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2.
Altern Lab Anim ; 46(6): 347-373, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657330

RESUMO

It has now been 11 years since the EU's new chemicals legislation (Regulation No. 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH]) came into force. Two important statements in the REACH Regulation in relation to animal testing and alternatives are: Article 1(1), which states that one of its purposes is to promote alternative methods; and Article 25(1), which states that animal testing should be used as a last resort. This review looks at the mechanisms that were put in place within REACH to achieve these aims and asks, not only if they are being implemented properly, but also if they have been sufficient. Whilst the chemical industry has heavily used data-sharing and read-across, this review concludes that nevertheless over 2.2 million animals have already been used in new tests for REACH registrations. This equates to an annual average of 275,000 animals; 58,000 more per year than the best-case estimate made by the European Commission in 2004. The use of in vitro and (Q)SAR approaches as standalone replacements for animal tests has been relatively low. The levels of funding for research into alternative methods remain low, and there are concerns over the speed of formal adoption of those that have been validated. In addition, there have been issues with the recognition that testing as a last resort and the promotion of alternative methods applies to all parties, including the Commission, Member States and the agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency. This review provides ten recommendations for better implementation of these two key aspirations, as well as lessons to be learned for future similar legislation.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/ética , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Química , Testes de Toxicidade , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/tendências , Animais , Indústria Química/ética , Indústria Química/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Química/normas , União Europeia , Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade/ética , Testes de Toxicidade/normas
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 12(2): 232-240, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the adverse health symptoms experienced by adult subjects who were exposed to benzene after a flaring disaster at the BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. METHODS: A total of 2162 adults aged 18 years or older and exposed to benzene were included. Using the patients' medical charts, we collected and analyzed data on health complaints as well as the patients' serum levels of beta-2-microglobulin and urinary excretion of phenol. RESULTS: A total of 11,368 health symptom complaints were reported in 2162 adults exposed to benzene. Neurological symptoms occurred most frequently (174%), followed upper respiratory symptoms (115%), cough (31%), painful joints (30%), cardiac symptoms (28%), dermatological symptoms (28%), gastrointestinal symptoms (27%), diarrhea (25%), vision symptoms (21%), and nausea/vomiting (19%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that urinary symptoms (R2=0.65) and painful joints (R2=0.44) were positively associated with increasing age in benzene-exposed subjects. CONCLUSION: Adult subjects exposed to benzene experience a range of adverse health symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol, thus indicating they are at high risk of developing serious future health complications. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:232-240).


Assuntos
Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzeno/envenenamento , Indústria Química/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Texas
4.
Chemosphere ; 181: 409-417, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458216

RESUMO

A 13-years study shows that a careful design of the flue gas cleaning system of a full scale secondary aluminium refining plant results in a minimized and very stable emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD), Polychlorinated Dibenzo Furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB). The value of equivalent toxicity of PCDD/F in the emission was definitely of an order of magnitude less than the regulation limit. In the initial flue gas cleaning system, the PCB mean fingerprint after the slow cooling of the flue gas was typical of de novo synthesis. Instead, in the presence of quenching, there was evidence that the fast cooling of flue gas prevented the PCB de novo synthesis. In fact, the PCB profile was similar to that in the air collected from the aspiration hoods for the quenching. The gas-phase and solid-phase partitioning of PCBs, before and after the fabric filters, highlights the predominant role of the vapor phase with respect to the total removal efficiency. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons breakdown could be an additional de novo formation pathway even in industrial plants.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Indústria Química/métodos , Dioxinas e Compostos Semelhantes a Dioxinas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Indústria Química/normas , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 11(5): 621-624, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260560

RESUMO

In January 2014, a chemical spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ethers contaminated the potable water supply of approximately 300,000 West Virginia residents. To understand the spill's impact on hospital operations, we surveyed representatives from 10 hospitals in the affected area during January 2014. We found that the spill-related loss of potable water affected many aspects of hospital patient care (eg, surgery, endoscopy, hemodialysis, and infection control of Clostridium difficile). Hospital emergency preparedness planning could be enhanced by specifying alternative sources of potable water sufficient for hemodialysis, C. difficile infection control, and hospital processing and cleaning needs (in addition to drinking water). (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:621-624).


