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1.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 94: 0-0, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192517

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: Las conclusiones de las investigaciones sobre turnicidad y factores de riesgo cardiovascular, como los que forman parte del síndrome metabólico (SMet), no son unánimes. Las distintas definiciones del SMet y el trabajo por turnos las dificultan. Nuestro objetivo fue conocer la asociación entre el trabajo por turnos y los hábitos de vida y la salud cardiovascular de los trabajadores de una industria química. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico entre 2018 y 2019. Los datos se obtuvieron de los exámenes de salud anuales. Se seleccionaron 515 trabajadores, estableciendo una relación de 1:3 (por turnos / sin turnos). Se recogieron como variables resultado: SMet, hipertensión arterial, obesidad, adiposidad abdominal y alteraciones bioquímicas (glucosa, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicéridos y ácido úrico). Las variables explicativas fueron: edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, actividad física y turnicidad. Aparte de los descriptivos habituales, se realizó una regresión logística bivariada cruda y otra ajustada, determinando valores de Odds Ratio (OR) con IC al 95%. RESULTADOS: La regresión logística cruda mostró que los trabajadores por turnos realizaban menor actividad física (OR=0,22; IC 95%=0,14-0,35; p < 0,001) y tenían niveles de colesterol HDL más bajos (OR=2,1; IC 95%=1,2-3,8; p < 0,05), así como mayor tasa de hipertrigliceridemia (OR=2,05; IC 95%=1,3-3,2; p < 0,01) e hi-peruricemia (OR=2,7; IC 95%=0,92,7; p < 0,001). En la regresión logística ajustada por edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, actividad física y turnicidad, sólo se mantuvo la asociación entre trabajo por turnos e hiperuricemia (OR=2,25; IC 95%=1,1-4,6; p < 0,05), así como con menor actividad física moderada/alta (OR=0,19; IC 95%=0,12-0,31; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: No se encuentra asociación entre turnicidad y un mayor nivel de tabaquismo o un mayor riesgo cardiovascular. Sí se evidencia asociación con niveles de ácido úrico altos y menor actividad física moderada/alta


BACKGROUND: There is no clear consensus over the findings of research into shift work and cardiovascular risk factors, such as those present in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is further confounded by the varying definitions of MetS and shift work. Our objective was to learn about the link between shift work, lifestyles and cardiovascular health in chemical factory workers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study, carried out 2018-2019; data obtained from annual occupational health check-ups.515 workers chosen, with a 1:3 ratio (shifts/no shifts). Variables collected: MetS, arterial hypertension, obesity, abdominal adiposity and biochemical alterations (glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid). Explanatory variables: age, gender, tobacco consumption, physical activity and shift work. Besides the usual descriptions, both non-adjusted and adjusted bivariate logistic regression were performed, producing Odds Ratio (OR) values with 95% CI. RESULTS: The non-adjusted logistic regression showed that shift workers performed less physical activity (OR=0.22; 95% CI=0.14-0.35; p < 0.001) and had lower HDL cholesterol levels (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2-3.8; p < 0.05), plus a higher rate of hypertriglyceridemia (OR=2.05; 95% CI=1.3-3.2; p < 0.01) and hyperuricemia (OR=2.7; 95% CI=0.9-2.7; p < 0.001). In the logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, tobacco consumption, physical activity and shift work only the prevalence of hyperuricemia was higher in shift workers (OR=2.25; 95% CI=1.1-4.6; p < 0.05), as well as with less moderate/high physical activity (OR=0.19; 95% CI=0.12-0.31; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While no link was found between shift work and increased smoking or a higher cardiovascular risk, there was evidence of an association with high uric acid levels and less moderate/high physical activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Atividade Motora , 16054 , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542594

RESUMO

The Yatsushiro Sea in Japan is contaminated with mercury in wastewater discharge from the Chisso Company, which produced acetaldehyde from 1932 onwards. In this study, we investigated the current spatial distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) in sediments, both at the surface and at different depths, using 43 sediment cores and 22 surface sediment samples collected from the Yatsushiro Sea in August 2017. Altogether, 821 surface and core samples were analyzed for their T-Hg concentrations. Most of the mercury that was discharged from Chisso remained either in, or around the exit of, Minamata Bay, but some had been transported from Minamata Bay to the Nagashima Sea. We estimated that almost 51 and 6 tons of mercury had accumulated in the Yatsushiro and the Amakusa Sea areas, respectively. The amount of acetaldehyde produced in Chisso over time was correlated with the T-Hg concentrations in the sediments from the Yatsushiro Sea.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetaldeído , Baías , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Japão , Oceanos e Mares
3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145736

