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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2674-2684, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857752

RESUMO

Coal chemical industry (CCI) generally utilizes reverse osmosis (RO) for water reclamation, which generates a highly concentrated stream containing refractory organic substances and high-concentration total dissolved solids (TDS). To address this issue, the present work focuses on volume reduction of RO concentrate (ROC) produced from CCI by forward osmosis (FO). We investigated the effects of membrane orientation and draw solution (DS) concentration on FO performance. Foulant removal was tested by using chemical cleaning, physical cleaning and osmotic backwash (OB). AL-FS (active layer facing feed solution) mode outcompeted AL-DS (active layer facing draw solution) mode, achieving a flux of 26.4 LMH, 92.5% water reclamation and energy consumption of 0.050 kWh·m-3 with 4 M NaCl as DS. The FO process was able to reject >98% SO42-, Mg2+and Ca2+, 92-98% Si and 33-55% total organic carbon (TOC). Ten-cycle (10 × 20 h) accelerated fouling test demonstrated approximately 30% flux decline in association with Si-containing foulants, which could be removed almost completely through OB with 97.1% flux recovery. This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of FO for volume reduction and water reclamation of ROC produced from CCI, making the treatment of ROC more efficient and more energy effective.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Purificação da Água , Indústria Química , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Água
2.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111246, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858271

RESUMO

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APCP) is an important pollution control policy formulated by the Chinese government to promote green development. However, there are few studies of its impact. Based on a province-level panel dataset from 2007 to 2017, we use a three-hierarchy meta-frontier slack-based data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model and the global Malmquist (GM) index to estimate the green total factor productivity (GTFP) of China's chemical sub-industries. Next, we use the difference-in-differences (DID) method to explore the effect of the implementation of the APCP in 2013 on the GTFP of China's chemical industry. We find an increasing trend in the GTFP of China's chemical industry between 2007 and 2017. A decomposition of the change in GTFP shows that technical progress was the main driving factor and management inefficiency was the main inhibitory factor. The APCP had a significant positive effect on GTFP. Overall, in the post-implementation period, the increase in the GTFP of the treatment group was approximately 7.9% greater than in the control group. The APCP also significantly improved the technical efficiency change index. A dynamic effect analysis shows that the positive effect of the APCP on GTFP had an inverted U-shaped trend. A series of robustness tests, including counterfactual, re-grouping, and quasi-DID tests, suggest that our findings are reliable. In addition, changes in exports, capital deepening, and energy prices all significantly improved the GTFP of China's chemical industry.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Indústria Química , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Eficiência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722457

RESUMO

The chemical industry has made great contributions to the national economy, but frequent chemical plant explosion accidents (CPEAs) have also caused heavy property losses and casualties, as the CPEA is the result of interaction of many related risk factors, leading to uncertainty in the evolution of the accident. To systematically excavate and analyze the underlying causes of accidents, this paper first integrates emergency elements in the frame of orbit intersection theory and proposes 14 nodes to represent the evolution path of the accident. Then, combined with historical data and expert experience, a Bayesian network (BN) model of CPEAs was established. Through scenario analysis and sensitivity analysis, the interaction between factors and the impact of the factors on accident consequences was evaluated. It is found that the direct factors have the most obvious influence on the accident consequences, and the unsafe conditions contribute more than the unsafe behaviors. Furthermore, considering the factor chain, the management factors, especially safety education and training, are the key link of the accident that affects unsafe behaviors and unsafe conditions. Moreover, effective government emergency response has played a more prominent role in controlling environmental pollution. In addition, the complex network relationship between elements is presented in a sensitivity index matrix, and we extracted three important risk transmission paths from it. The research provides support for enterprises to formulate comprehensive safety production management strategies and control key factors in the risk transmission path to reduce CPEA risks.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Acidentes , Indústria Química , Explosões , Substâncias Perigosas , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão da Segurança
4.
Science ; 368(6496): 1181-1182, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527815
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400283