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Água Potável/normas , Serviços de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Indústria Química/normas , Cicloexanos/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Propilenoglicol/toxicidade , Rios/química , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição Química da Água/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , West Virginia
6.
J Appl Toxicol ; 37(1): 92-104, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785833

RESUMO

Industry provides essentially all the data for most (pre-market) chemical risk assessments (RA); academics study a chemical once it is marketed. For two randomly-chosen high production chemicals, despite new European Union mandates to evaluate all data, just 13% of the herbicide bentazon and 15% of the flame-retardant hexabromocyclododecane's published toxicity studies were found in their pre-market RA, and a systematic review on bentazon concludes it has greater hazards than indicated in its RA. More important, for both, academia's toxicity studies were designated as lower quality than industries were, despite showing hazards at lower doses. The accuracy of industry's test methods is analyzed and found to be replicable but insensitive, thus inaccurate. The synthetic pharmaceutical industry originated them, and by 1983 the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development mandated their test guidelines (TG) methods be accepted for any new study for pre-market RA. For existing studies, industry's "Klimisch" criterion is universally used to evaluate quality, but it only states that TG studies produce the best data. However, no TG can answer the realistic exposure effect hypotheses of academics; therefore, crucially in pre-market RA, tens of thousands of published experimental findings (increasingly at low dose) are ignored to determine the safe dose. Few appreciate this, so scientific debate on the most accurate elements of toxicity tests is urgently indicated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Benzotiadiazinas/toxicidade , Indústria Química/normas , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Marketing , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Guias como Assunto , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Medição de Risco
7.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 66(9): 706-712, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In several studies, dioxin exposure has been associated with increased risk from several causes of death. AIMS: To compare the mortality experience of workers exposed to dioxins during trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) production to that of the general population and to examine mortality risk by estimated exposure levels. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study which followed up workers' vital status from 1940 to 2011, with serum surveys to support estimation of historical dioxin exposure levels. RESULTS: Among the 2192 study subjects, there were nine deaths in TCP workers from acute non-lymphatic leukaemia [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-5.47], four mesothelioma deaths (SMR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.39-13.10) and four soft tissue sarcoma (STS) deaths (SMR = 3.08, 95% CI 0.84-7.87). In PCP workers, there were eight deaths from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR = 1.92, 95% CI 0.83-3.79), 150 from ischaemic heart disease (SMR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-7.89) and five from stomach ulcers (SMR = 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-7.89). There were no trends of increased mortality with increased dioxin exposure except for STS and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels. This finding for STS should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of deaths and the uncertainty in diagnosis and nosology. CONCLUSIONS: While some causes of death were greater than expected, this study provides little evidence of increased risk when dioxin exposures are considered.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química/normas , Indústria Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/epidemiologia , Sarcoma/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
9.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 18(12): 1508-1518, 2016 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819710

RESUMO

The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work-intensive process. As information on registered chemicals is currently provided to the public, it is difficult to follow steps that are undertaken in the hazard and risk assessment. This limits the possibility for a third party to evaluate the assessment.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Química/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Medição de Risco/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais , União Europeia , Humanos
12.
Gig Sanit ; 95(6): 548-51, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424496

RESUMO

With the use of a one-stage method we have carried out hygienic studies of the air of work area of the production of continuous glass fiber. There was revealed the emission of epichlorohydrin, formaldehyde, ethane acid, hydrochloride, spray of mineral petroleum oil, fine glass fiber dust in air of the work area. There was established the combined effect of hazardous substances of unidirectional action with the summation effect on the body. Hazardous substances containing in glass fiber sizers in combination with dust of glass fiber against the background of microtraumatization of the hand skin contribute to the development of occupational skin neoplasms. The studies became the basis of the development of preventive measures aimed at the reduction of risks of the impact of the chemical factor impact on workers.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Vidro , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Local de Trabalho , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Indústria Química/métodos , Indústria Química/organização & administração , Indústria Química/normas , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/classificação , Local de Trabalho/normas
13.
Gig Sanit ; 95(12): 1138-41, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446282