RESUMO

The estimation of efficiency of industry-specific exports is very important to find exports' gap and to frame exports promotion policy for targeted industry. This study attempts to investigate the main determinants of chemical products' exports of Pakistan with 62 trading partners by applying Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) on an augmented gravity model for a period 1995-2015. The results corroborate that chemical products' exports follow gravity patterns. This study finds a negative and significant impact of import tariff on exports of chemical products while the positive impact of devaluation has been observed. Further, the estimations also take into account the impact of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA), colonial links, common language, political disputes and contiguity by incorporating dummy variable for each variable and the expected positive effects are found except an insignificant effect of Contiguity. Further, the negative impact of political disputes is observed. The exports' efficiency analyses reveal that Pakistan's chemical exports are well below the optimal level and there exists a huge untapped exports' potential with its neighboring, Middle Eastern and European countries.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/economia , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Cooperação Internacional , Modelos Teóricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Paquistão
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 101: 166-171, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502361

RESUMO

On 1 June 2007, the European Commission issued the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) to protect both the environment and human health. We analyzed the impact of REACH in the Italian market considering the presence of chemicals, their diversity, importation and production during the period 2011-2015, with particular attention to products with toxic or explosive properties. There was a reduction of the chemicals on the market, in terms of tons but also the absolute numbers of types of compounds. The production reduction was particularly noticeable for explosive chemicals: -14.7%. CMR products did not show any statistically significant reduction in term of tons: -2.3%.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/provisão & distribução , Indústria Química/legislação & jurisprudência , Substâncias Explosivas/provisão & distribução , Substâncias Perigosas/provisão & distribução , Mutagênicos/provisão & distribução , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio , União Europeia , Regulamentação Governamental , Itália
5.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 20(10): 1427-1440, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207349

