosslinking properties are widely applied to various industrial processes, to improve the firmness, viscosity, elasticity, and water-holding capacity of products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the extremely high costs of obtaining transglutaminases from animal sources have prompted scientists to search for new sources of these enzymes. Therefore, research has been focused on producing transglutaminases by microorganisms, which may present wider scope of use, based on enzyme-specific characteristics. In this review, we present an overview of the literature addressing the origins, types, reactions, and general characterizations of this important enzyme family. A second review will deal with transglutaminases applications in the area of food industry, medicine, pharmaceuticals and biomaterials, as well as applications in the textile and leather industries.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Transglutaminases/genética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Indústria Farmacêutica , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Indústria Têxtil
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(7): 1026-1029, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854390

RESUMO

We report here a fully automated, end-to-end, integrated continuous manufacturing process for a small-molecule generic medication with built-in quality assurance. The entire process fits into a box of 30.7 m2 modular footprint and a total residence time of less than 30 h, with a throughput up to 40.3 × 106 tablets per year.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/síntese química , Indústria Farmacêutica/instrumentação
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124689, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524624

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical effluents released from industries are accountable to deteriorate the aquatic and soil environment through indirect toxic effects. Microbes are adequately been used to biodegrade pharmaceutical industry wastewater and present study was envisaged to determine biodegradation of pharmaceutical effluent by Micrococcus yunnanensis. The strain showed 42.82% COD (Chemical oxygen demand) reduction before optimization. After applying Taguchi's L8 array as an optimization technique, the biodegradation rate was enhanced by 82.95% at optimum conditions (dextrose- 0.15%, peptone 0.1%, inoculum size 4% (wv-1), rpm 200, pH 8 at 25 °C) within 6 h. The confirmation of pharmaceuticals degradation was done by 1H NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) studies followed by elucidation of transformation pathways of probable drugs in the effluent through Q-Tof-MS (Quadrupole Time of Flight- Mass Spectrometry). The cytotoxicity evaluation of treated and untreated wastewater was analyzed on Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cells using Alamar Blue assay, which showed significant variance.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Micrococcus/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Linhagem Celular , Indústria Farmacêutica , Células HEK293 , Humanos
15.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 749-753, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825682