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the exposure to environmental lead (Pb) of children from a traditional community of African descent in Brazil and the effects on hematological parameters. Children (n = 75) aged 5.5-13 years from the exposed areas classified as low (LEx) and moderately (MEx) exposed were compared with children (n = 75) of a control group (CG). Dust Pb loading rates (RtPbs) at children's homes were measured. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected to assess Pb biomarkers of exposure and effects. All Pb determinations were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The median (IQR) of RtPb, PbB level, and ALA-D activity were 65 (25-137) µgPb/m2/30 days, 1.0 (0.1-2.8) µg/dL, and 71 (55-86) U/L, respectively. Spearman correlation evidenced the relationship of PbB with RtPb (rho = 0.368, P < 0.001) and ALA-D activity (rho = -0.587; P ˂ 0.001). After adjusting for exposure degree and child's age, a decline of 7.4 U/L in ALA-D activity was associated with a 10-fold increase in PbB. The prevalence ratio of elevated PbB (>5 µg/dL) in LEx and MEx areas were 1.5 and 3.7, respectively. Indoor dust exposure, living near pottery workshops and the secondary exposure were the main determinants of elevated PbB levels, which were associated with hematological effects.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Indústria Química , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Cerâmica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espectrofotometria Atômica
6.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126609, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443256

RESUMO

In this research, the toxicological effect of untreated wastewater from of ethyl alcohol industry was evaluated on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under experimental conditions. Fish were treated with zero, half, one and two percent of sewage effluent for 21 days. Toxic effects were monitored in liver by determining biochemical indicators, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the expression of genes involved in the detoxification. Results showed that Sod1, Gstp-1a, Gpx1a gene expressions were significantly increased in the hepatocytes after 21 days at 2.0% sewage exposure. Sewage exposure also significantly increased Gsr, Ces2 and Cyp1a, Mt1 and Mt2 gene expression in the hepatocytes of zebrafish as compared to the reference group (P < 0.01). Total cellular antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in fish exposed to 1 and 2% of sewage were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.01), whereas alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was only increased in fish exposed to 2% sewage (P < 0.01). A significant decrease in gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activity in fish exposed to 2% effluent was found (P < 0.01). Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in zebrafish exposed to all concentrations of effluent. The transcriptional analysis of the detoxification-related genes and the changes in the biochemical indicators evidenced that drainage of sewage effluents from the ethyl alcohol company is a serious threat to the health of aquatic animals in the Khorram-Rood River. These results will contribute to further study on the impact of sewage effluents of the alcohol industry on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Indústria Química , Etanol , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Rios/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
7.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no clear consensus over the findings of research into shift work and cardiovascular risk factors, such as those present in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is further confounded by the varying definitions of MetS and shift work. Our objective was to learn about the link between shift work, lifestyles and cardiovascular health in chemical factory workers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study, carried out 2018-2019; data obtained from annual occupational health check-ups. 515 workers chosen, with a 1:3 ratio (shifts/no shifts). Variables collected: MetS, arterial hypertension, obesity, abdominal adiposity and biochemical alterations (glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid). Explanatory variables: age, gender, tobacco consumption, physical activity and shift work. Besides the usual descriptions, both non-adjusted and adjusted bivariate logistic regression were performed, producing Odds Ratio (OR) values with 95% CI. RESULTS: The non-adjusted logistic regression showed that shift workers performed less physical activity (OR=0.22; 95% CI=0.14-0.35; p<0.001) and had lower HDL cholesterol levels (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2-3.8; p<0.05), plus a higher rate of hypertriglyceridemia (OR=2.05; 95% CI=1.3-3.2; p<0.01) and hyperuricemia (OR=2.7; 95% CI=0.9-2.7; p<0.001). In the logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, tobacco consumption, physical activity and shift work only the prevalence of hyperuricemia was higher in shift workers (OR=2.25; 95% CI=1.1-4.6; p<0.05), as well as with less moderate/high physical activity (OR=0.19; 95% CI=0.12-0.31; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While no link was found between shift work and increased smoking or a higher cardiovascular risk, there was evidence of an association with high uric acid levels and less moderate/high physical activity.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354158