RESUMO

In this study we have evaluated the use of consumption of manufactured products (chemical products and articles) in the EU as proxies for diffuse emissions of chemicals to the environment. The content of chemical products is relatively well known. However, the content of articles (products defined by their shape rather than their composition) is less known and currently has to be estimated from chemicals that are known to occur in a small set of materials, such as plastics, that are part of the articles. Using trade and production data from Eurostat in combination with product composition data from a database on chemical content in materials (the Commodity Guide), we were able to calculate trends in the apparent consumption and in-use stocks for 768 chemicals in the EU for the period 2003-2016. The results showed that changes in the apparent consumption of these chemicals over time are smaller than in the consumption of corresponding products in which the chemicals are present. In general, our results suggest that little change in chemical consumption has occurred over the timespan studied, partly due to the financial crisis in 2008 which led to a sudden drop in the consumption, and partly due to the fact that each of the chemicals studied is present in a wide variety of products. Estimated in-use stocks of chemicals show an increasing trend over time, indicating that the mass of chemicals in articles in the EU, that could potentially be released to the environment, is increasing. The quantitative results from this study are associated with large uncertainties due to limitations of the available data. These limitations are highlighted in this study and further underline the current lack of transparency on chemicals in articles. Recommendations on how to address these limitations are also discussed.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais , Produtos Domésticos/análise , Manufaturas/análise , Indústria Química/economia , Comércio , Produtos Domésticos/economia , Produtos Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manufaturas/economia , Manufaturas/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e263-e274, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry, particularly for cobalt exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: The mortality follow-up analysis in the Swedish Mortality register covered the period from 1952 to 2012. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration of exposure, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations. RESULTS: The mortality of all causes was significantly increased, highly associated with the short-term employed workers. A negative exposure-response was found for lung cancer and duration of exposure. An exposure-response was determined for cumulative and mean cobalt exposures analyzed by quartiles, but not for exposure classes. Internal comparison analysis using proportional hazard showed no exposure-response. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort lung cancer mortality showed no correlation to cobalt, nickel, or tungsten exposure.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e288-e296, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate a cohort in German hardmetal industry, especially relationship between exposures to cobalt, with and without tungsten, and risks of total and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The cohort comprises blue-collar workers at three German plants who were employed in hardmetal processing. Individual cumulative exposures and long-term average concentrations were estimated for cobalt, nickel, tungsten, respirable, and inhalable dust. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for external comparisons. Time-dependent multivariable Cox models were performed for internal analyses. RESULTS: Elevated SMRs were found for all-cause, heart diseases, and nonmalignant respiratory diseases mortality, but not for lung cancer. Internal analyses did not show increased risks for any endpoints, and no exposure-response relationship was indicated. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence for elevated lung cancer risks. Methodologic limitations, incomplete ascertainment of death causes in particular, impede conclusions about exposure effects.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e306-e326, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate total and cause-specific mortality among hardmetal production workers with emphasis on lung cancer. METHODS: Subjects were 7304 workers ever employed in one of eight US plants from 1952 to 2008. Vital status through 2012 was determined for 97% of subjects and cause of death for 98.3% of 1087 deaths. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and evaluated exposure-response via relative risk regression analysis. RESULTS: We observed overall deficits in deaths for total mortality, all cancers, and lung cancer and found no evidence of any exposure-response relationships for lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that exposure to tungsten, cobalt, or nickel, at levels experienced by the workers examined, increases lung cancer mortality risks. We also found no evidence that work in the US hardmetal industry increases mortality risks from any other causes of death.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e327-e341, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry. Exposure assessment for cobalt is presented. METHODS: A historical database (1970 to 2012) of personal and area measurements of cobalt, tungsten, and nickel in the Swedish hardmetal industry was created. Log linear and exponential modeling of cobalt concentrations based on time period, job, and site was performed, and cumulative and mean exposures were calculated. RESULTS: Some 37% of the personal cobalt measurements exceeded 0.02 mg/m, mostly for powder production, pressing, and shaping. The log linear regression showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) between sites, time periods, and jobs. Some 1.6% of the cobalt cumulative exposures for blue-collar workers exceeded 0.4 mg/m years. CONCLUSION: Low levels of cumulative and mean exposures were determined.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Ligas/análise , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tungstênio/análise , Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Suécia , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos
10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e342-e364, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on a pooled analysis of data from an international study, evaluate total and cause-specific mortality among hardmetal production workers with emphasis on lung cancer. METHODS: Study members were 32,354 workers from three companies and 17 manufacturing sites in five countries. We computed standardized mortality ratios and evaluated exposure-response via relative risk regression analysis. RESULTS: Among long-term workers, we observed overall deficits or slight excesses in deaths for total mortality, all cancers, and lung cancer and found no evidence of any exposure-response relationships for lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that duration, average intensity, or cumulative exposure to tungsten, cobalt, or nickel, at levels experienced by the workers examined, increases lung cancer mortality risks. We also found no evidence that work in these facilities increased mortality risks from any other causes of death.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 59(5): 135-143, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey the selection, use, and maintenance of chemical protective gloves (CPGs) at real workplaces. METHODS: Subjects comprised 817 workers using CPGs at seven domestic manufacturing plants in Japan. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey comprising the following aspect related to CPGs: environment of use, conditions of use, method of selection, knowledge/awareness pertaining to their use, method of use, precautionary measures associated with their use, maximum time of use, and maintenance. We compared responses provided by management staff and field workers. Chi square test was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Respondents included 661 (80.9%) manufacturing workers, 121 (14.8%) managers or supervisors, and 35 (4.3%) others. In total, 70.5% organic solvents, 28.9% acid or/and alkali, 18.1% dust, and 10.3% carcinogenic substances were the chemical substances handled using CPGs. The reason for deciding to wear CPGs was "the use of chemical substances" for 46.5%, "notice in safety data sheet (SDS) " for 29.8%, and "management staffs' guidance" for 21.4% respondents. "The grasp of chemical substances" was 70.1% (91.1% excluding "not applicable" ). "Warning of caution on skin and eyes" was indicated by 69.5% (91.0%) and "educational reasons for use of CPGs" was accepted by 68.1% (90.7%) respondents. On the other hand, the rate of responses such as "obtaining permeability test results of target substances" and "mixed substances are selected considering substances with short permeation time" was 25.2% (38.4%) and 29.2% (48.4%), respectively. The rate of "yes" as a response in the item concerning "permeation test" was low. On comparing the response provided by the management staff and field workers, the rate of "the permeation test result of the target substance was obtained" was 27.7% for management staff and 41.2% for field workers (p = 0.022). Regarding the cuffs of CPGs, the rate of "to fold back and to prevent sagging" and "mounted with tape" were 30.5% and 21.8% for management staff and 50.2% and 42.2% for field workers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001), respectively. DISCUSSION: This survey results suggested that the knowledge of "permeation test" of CPGs was not yet popular at industrial workplaces. It is necessary to disseminate knowledge related to "permeation test" to the users from manufacturers of CPGs. Additionally, the employer should appoint an administrator to ensure that CPGs are worn and increase the understanding of correct knowledge and usage of CPGs among workers.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatite de Contato/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e297-e305, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To generate quantitative exposure estimates for use in retrospective occupational cohort mortality studies of the hardmetal industry. METHODS: Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) were constructed for cobalt, tungsten, and nickel over the time period 1952 to 2014. The JEMs consisted of job class categories, based on job titles and processes performed, and exposure estimates calculated from available company industrial hygiene measurements. RESULTS: Exposure intervals of one-half order magnitude were established for all three agents. Eight job classes had significantly decreasing time trends for cobalt exposure; no significant time trends were detected for tungsten or nickel exposures. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of exposures determined for this study were similar to or lower than those previously reported for the hardmetal industry during the 1952 to 2014 study period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Ligas/análise , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tungstênio/análise , Ligas/efeitos adversos , Áustria , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e282-e287, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively investigates causes of death among workers of a hardmetal plant in Austria. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was formed of 1965 workers still employed in or after 1970. Follow-up was until end of 2014 based on national databases. Cobalt exposure was assessed through industrial hygiene data and urine analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were calculated for selected causes of death. RESULTS: During 45,598 years of observation in total 177 deaths were observed. Forty-nine workers died from any cancer, 10 from lung cancer, and three from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Only the latter showed a significant association with cumulative exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Although this is a young study population with little power to detect subtle effects, at least it does not indicate a pronounced cancer risk among tungsten carbide workers due to cobalt.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Áustria , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(12): e275-e281, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the mortality at two hardmetal production factories in the United Kingdom as part of an international study. METHODS: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated on the basis of mortality rates for England and Wales, and local rates. A nested case-control study of lung cancer was undertaken. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 1538 workers, with tracing complete for 94.4%. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly low for all cancers and nonmalignant respiratory disease, and for lung cancer was nonsignificantly low. The SMR for lung cancer for maintenance workers was elevated, based on only six deaths. The odds ratio for lung cancer per year of exposure to hardmetal was 0.93 (0.76 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, there is no evidence to support that working in the UK hardmetal manufacturing industry increased mortality from any cause including lung cancer.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 41(2): 125-133, 2017.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to study mortality rates among workers in companies manufacturing thermoplastic and rubber articles (excluding tyres). DESIGN: cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the cohort includes 4,543 workers employed up to 2000 in 131 companies in the Province of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) exposed to emissions from hot processing of plastics (3,937) and rubber (606). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: general- and cause-specific Standardized Mortality Rates (SMR), with 95% confidence intervals; entire reference population resides in the Emilia-Romagna Region. RESULTS: excess mortality for all causes (116 Obs; SMR: 1.20; 95%CI 1.00-1.44) and for lung cancer (18 Obs; SMR: 1.67; 95%CI 1.05-2.65) in men of the rubber factories. Increased mortality rates for oesophageal cancers in women (3 Obs; SMR: 5.41; 95%CI 1.74-16.8) and in men (6 Obs; SMR: 2.16; 95%CI 0.97-4.81), for malignant tumours of pancreas (16 Obs; SMR: 1.65; 95%CI 1.01- 2.70), rectum (11 Obs; SMR: 2.17; 95%CI 1.20-3.92) and kidney (11 Obs; SMR: 1.98; 95%CI 1.10-3.58) in men occupied in plastic processing. CONCLUSION: in this study, we observed an excess of mortality rates for lung cancer in men of rubber factories and for malignant tumours of the digestive tract, pancreas, and kidney in workers employed in the production of plastic articles. Nevertheless, these results must be interpreted with caution, because exposures to non-occupational risk factors, like tobacco smoke or other occupational exposures outside the companies concerned, are not known. The results suggest to continue epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Borracha/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 66(9): 706-712, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In several studies, dioxin exposure has been associated with increased risk from several causes of death. AIMS: To compare the mortality experience of workers exposed to dioxins during trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) production to that of the general population and to examine mortality risk by estimated exposure levels. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study which followed up workers' vital status from 1940 to 2011, with serum surveys to support estimation of historical dioxin exposure levels. RESULTS: Among the 2192 study subjects, there were nine deaths in TCP workers from acute non-lymphatic leukaemia [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-5.47], four mesothelioma deaths (SMR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.39-13.10) and four soft tissue sarcoma (STS) deaths (SMR = 3.08, 95% CI 0.84-7.87). In PCP workers, there were eight deaths from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR = 1.92, 95% CI 0.83-3.79), 150 from ischaemic heart disease (SMR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-7.89) and five from stomach ulcers (SMR = 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-7.89). There were no trends of increased mortality with increased dioxin exposure except for STS and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels. This finding for STS should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of deaths and the uncertainty in diagnosis and nosology. CONCLUSIONS: While some causes of death were greater than expected, this study provides little evidence of increased risk when dioxin exposures are considered.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/normas , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/epidemiologia , Sarcoma/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
17.
Am J Ind Med ; 59(8): 630-43, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer. METHODS: Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted. RESULTS: Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam. CONCLUSIONS: Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:630-643, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Poliuretanos , Tolueno 2,4-Di-Isocianato/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Gig Sanit ; 95(10): 934-8, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431336