RESUMO

There was executed the examination of patients with occupational chronic mercury intoxication in the post-exposure period after the exposure to metallic mercury vapor. 47 persons with an established diagnosis of chronic mercury intoxication (HMI) passed the laboratory and immunological examination in the period of exposure to metallic mercury vapor in a production environment. The average age of men accounted for 49.2±1.2 years. The experience of work in hazardous working conditions amounted of 21.65±1.61 years (1 observation). All these same cases were observed in the institute clinic again after 5 years (2 observation) and 10 years (3 observation). A control group of healthy men consisted of 47 cases included persons of representative both age and general work experience, without a professional route of contact with hazardous substances. The level of such cytokines as IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-a, INF-y and neurotropic IgG class antibodies directed to proteins of the nervous tissue (NF-200, GFAP, MBP, B-dependent Ca-channel, Glu-R, DA-R, R-GABA, Ser-R, R-Chol, DNA, B2GP) in serum were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. There was established the gain in the imbalance of inflammatory mediators and production ofneural antibodies in dynamics after the termination of the production in conditions of metallic mercury vapors. Revealed features of the regulatory relationship between the level of cytokines and the severity of the autoimmune process were shown to contribute to the maintenance and progression of neurodegenerative processes. There was recommended the identification of immunoregulatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-4, TNF-a, NF-AT to 200, GFAP, S-100) as an additional criteria for the diagnosis of health disorders in operating and monitoring the course of the progredient professional mercury intoxication.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio , Mercúrio , Doenças Profissionais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Indústria Química/métodos , Indústria Química/normas , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/imunologia , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/diagnóstico , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/imunologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/imunologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Sibéria/epidemiologia
14.
Gig Sanit ; 95(12): 1142-5, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446284

RESUMO

There are many harmful factors that possess a damaging impact on the body of employees at aluminum production. It leads to the development of bronchial asthma (BA), chronic nonobstructive bronchitis (CNB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathogenesis of these disorders, as well as sensitizing effect offluorine in the aluminum production is not fully understood. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of laboratory indices in patients with occupational diseases of the respiratory system. In workers of aluminum production with the diagnosis of occupational diseases of respiratory system (15 patients with a diagnosis of asthma, 30 CNB cases, 20 COPD patients) we evaluated the content of total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), total calcium, phosphorus, ceruloplasmin, hematological indices and performed emigration of leukocytes braking test (TTEEL). Clinical and biochemical profile ofpersons with occupational asthma was characterized by a low level of total calcium and ceruloplasmin, a high concentration of phosphorus in the blood serum and inhibition of leukocyte emigration in the test with sodium fluoride. For aluminum production CNB workers characteristic active proatherogenic process was pronounced by a decrease in the HDLC level and an increase in atherogenic index; higher hematocrit value and concentration of erythrocytes, and more than 50% of cases of sensitization to the presence of sodium fluoride. COPD cases had occupational lower average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte, total protein in serum, as well as polymorphic variant response to sodium fluoride in the form of a depression and activation of leucocytes emigration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Alumínio , Asma Ocupacional , Indústria Química , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Alumínio/análise , Alumínio/toxicidade , Asma Ocupacional/sangue , Asma Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Indústria Química/métodos , Indústria Química/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/diagnóstico , Sibéria/epidemiologia
15.
Gig Sanit ; 95(12): 1155-60, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446290

RESUMO

There is presented the assessment of priority toxic matters in the air of working zone for basic occupations of aluminum smelting by electrolysis. There are presented results of different production technologies. There are presented the results of the physical-chemical analysis of the morphology and composition of produced toxic-dust complexes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Alumínio , Indústria Química , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Alumínio/análise , Alumínio/química , Indústria Química/métodos , Indústria Química/normas , Misturas Complexas/análise , Misturas Complexas/toxicidade , Eletrólise/métodos , Humanos , Ciência dos Materiais/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Sibéria/epidemiologia
16.
Gig Sanit ; 95(12): 1160-3, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446293