RESUMO

Organic dust explosions were and are still today a critical issue in the food, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical industry. Materials such as flour, corn starch, sugar and APIs represent a cause of severe accidents. In this framework, we investigated a modified version of Recursive Operability Analysis-Incidental Sequence Diagrams (ROA-ISD), called ROA Plus-ISD, specifically tailored to describe industrial processes involving organic combustible dusts. Compared to more classical techniques such as Hazard and Operability (HazOp), ROA-ISD allows for a direct generation of fault trees, providing a useful tool to connect Qualitative with Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA). ROA Plus-ISD is very similar to ROA-Cause Consequence Diagrams (CCD), which has already proven to be an effective tool to perform both risk assessment on existing plants and reconstructing already occurred accidents, given its logical structure and width of the application fields. In this work, we modified specific parts of the standard ROA-CCD method: (1) the Failure Mode and Operability Analysis (FMEA) database has been structured in order to retrieve the well-known explosion pentagon (for dusts) and all the instruments, devices, apparatuses and controllers typical of industries which process organic dusts; (2) a new comprehensive list of process variables has been compiled. In this way, it is possible to tailor the information required for the generation of the fault trees concerning top events involving mainly dust explosions and fires. This method has been implemented in order to reconstruct the dynamics of the February 2008 Imperial Sugar refinery plant accident (Port Wentworth, GA, USA). Results demonstrated the applicability of the enhanced method by highlighting the criticalities of the process already showed by a previously detailed reconstruction performed by the Chemical Safety Board.


Assuntos
Poeira , Fogo , Medição de Risco , Indústria Química , Explosões
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 382, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ubiquitously distributed benzene is a known hematotoxin. Increasing evidence has suggested that erythroid-related hematologic parameters may be sensitive to benzene exposure. Fat content, which is also closely associated with erythroid-related hematologic parameters, may affect the distribution and/or metabolism of benzene, and eventually benzene-induced toxicity. METHODS: To explore the influence of benzene exposure, fat content, and their interactions on erythroid-related hematologic parameters, we recruited 1669 petrochemical workers and measured their urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) concentration and erythroid-related hematological parameters. Indices for fat content included body fat percentage (BF%), plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG), and occurrence of fatty liver. RESULTS: The dose-response curve revealed U-shaped nonlinear relationships of SPMA with hematocrit (HCT) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P-overall < 0.001, and P-nonlinear < 0.015), as well as positive linear associations and r-shaped nonlinear relationships of continuous fat content indices with erythroid-related hematological parameters (P-overall ≤0.005). We also observed modification effects of fat content on the associations between benzene exposure and erythroid-related hematological parameters, with workers of lower or higher BF% and TG more sensitive to benzene-induced elevation of MCHC (Pinteraction = 0.021) and benzene-induced decrease of HCT (Pinteraction = 0.050), respectively. We also found that some erythroid-related hematologic parameters differed between subgroups of workers with different SPMA levels and fat content combination. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that benzene exposure, fat content, and their interactions may affect erythroid-related hematological parameters in petrochemical workers in a complex manner that are worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Benzeno/toxicidade , Composição Corporal , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hematologia , Lipídeos , Ocupações , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/urina , Adulto , Benzeno/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Indústria Química , Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Triglicerídeos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114493, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302876

RESUMO

Owing to the production and use of chemicals in chemical industry parks (CIPs), these areas are considered to be highly polluted. However, the type of pollutants presents in the wastewater from CIPs and the risk posed to the environment due to the release of these pollutants remains unclear. In this study, suspect screening was combined with traceability analysis to determine the type of pollutants present in wastewaters at 9 chemical enterprises and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the CIPs. Additionally, the distribution of nine pollutants from the WWTPs' effluent stage and the risk they posed to the surrounding river was examined through target analysis. Upon conducting suspect analysis, the presence of 65 and 64 chemicals in the 9 chemical enterprises' wastewaters and WWTPs, respectively, was tentatively identified. Traceability analysis of the compounds screened in the effluent from the WWTPs determined that 41 substances were identified as characteristic pollutants of the chemical enterprises, indicating that the suspect screening strategy enabled relatively more efficient identification of the characteristic pollutants compared to traditional quantitative analysis. Targeting analysis combined with ecological risk assessment showed that metolachlor, carbendazim, atrazine, diuron, and chlorpyrifos posed relatively higher risks to aquatic organisms in the surrounding river. Therefore, the refined management of the wastewater treatment plant in the CIPs is necessary.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Indústria Química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126682, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283426