RESUMO

The increasing chemicalization of production and life leads to the pollution of water bodies by chemicals, the effect of which on the micro - and macro - organisms is poorly understood. This section of the study in sanitary bacteriology is becoming ever more topical and is an important task of modern hygienic science. One of complicacies of the study of the problem is related with the fact that the presence of only experimental data fails to be sufficient, as the impact of any given chemical substance on different bacteria in the experiment does not mean that under natural conditions, similar results will be obtained. One reason for this may be the inhibitory effect of the given chemical on biological properties of bacteria, while in field conditions in the water several chemicals interacting with each other can exist. In this regard, the aim of the work was to assess the indicator value of sanitary and microbiological indices of epidemic hazard of water use in conditions of chemical pollution of surface water bodies.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Poluição Química da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Água Doce/análise , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia , Humanos , Moscou/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/classificação , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água/normas
19.
Gig Sanit ; 95(11): 1070-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431949

RESUMO

On the example of588 disability cases registered in employees of the plant for the production of technical ceramics during the 1975-2014 the analysis of the dynamics of illness, gender and age structure of disability indices on the main Origlnarartlcie and auxiliary units of the enterprise was executed for the interval of 10 years periods. There were followed trends in the alteration of the structure of the disability caused by the socio-economic, hygienic and demographic factors.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Safety Res ; 55: 115-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683554

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper examines a number of US chemical industry incidents and their effect on equity prices of the incident company. Furthermore, this paper then examines the contagion effect of this incident on direct competitors. METHOD: Event study methodology is used to assess the impact of chemical incidents on both incident and competitor companies. RESULTS: This paper finds that the incident company experiences deeper negative abnormal returns as the number of injuries and fatalities as a result of the incident increases. The equity value of the competitor companies suffer substantial losses stemming from contagion effects when disasters that occur cause ten or more injuries and fatalities, but benefit from the incident through increasing equity value when the level of injury and fatality is minor. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of contagion suggests collective action may reduce value destruction brought about by safety incidents that result in significant injury or loss of life. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This research can be used as a resource to promote and justify the cost of safety mechanisms within the chemical industry, as incidents have been shown to negatively affect the equity value of the not just the incident company, but also their direct competitors.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Química/economia , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Segurança , Estados Unidos
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