RESUMO

It was found that the appearance of respiratory diseases among workers was established to be associated with the impact of aerosols with the complex chemical composition, exceeding corresponding MAC. Among respiratory diseases in workers there were detected predominantly chronic non-obstructive bronchitis - 59.15%, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - in 35.2% of cases. In the analysis of spirometric indices of examined patients the vast majority (76.3%) of them showed disturbances of the bronchial patency of mild to moderate degree of the pronouncement. As a result of the implementation offlexible bronchoscopy there was established the presence of a diffuse lesion of bronchi with a predominance of subatrophic and atrophic processes in the mucosa. It was found that under the increase of the concentration of HF in the air of industrial premises the probability of bronchial obstruction and deterioration of the tracheobronchial patency in aluminum smelter workers was established to elevate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Alumínio , Bronquite Crônica , Indústria Química , Doenças Profissionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Alumínio/análise , Alumínio/química , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite Crônica/etiologia , Bronquite Crônica/prevenção & controle , Indústria Química/métodos , Indústria Química/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Sibéria/epidemiologia , Tempo
19.
Chemosphere ; 127: 180-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703780

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in consumer and industrial products for decades and are widely detected in the environment and humans all over the world. The information on the isomeric profiles of commercial products is important to identify the manufacturing origins of PFAAs in the environment. For the first time, the PFAA compositions and isomeric profiles of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were reported in three PFOS and five PFOA commercial products manufactured in China. The purity of the three PFOS products was 76.7-80.6%. The major impurity in the PFOS products is PFOA, which contributes more than 10%. Other impurities include perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluoroheptanoate acids (PFHpA). The percentage of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) in the three products was 66.2-71.9%, similar to that in the product manufactured by 3M (70.3%). The purity of the five PFOA products was relatively high (94.0-95.8%), and the major impurity was PFOS (2.06-3.09%). The percentage of n-PFOA in the five PFOA products was 76.4-77.9%, which was similar to that in the 3M PFOA (78%). Although it is widely accepted that telomerization is currently the predominant manufacturing method for PFOA, yielding an isomerically pure and linear product, the results in the present study suggest that electrochemical fluorination is still used by some manufacturers in China.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Indústria Química/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Caprilatos/química , China , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Isomerismo
20.
Gig Sanit ; 94(7): 68-72, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26856145

RESUMO

The occupational factors are assigned one out of main parts to the development of occupational and comorbid pathology. At the same time the social aspects of labor relations act as the most important factors influencing on the workers' self-assessment of health status. Quantitative risk assessment of the common pathological syndromes has identified the excess of share of persons with a minimum level of risk over the medium and high. In the structure of risks of common pathological syndromes there are prevailed risks for disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems and borderline mental disorders, which is a response to the impact of not only industrial, but also psychosocial factors. The results of self-assessment of health status and clinical examination of employees in conditions of mercury exposure show the similarity of the structure of diseases in these cases. In either event there are dominated diseases of the nervous and mental sphere, and from the comorbid pathology disorders of the cardiovascular system are prove to be important. Clinical manifestations of the mercury exposure, ranging from pre-clinical manifestations to marked changes from the side of the nervous system in toxic encephalopathy, are characterized by the presence of hyperkinetic syndrome. For pre-clinical and early forms of mercury poisoning there is also typical the presence of asthenic (emotional lability) disorders with autonomic dysfunction. Comorbidities in an internship working was manifested primarily by diseases of visual organs, cardiovascular system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Observed disorders of the nervous system and psycho-emotional sphere are caused, inter alia disturbances of the balance of catecholamines (the rise of norepinephrine in dynamics with a concomitant increase in the coefficient reflecting the degree of its metabolism: norepinephrine/epinephrine and norepinephrine/(adrenaline + Normetanephrine)) in the body.


Assuntos
Indústria Química/normas , Transtornos Mentais , Mercúrio , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Catecolaminas/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
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