RESUMO

The industry devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by using as raw material sedimentary phosphate rock (PR) is considered as a NORM activity (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials), due to the high levels of U-series radionuclides contained in this ore, which are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those in unperturbed soils. This fact allowed us to develop a deep characterization of the raw materials, wastes, main intermediate materials, and final products obtained at a typical phosphoric acid factory. The elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), radionuclide concentrations, grain size distribution, mineralogy and micro-structural composition were analyzed. The aim of this characterization was to obtain information for operators and maintenance personnel involved in clean-up and waste management operations. The highest concentrations of some heavy metals and radionuclide activity concentrations were found in the "scales" (or internal incrustations)from the pipes that carry either phosphoric acid (PA) or the phosphogypsum waste (PG). The highest concentrations where found for 226Ra and 40K,with values up to 9 and 5 Bq g-1, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of many toxic heavy metals and trace elements, such as Cd, Cr, Ni, Sr, Y, V, Zn, Th, and U, were found in some sludge samples. The shielding effect of the containers/vessels/pipes has an essential role in the measured external dose in the intermediate products. The radiological implications of natural radionuclides with higher activity showed that if the maximum particulate matter concentration established in the Spanish regulation is verified, and taking into account the most conservative scenario, the annual limit of 1 mSv y-1 is not exceeded.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfato de Cálcio , Humanos , Metais Pesados , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Plantas , Radioisótopos/análise , Solo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340109

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to lead is neurotoxic to the human peripheral sensory system. Variant vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and polymorphisms of metallothioneins (MTs) are associated with different outcomes following lead toxicity. However, no evidence of a relationship between lead neurotoxicity and polymorphisms has previously been presented. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms of VDR, MT1A, and MT2A genes and lead toxicity following chronic occupational lead exposure. We measured vibration perception thresholds (VPT) and current perception thresholds (CPT) in 181 workers annually for five years. The outcome variables were correlated to the subject's index of long-term lead exposure. Polymorphisms of VDR, MT1A, and MT2A were defined. The potential confounders, including age, sex, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, and working life span, were also collected and analyzed using linear regression. The regression coefficients of some gene polymorphisms were at least 20 times larger than regression coefficients of time-weighted index of cumulative blood lead (TWICL) measures. All regression coefficients of TWICL increased slightly. MT1A rs11640851 (AA/CC) was associated with a statistically significant difference in all neurological outcomes except hand and foot VPT. MT1A rs8052394 was associated with statistically significant differences in hand and foot CPT 2000 Hz. In MT2A rs10636, those with the C allele showed a greater effect on hand CPT than those with the G allele. Among the VDR gene polymorphisms, the Apa rs7975232 (CC/AA) single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with the greatest difference in hand CPT. MT2A rs28366003 appeared to have a neural protective effect, whereas Apa (rs7975232) of VDR and MT2A rs10636 increased the neurotoxicity as measured by CPT in the hands. MT1A rs8052394 had a protective effect on large myelinated nerves. MT1A rs11640851 was associated with susceptibility to neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metalotioneína/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Indústria Química , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 268, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248321

RESUMO

Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is classified as group 1 carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research for Cancer (IARC). In 2012, USEPA promulgated a new VCM emission standard as part of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and copolymer plants. The standard was set by benchmarking of peer plants with maximum achievable control technology (MACT). This study performs an emission assessment of a world-class PVC plant in Taiwan according to the MACT analysis. The emission data obtained were then benchmarked with baseline emission estimates of 15 PVC plants in the USA. Results of this study show seven types of VCM emissions: stripped resin of suspension/dispersion, wastewater, process vent, heat-exchange system, storage tank, equipment leaks, and other sources (gasholder). All the emission factors are complied with their MACT emission limitations (MEL) and ranked either #1 or #2 among the 15 plants. They are also summed and benchmarked against the production capacity of each plant, showing a negative power function with a fair correlation (R2 = 0.73). Among seven types of emissions, stripped resin contributes the highest (51.7%) by average emission factor of the 15 plants plus this study plant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cloreto de Vinil , Benchmarking , Indústria Química , Humanos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Taiwan , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188000

RESUMO

To prevent chemical accidents, the United States (US), the European Union (EU), and the Republic of Korea operate legal systems, such as risk management plans (RMP) and process safety management (PSM), to prevent chemical accidents inside and outside the workplace. The duty to implement chemical accident prevention systems and the criteria for being a target workplace are dependent on the designated quantities of chemicals handled. A chemical accident prevention system is obligatory for storage and handling of legally declared chemicals in the workplace. Benzene, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and ethyl acetate are all flammable materials that are commonly used as solvents in the chemical industry. These substances are grouped into flammable substances groups in the US and the EU, and are managed with the same designated quantities. However, in Korea, the designated quantities are: benzene, 10,000 kg; toluene, xylene, and methyl ethyl ketone, 200,000 kg; and ethyl acetate, 20,000 kg. In order to evaluate the validity of the chemical quantities, fire explosion scenarios during chemical accidents were modeled using two modeling programs, Areal Location of Hazardous Atmosphere (ALOHA) and Korea Off-Site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA) software, under the same conditions. Similar damage radii were found for the five flammable materials with both pool fires and vapor cloud explosions (VCE). Based on these damage radii, the designated quantities of five substances were calculated and included in the range (10,000 to 13,500 kg). The results show that current designated quantities underestimate chemical substances, and for the prevention of accidents and post-management after chemical accidents, it is necessary to manage flammable substances under one grouping.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Substâncias Perigosas , Acidentes , Indústria Química , Estudos de Viabilidade , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Espec. Med. Trab ; 29(1): 14-24, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192279

RESUMO

Para combatir la inactividad física la OMS establece unas recomendaciones y estimula a adaptarlas y estudiar sus efectos en distintas poblaciones. OBJETIVOS: Comprobar si trabajadores sedentarios del sector químico, que cumplen con las recomendaciones de ejercicio mínimo de la OMS tienen menor IMC y niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos que aquellos que no cumplen con estas recomendaciones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre 184 empleados varones. Se siguieron las recomendaciones STROBE. Aparte de los descriptivos habituales se usaron los test Chi-cuadrado de independencia y T de Student, así como un método multivariante, la Segmentación CHAID (Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection). RESULTADOS: Se observó una relación altamente significativa (p = 0,004) entre los trabajadores que realizaban ejercicio cumpliendo los requisitos mínimos de la OMS y el IMC normal. Si no se alcanzaba este mínimo, la relación, aunque menor, seguía siendo significativa (p = 0,041). Se encontró significación entre el IMC normal y el colesterol y triglicéridos normales (p = 0,034 y p = 0,033 respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: El principal factor que predice el IMC en este grupo es que la actividad física alcance los criterios mínimos recomendados por la OMS, independientemente de si los trabajadores tienen puestos activos o sedentarios


To combat physical inactivity, the WHO sets out recommendations and encourages adaptation and study of their effects on different populations. OBJECTIVE: To check whether sedentary workers in the chemical sector, who comply with the WHO’s minimum exercise recommendations, have lower BMI and cholesterol and triglyceride levels than those who do not comply with these recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study on 184 male employees. The STROBE recommendations were followed. In addition to the usual descriptive tests, we used the Chi-Squared Independence Test and the Student T test, as well as a multivariate method, the CHAID Segmentation (Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection). RESULTS: A highly significant relationship (p = 0.004) was observed between workers who exercised in compliance with the WHO minimum requirements and normal BMI. If this minimum was not reached, the relation, although lower, was still significant (p = 0.041). Significance was found between normal BMI and normal cholesterol and triglycerides (p = 0.034 and p = 0.033 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The main factor predicting BMI in this group is that physical activity meets the minimum criteria recommended by the WHO, regardless of whether workers are active or sedentary


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Sedentário , 16054 , Indústria Química , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 233: 115833, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059886

RESUMO

Glycoscience is an interdisciplinary field, which leads to different industrial applications derived from physicochemical and/or biological properties of carbohydrates. This study aims to evaluate how glycoscience may act as a driving force to make research innovative and sustainable in industrial and/or commercial areas. To this end, we rationalized the two main properties of carbohydrate molecules into three main value chains. The regional biomass (sugar, starch, wood) value-chain exploits the physicochemical properties of carbohydrates; the glycomics explores the biological functions of carbohydrates and the non-regional biomass (microbial, pectin, chitin) value-chain exploits the two properties. Each value-chain harbors one or more niches prone to or at an emerging stage of development, and all these niches share a techno-scientific push approach aimed at developing high value-added products with new functionalities, new bioactive glycans, and new enabling technologies that will lead to new applications and possible novel therapies and diagnostics tools.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Indústria Química/organização & administração , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Animais , Biomassa , Sequência de Carboidratos , Indústria Química/economia , Glicômica , Humanos , Invenções , Microalgas/química , Plantas/química , Pesquisa/economia
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 352-363, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081331

RESUMO

Coal-based olefin (CTO) industry as a complement of traditional petrochemical industry plays vital role in China's national economic development. However, high CO2 emission in CTO industry is one of the fatal problems to hinder its development. In this work, the carbon emission and mitigation potentials by different reduction pathways are evaluated. The economic cost is analyzed and compared as well. According to the industry development plan, the carbon emissions from China's CTO industry will attain 189.43 million ton CO2 (MtCO2) and 314.11 MtCO2 in 2020 and 2030, respectively. With the advanced technology level, the maximal carbon mitigation potential could be attained to 15.3% and 21.9% in 2020 and 2030. If the other optional mitigation ways are combined together, the carbon emission could further reduce to some extent. In general, the order of mitigation potential is followed as: feedstock alteration by natural gas > CO2 hydrogenation with renewable electricity applied > CCS technology. The mitigation cost analysis indicates that on the basis of 2015 situation, the economic penalty for feedstock alteration is the lowest, ranged between 186 and 451 CNY/tCO2, and the cost from CCS technology is ranged between 404 and 562 CNY/tCO2, which is acceptable if the CO2 enhanced oil recovery and carbon tax are considered. However, for the CO2 hydrogenation technology, the cost is extremely high and there is almost no application possibility at present.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústria Química , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(11): 12242-12255, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993904

RESUMO

Chemical sector contributes extensively to the economic development of countries, however, it is one of the main water-consuming industries. Considering that the corporate water accounting along complete SCs can help companies in improving their sustainable water managements along their value chains, this paper aims to study the water consumption in the entire supply chain of the chemical industry from a multi-regional input-output perspective. In this regard, six Asian countries including Indonesia, Taiwan, China, Japan, South Korea and India are selected to be studied based upon the availability of their data. In the following, the direct water consumed by themselves and the indirect water used by their suppliers are measured for each country using input-output analysis method. Moreover, to draw on the conclusions of selected Asian countries, the amount of consumed water in their supply chains is compared with each other using one-way analysis of variance method. The results from input-output analysis show that the indirect water consumption in the chemical SCs of Indonesia, China, India and South Korea are 20.66, 4.62, 1.37 and 1.08 times greater than their direct water use, while the indirect water consumption for Japan and Taiwan are 0.73 and 0.13 times less than their direct values. The final results from one-way analysis of variance indicate that direct and indirect amount of water consumptions in the chemical supply chains of the selected countries do not follow the same trend over 15 years. However, India and China are the top two countries in terms of both direct and indirect amounts of water consumption due to their higher population. This study presents valuable information for authorities and policymakers in terms of proper water consumption management in chemical industry and other industrial sectors. In this matter, technology-based or production-related actions are beneficiary for affecting direct water use, while consumption-based or end-use actions are more appropriate for affecting indirect water consumption.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Ingestão de Líquidos , Análise de Variância , Ásia , China , Índia , Indonésia , Japão , República da Coreia , Taiwan , Abastecimento de Água
20.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 9, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hexachlorocyclohexane is a synthetic chemical with several isomers, including ß-Hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH). In 2005, a large contamination of crude milk from some bovine farms along the Sacco River (Central Italy) was detected; it was related to the illegal disposal of large quantities of processing waste by a chemical industry of the area. A biomonitoring study, conducted in 2007 on a sample of the residing population, found high values of ß-HCH in people living close to the river. These results led to the establishment of a clinical and epidemiological surveillance program on all the exposed population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the determinants of ß-HCH blood levels in people living within 1 Km of the Sacco River, focusing on the role of specific foods, body mass index and risk factors not yet identified. METHODS: The program involved all people living within 1 km of the river. A descriptive analysis of ß-HCH blood levels was done in relation to the potential determinants including specific foods. Regression analysis was used to study the association between potential determinants and (natural log) ß-HCH haematic concentration. The results were expressed as geometric mean ratios (GMR). To take into account similarities within the families we adjusted for family clustering. RESULTS: A total of 602 subjects (87.2%) agreed to participate in the surveillance. The ß-HCH geometric mean serum concentration was 72 ng/g lipid. The regression analysis showed that being female (GMR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.14-1.53), elderly (GMR> 70yy: 10.04, 95%CI: 6.65-15.15), obese (GMR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.28-2.08), eating food of local/own production (GMR 1.47, 95%CI: 1.15-1.88) and using water from private wells (GMRdrink:1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14 and GMRwash: 1.48, 95%CI: 1.17-1.87) were associated with higher ß-HCH values. There was inverse association with breastfeeding (GMR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.47-0.86). The focus on specific foods showed that the most important factors were eggs and beef. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated a greater contamination for older people, and those drinking and washing with water from private wells and consuming locally produced food, especially eggs and beef.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hexaclorocicloexano/sangue , Características de Residência , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Indústria Química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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