RESUMO

Background: Agreements between payers and pharmaceutical/medical device companies are widely implemented to address financial and clinical uncertainties. We analyzed the main characteristics of these agreements in Israel from 2011-2018.Research design and methods: We reviewed all agreements implemented during the study period. Information regarding the type of agreement, therapeutic indications, its time frame and the total budget involved are presented.Results: A total of 56 agreements were signed since 2011, of which 53 (95%) were financial-based and 50 (89%) referred to pharmaceuticals. The annual number of agreements increased from one in 2011 to 21 in 2018. The main therapeutic areas covered were: oncology (41%), hepatitis C (16%), neurology (11%), respiratory (9%), and cardiovascular (7%). The proportion of the annual budget allocated subject to these agreements increased accordingly from 3% in 2011 to 73% in 2018. The majority (63%) of the agreements were signed for 5 years, 9% were shorter-term and 20% have no time-limit. In 14 (44%) of the financial-based agreements implemented through 2017, the actual utilization exceeded the pre-specified threshold and the companies reimbursed the health-plans accordingly.Conclusions: The number of agreements and the allocated budget subject to these agreements increased substantially in recent years. Most agreements are financial-based that, in many cases, shifted the short-term financial risk from health-plans to the industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Participação no Risco Financeiro/organização & administração , Orçamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Israel , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso/economia , Participação no Risco Financeiro/economia , Incerteza
16.
BMJ ; 367: l6694, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand and report on the nature of patient group interactions with the pharmaceutical industry from the perspective of patient group representatives by exploring the range of attitudes towards pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and how, why, and when interactions occur. DESIGN: Empirical qualitative interview study informed by ethics theory. SETTING: Australian patient groups. PARTICIPANTS: 27 participants from 23 Australian patient groups that represented diverse levels of financial engagement with the pharmaceutical industry. Groups were focused on general health consumer issues or disease specific topics, and had regional or national jurisdictions. ANALYSIS: Analytic techniques were informed by grounded theory. Interview transcripts were coded into data driven categories. Findings were organised into new conceptual categories to describe and explain the data, and were supported by quotes. RESULTS: A range of attitudes towards pharmaceutical industry sponsorship were identified that are presented as four different types of relationship between patient groups and the pharmaceutical industry. The dominant relationship type was of a successful business partnership, and participants described close working relationships with industry personnel. These participants acknowledged a potential for adverse industry influence, but expressed confidence in existing strategies for avoiding industry influence. Other participants described unsatisfactory or undeveloped relationships, and some participants (all from general health consumer groups) presented their groups' missions as incompatible with the pharmaceutical industry because of fundamentally opposing interests. Participants reported that interactions between their patient group and pharmaceutical companies were more common when companies had new drugs of potential interest to group members. Patient groups that accepted industry funding engaged in exchanges of "assets" with companies. Groups received money, information, and advice in exchange for providing companies with marketing, relationship building opportunities with key opinion leaders, coordinated lobbying with companies about drug access and subsidy, assisting companies with clinical trial recruitment, and enhancing company credibility. CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of the range of views patient groups have about pharmaceutical company sponsorship will be useful for groups that seek to identify and manage any ethical concerns about these relationships. Patient groups that receive pharmaceutical industry money should anticipate they might be asked for specific assets in return. Selective industry funding of groups where active product marketing opportunities exist might skew the patient group sector's activity towards pharmaceutical industry interests and allow industry to exert proxy influence over advocacy and subsequent health policy.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Política de Saúde , Marketing/ética , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Austrália , Humanos
17.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 276-280, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795594

RESUMO

Drug Indexes are of significance for investigation on ancient patent medicine industry. Herein, we compared Zhang Tongtai Wan San Gao Dan Quanlu (10th year of Jiaqing Reign, 1805), Ye Zhongde Tang Dan Wan Quanlu (4th year of Xianfeng Reign, 1854 and 5th year of Tongzhi Reign, 1866) and Hu Qingyu Tang Wan San Gao Dan Quanji(3th year of Guangxu Reign, 1877) to illustrate the business features of Hangzhou patent medicine industry in Qing Dynasty.The three pharmacies, Zhang Tongtai Tang, Ye Zhongde Tang and Hu Qingyu Tang, were all adept in utilizing ancient prescriptions that contained various preparations, emphasized commercial ethics and product qualities, distributed their products in flexible pattern and focused on distillation formula. Moreover, each of the three pharmacies exhibited their own characteristics in product types and commercialization.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Farmácias , China , Comércio , Indústria Farmacêutica , História do Século XIX , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Farmácias/história
20.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 685-692, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847613

RESUMO

Introduction: Governments need to do far more to help curb the emergence and transmission of antibiotic resistance and help protect the efficacy of any new antibiotics that come to the market. Industry is an important stakeholder that must be brought on-board such efforts given its influence on the direction and scale of antibiotic sales. Financial incentives supporting industry R&D of novel antibiotics should structurally remove the drivers of superfluous sales and encourage access to newer antibiotics where infections are otherwise resistant to treatment. Indeed, the use of public money provides an important opportunity to prioritize these public health goals within market structures such that we both adequately reward industry for their efforts and prolong antibiotic efficacy for as long as possible.Areas covered: This work discusses possible financial 'pull' incentives that fully delink the reward paid to the developer from unit sales, examining their primary advantages and limitations.Expert opinion: Pharmaceutical companies need to be rewarded generously for their efforts to develop new, badly needed antibiotics. But the current marketplace does not provide a sustained financial lure and its reliance on unit-sales for profitability jeopardizes the efficacy of antibiotics both new and old. Fully delinked models can make antibiotic R&D more financially appealing and create a market environment that is far less threatening to public health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/economia , Comércio/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA