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2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110230, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148300

RESUMO

In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to minimizing the environmental consequences from building industry globally, as the industry is notorious for its significant resource consumption and environmental emissions. However, due to a lack of data representativeness in many parts of the world, considerable variations were observed among studies, and thus makes life cycle assessment (LCA) results difficult for the decision-making purpose. In addition, the selection of low impact materials and the management of end-of-life building waste are the most important concern. By considering several strategies including data representativeness, low carbon material, and end-of-life building waste management, this study aimed to enhance the accuracy of such assessment and sustainability performance of building. An integrated LCA framework is proposed for implementing those strategies through a case specific high-rise residential building in Hong Kong. Based on case-specific/regional data, carbon emission of building was evaluated with a cradle-to-construction system boundary with the functional unit of 1 m2 of gross floor area using the IMPACT 2002+ method, and then compared to that of selecting generic databases under different scenarios. The results demonstrate that the application of case-specific and generic data would significantly influence the outcomes of the case study, as the deviations of certain magnitudes were mostly derived from different building materials that it can lead to an underestimation of carbon emissions of up to 28%. Along with using alternative materials, the adoption of the proposed materials cycling and resource recovery approach at the end-of-life building could lead to a reduction of 14% of the total emissions (i.e. excluding the use and renovation of building). The results would support data selection for accuracy of evaluation which can be used as benchmark where recognized database is not available and promote sustainability performance of buildings locally, while the proposed framework could be adopted for comprehensive evaluation globally.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Hong Kong
3.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 415-422, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043421

RESUMO

Construction and demolition waste represents a significant waste flow, both in Brazil and in other countries. According to specific Brazilian legislation, since 2004 construction and demolition waste can no longer be disposed of in open dumps, municipal solid waste landfills, slopes, waterways and environmental protected areas. Construction and demolition waste should preferably be recycled, but just a small amount of it returns to the construction industry production chain in Brazil. This work aims both to present diagnoses of the construction and demolition waste management in Brazil, the European Union and the United States and to compare their results. It is concluded that Brazil presents performance indicators in relation to construction and demolition waste management well below those found for the other analysed countries. Furthermore, differences and similarities are identified and potentials for improvement in the current situation of construction and demolition waste in Brazil are discussed.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Brasil , Materiais de Construção , União Europeia , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem , Estados Unidos
4.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 371-382, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043425

RESUMO

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. It has a severe negative effect on the triple bottom line of sustainability. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) contributes about 50% of the total global annual generated SW. In the particular case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region including Egypt, the SW problem has become a major challenge, and the need to find sustainable solutions is overwhelming. However, the region faces several challenges that hinder the development of an effective and efficient SWM system. This has resulted in the predominance of unsustainable SWM practices such as indiscriminate disposals. The aim of this paper is to investigate the escalating problem of SW in the MENA region, while focusing on CDW in Egypt as a part of the total generated SW, by reviewing the most recent research papers, and technical and governmental reports on the SW problem. The main challenges towards effective and efficient SWM systems and recommendations for improvement are gathered in this study based on the explored literature. Findings from this study are expected to be beneficial to local and central governments, academics, construction industry practitioners, and policymakers contending with the problems of SW in the MENA region and especially CDW in Egypt.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Egito , Oriente Médio , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 423-432, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072878

RESUMO

The pursuit of construction sustainability has driven the use of partially or wholly waste-based eco-materials. New applications are being sought for recycled aggregate (RA) to further the use of this material and ensure the survival of the construction and demolition waste (C&DW) industry. RA, currently used in the construction of pavements, fills and embankments and only incipiently to manufacture structural or non-structural concrete, is a mere 8.99% of the total aggregate extracted in EU countries where RA is produced. Against this backdrop, the utility of this study lies in the overview afforded of RA typology, the application of the product in bound or unbound materials, the pursuit of new applications, structural or otherwise, and the assessment of daily maximum output by C&DW recycling facilities in Spain. The findings show that irrespective of its origin, RA most commonly adopts the form of wet mix macadam, gravel or sand used primarily in unbound applications with only dubious quality standards. Plant managers contend that RA from clean waste can feasibly be used in bound applications that require higher-performance materials. Maximum daily output varies widely, with capacity under 200 t d-1 in 30% of the plants. One of the conclusions drawn is that the current business model is in need of revision, with an emphasis on aggregate quality control (certification) and the adoption of technology for separating out impurities, pollutants and undesirable materials to improve the quality of RA.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem , Espanha
6.
Waste Manag ; 105: 73-83, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032854

RESUMO

A well-designed collection system plays a critical role in establishing a financially sustainable construction and demolition (C&D) management system. In order to achieve the best performance of the collection system, the development of an advanced decision-making tool with trade-off among multiple criteria is significant. The main objective of this research is to select economically best locations of transfer stations (TSs) to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the collection system for C&D waste. This paper develops a scenario-based multi-period robust facility location model to minimize the total cost of the collection system for C&D waste. The novelty of the proposed model is the consideration of the uncertainty of C&D waste generation source locations in the construction industry. Also, besides the traditional economic criteria, the risk of decision-making or the reliability of the optimal solution obtained is taken into account for the best overall performance solution. A comparative analysis is performed to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. The trade-offs between decision-making risk and economic criteria are performed with a sensitivity analysis. By applying the proposed robust facility location model for TSs for a case study in Chongqing, China, this paper verify the effectiveness and usefulness of the model. The results of this study indicate that the dynamic location strategy made by the proposed robust model can remain the optimal layout of the TSs under uncertainty to improve facility efficiency. Moreover, focusing on risk criteria in decision-making can achieve the best performance solution with reliability.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Materiais de Construção , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
7.
Waste Manag ; 105: 268-278, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088573

RESUMO

In the construction industry, reuse and recycling strategies help reducing waste, saving energy and cutting down emissions by converting construction and demolition (C&D) waste into resources. This study proposes a novel framework to guide the life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete structures with reuse and recycling strategies. The material flow in recycling strategies is clarified explicitly. A new definition of degradation rate is introduced to set a nonlinear allocation rule for reusable components based on the durability feature of concrete structures. Reusable rate and replacement percentage are adopted to provide a convenient way to adjust the type and level of the strategies. As a result, a unified system boundary and corresponding indicator functions can be established for various strategies, combing the closed-loop analysis and the open-loop analysis. In the case study, design for deconstruction (DfD) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) are taken as examples of reuse and recycling strategies, respectively. With the proposed framework, LCA of various strategy combinations are conducted considering the global warming potential (GWP) and abiotic depletion potential (ADP) indicators. Results show that the maximal environmental benefit of DfD is 1.8-2.8 times compared to that of RAC. When adopting DfD and RAC simultaneously, the environmental benefit level of each strategy will decline, whereas the overall benefits will be increased. LCA with the proposed framework avoids some assumptions in conventional LCA and provides more reliable results for various strategy combinations.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Aquecimento Global , Reciclagem
8.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 460-471, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916495

RESUMO

Rapid industrial development, mega construction projects and increased immigration are some of the reasons that the State of Qatar has recently generated an unprecedented amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste in the country. The State is racing towards the Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup 2022, a fact that requires additional construction, for which it is expected to increase its rate of waste generation. Compared to other regions, there are relatively few studies in the literature that report on the C&D waste management issues of Qatar. The present work begins to address this gap by providing insights into the current state of C&D waste management practices in Qatar and by providing a mini-review on the benefits of using recycled aggregates which have only recently been allowed locally by Qatar Construction Standards. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis has been implemented, using data and information from various sources including governmental reports, industries, local waste management companies, as well as reported interviews with relevant stakeholders. Finally, several strategies were proposed and developed that could potentially be implemented by stakeholders and decision-makers, so as to improve the current status by encouraging more sustainable and viable practices.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8507-8525, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907809

RESUMO

The extensive waste produced in construction and demolition activities affects the ecological environment, impeding green development in countries worldwide, including China. China has paid increasing attention to managing construction and demolition waste (CDW). However, most of the existing research only qualitatively studies the factors affecting the recycling of CDW and does not reveal the critical factors. Therefore, based on stakeholder theory and the grey-DEMATEL method, this paper aims to identify and quantitatively analyze the critical factors in CDW recycling from the perspective of China. This paper drew the following conclusions: (1) Stakeholders in China's CDW recycling mainly include the government, CDW production units, and CDW recycling units. (2) Public policy, government subsidies, media promotion, human resources, cost, environmental awareness, technological innovation, and supply chain management are the eight dimensions with 13 factors that constitute CDW recycling in China. (3) For the total relations between factors affecting the recycling of CDW in China, the most influential factor is specific legislation and regulations. The factor with the highest degree of prominence is environmental awareness. The factor with the largest net cause value is the rationality of disposal and landfill charges. The factor with the largest net effect value is experienced construction workers. (4) The critical factors in China's CDW recycling include specific legislation and regulations, mandatory degree of normative standards, environmental awareness, the supply of raw materials for CDW recycling units, and the sale of remanufactured products. Finally, this paper identifies the following management implications: (1) the government should prioritize the task of improving specific legislation and regulations, with a focus on a mandatory degree of normative standards. (2) CDW production units should put the task of improving environmental awareness high on their agenda, with a focus on the supply of raw materials for recycling units. (3) CDW recycling units should prioritize the issue of the sale of remanufactured products. This paper also provides a theoretical basis for revealing the critical factors of CDW recycling in other countries or regions.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção/análise , Reciclagem/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Indústria da Construção/economia , Materiais de Construção/economia , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8310-8322, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900775

RESUMO

As a major participant of the construction industry, small contractors have been increasingly involved in green building construction projects in recent years. However, existing literature indicates that little research has been done to investigate the critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. As a result, this study aims to fill up the gap by identifying the most critical success factors of small contractors and comparing them against large contractors. To achieve these goals, a comprehensive literature review and pilot interviews with experienced industry experts were conducted first, followed by a questionnaire survey administered to 30 small contractors from the construction industry of Singapore. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results reported that "laborers with experience in conducting green building construction projects," "incentives/subsidies provided by government," "support of senior management," "return on investment," "commit to changing behavior," "effective communication between stakeholders on goals for sustainable construction," "early contractor involvement," "engaging experts with sound knowledge of green building construction," "cost control," and "competency of project manager" were the top ten critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. Additionally, the comparison results between small and large contractors revealed that eight factors were statistically different assessed by industry practitioners. These factors are "procurement process," "cost control," "commit to changing behavior," "educating clients on benefits in sustainable construction," "laborers with experience in conducting green building construction projects," "hefty levy and tax on unsustainable construction practices," and "public demand for green building construction" and "industrial culture." This study enriches the knowledge by exploring the critical success factors for small contractors to conduct green building construction projects. Furthermore, this study is informative to industry practitioners as well, especially to those small contractors who plan to conduct green building construction projects in the future.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção/análise , Humanos , Singapura , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
11.
Waste Manag ; 102: 391-403, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733563

RESUMO

The paper evaluates for the first time the embodied impact in CDW during the buildings life cycle by means of the bill of quantities of construction projects. The main objective is to be able to predict the future CDW to be generated by a project in the design stage, by means of the bill of quantities of the urbanization, construction, renovation, rehabilitation and demolition projects. The tools already in place for cost control can be used as an instrument for the introduction of sustainability considerations in construction projects. The methodology proposes a connection between the different stages of a building's life cycle, more precisely its budget. The latter is linked to other future budgets for building renovations or retrofitting projects. The result shows that urbanization and demolition generate 90% of CDW, the former is caused by earthworks and the latter is due to the elimination of all building materials. The building is removed 1.3 times, in terms of material weight, energy and water. Finally, traditional models for economic control and waste management in construction projects can be the vector which introduce environmental assessment through the building life cycle.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Habitação , Espanha
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105350, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715549

RESUMO

Previous studies have acknowledged the impact of risk perception on safety behavior, but were largely controversial. This study aims to clarify this conflict and the mechanism through which risk perception can have an impact on safety behavior. From the perspective of the dual attribute of the job demand concept in job demands-resources theory, we posit that risk perception can be considered as a job hindrance or a job challenge depending on the context, thereby resulting in a negative or positive impact on safety behavior, respectively. The current research context is the construction industry and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchically nested data collected from 311 workers in 35 workgroups. Risk perception was demonstrated to be a job hindrance exerting a negative impact on safety behavior and safety motivation mediated this effect. In addition, two dimensions of group-level safety climate--supervisor's and coworkers'--were expected to alleviate or even reverse the detrimental effects of hindrance risk perception on safety motivation and on safety behavior via motivation. A moderation model and a first-stage moderated mediation model were established, respectively, for testing the moderating roles of safety climate in the relationship between risk perception and safety motivation, and in the indirect relationship of risk perception with safety behavior via motivation. Surprisingly, contrary to the hypotheses, when supervisor's safety climate changed from a low level to a high level, the impact of risk perception on safety motivation changed from positive to negative, and the negative effect of risk perception on safety behavior via safety motivation was not alleviated but worsened. As expected, for workers in a positive coworkers' safety climate, the negative effect of risk perception on motivation and the indirect negative effect of risk perception on behavior were both reversed to the positive. This indicates that coworkers' safety climate helped to change perceived risk from a job hindrance to a challenge. This research contributes to workplace risk perception and safety behavior research by theoretically viewing risk perception as a dual job hindrance-challenge concept and proposing two competing hypotheses concerning the impact of risk perception on safety behavior. The empirical investigation confirmed the hindrance attribute of risk perception in the construction context. It provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence for future research to synthesize the conflict risk perception-safety behavior relationship. We also contribute to the literature by pointing out the potential negative role of certain supervisor safety activities such as paternalistic leadership in influencing employee safety.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adulto , Indústria da Construção/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Saúde do Trabalhador
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 19, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820115

RESUMO

Today, the issue of the physical and psychological safety of residents of residential buildings and their impact on the environment are major concerns for residents, builders, and sellers of the construction industry. The design and construction with the Health Safety, Environmental (HSE) approach can influence the direct and indirect costs of the construction industry and is considered an important criterion for pricing at a time of sell. Creating models that can demonstrate the degree of adherence of a building to safety, health, and environmental standards can be effective in the usage as well as the physical and mental comfort of residents using that building. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to provide a conceptual model for determining the performance criteria of buildings with the HSE approach. This study was carried out based on the practical purpose of the research as well as on a descriptive-analytic method. In this study, the factors affecting HSE performance were first determined. Then, Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method was used in a fuzzy environment to measure cause and effect relationships. The findings of the research suggested that among the factors affecting building performance, the safety of the structure is the most influential factor, and the architectural welfare is the most important factor, which itself is in the category of influential factors and is affected by other factors. Creating structures that can assess the performance of a building with the Health Safety, Environmental (HSE) approach can be an important criterion in making decision at the time of designing, constructing, operating, purchasing, and housing for customers and residents of a building. This issue can be considered an indicator in the construction process. Government agencies, the insurer, and price-setting agent of buildings can also use this model for valuation and rank buildings and defining their premium rates.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Lógica Fuzzy , Habitação , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1444, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, about 1000 people die and close to 860,000 people sustain injury at work daily. Injury prevention and control require contextual evidence, although most studies in Uganda have focused on general causes. Factors associated with occupational injuries among building construction workers were assessed in this study. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among building construction workers was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. A standardized semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Three hundred nineteen (319) participants were randomly and proportionately selected from 57 construction sites. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the variables while generalized linear modeling was used to estimate the crude/adjusted prevalence ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of occupational injuries was 32.4%. Most injuries, approximately 70% occurred among nightshift workers. Age of ≤24 years (APR: 2.09 CI: 1.20-3.65, P = 0.009); daily income in or above the second quartile-USD ≥3.2 (APR: 1.72, CI: 1.06-2.80, P = 0.028); job dissatisfaction (APR: 1.63, CI: 1.17-2.27, P = 0.004); job stress (APR: 1.72, CI: 1.22-2.41, P = 0.004); poor safety environment (APR: 1.51, CI: 1.10-2.05, P = 0.009); PPE provision (APR: 1.47, CI: 1.05-2.05, P = 0.02) and routine use of PPE (APR: 0.57, CI: 0.34-0.95, P = 0.03) were significantly associated with occupational injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a relatively high prevalence of injuries mostly resulting from cuts and mostly suffered on night duty. Upper and lower extremities were the most hurt parts of the body during injury leading to loss of a substantial number of productive days. This could affect the health and wellbeing of construction workers. Most of the factors significantly associated with occupational injuries are modifiable thus an opportunity to address the problem. Efforts towards integrating education for behaviour change, advocacy and training workers to demand for their rights to safe and protection at work and legislation enforcement can help reduce occupational injury occurrence.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594125

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and civil aid and medical care among Xiangyang-Chongqing railway construction workers in Chongqing from 2011 to 2018, so as to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of pneumoconiosis. Methods: The Chongqing database of Xiangyang-Chongqing railway construction workers cases from 2011 to 2018 were subjected to systematic collected. SPSS 18.0 was adopted for statistical description and analysis. Results: From 2011 to 2018, a total of 7031 silicosis cases were diagnosed, and 5827 cases were existed, including 4056 cases of stage I, 1491 cases of stage II, and 280 cases of stage III. The cases were concentrated in the area along the southwest to northeast of Chongqing. The diagnosis age of silicosis patients was mainly 60~64 years old (69.73%) . Most silicosis cases were the drill workers and the stone workers. The exposure time of silicosis patients was short and concentrated in 3 years. The 5827 cases of pneumoconiosis in the Xiangyang-Chongqing railway were all treated with special civil aid and medical care for pneumoconiosis in the Xiangyang-Chongqing railway. Conclusion: The prevalence of silicosis among workers who participated in Xiangyang-Chongqing railway construction remained serious. Civil aid and medical care covers all silicosis patients. Occupational health surveillance for silicosis and assistance should be carried out in these workers.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Indústria da Construção , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Ferrovias
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 636, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asbestos was widely used in construction in both a friable and a compact form until the 1990s, before its use was banned. Today, many of these materials are still in situ and represent a source of risk for construction workers. The objective of the study was to analyse the cases of mesothelioma arising among construction workers registered in the Apulia regional register of mesothelioma. RESULTS: For the period 1993-2018, there were 178 male cases, and 10.2% of the cases were present in the regional register. The average age at diagnosis was 64.7 years. The site was pleural in 96.06% of cases, with a diagnosis of certainty in 86.5% of the total cases and 61.8% of cases with epithelial histology. The average latency is 43.9 years. In 75.2% of cases, the exposure began between 1941 and 1970, with an average duration of 24.3 years. The age at the start of exposure in 68.5% of cases is between 8 and 20 years. The ORs were 2.5 (C.I. 95% 1.01-6.17) for the epithelioid histotype and the high duration of exposure. The data underline the need for prevention and information on all activities involving construction workers in which asbestos-containing materials are still used.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Indústria da Construção/instrumentação , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109508, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518797

RESUMO

Although academia has concentrated on issues related to green building recently, Green Star, considered as the primary green rating system in New Zealand, has not caught adequate attention, leading to its slow development with a modest number of certified projects. This research aims to explore the perspectives of the key stakeholders in the New Zealand construction industry towards the use of Green Star, as well as its relationship and possible integration with Building Information Modelling (BIM). Specifically, six themes including 1) benefits of Green Star certification uptake; 2) challenges/barriers to Green Star certification uptake; 3) solutions for Green Star certification uptake; 4) relationship between BIM adoption and Green Star certification uptake; 5) barriers/challenges to the integration of BIM between Green Star; and 6) solutions for the integration between BIM and Green Star were highlighted. The data was collected from 21 semi-structured interviews with industry experts. The results identified a range of benefits and barriers/challenges to the use of Green Star. The research offers a variety of suggestions to encourage Green Star development, with more extensive education playing a critical role, combined with greater integration of BIM with Green Star. The results could be considered baseline information for the construction professionals and academia to have effective strategies towards BIM and Green Star adoption.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Certificação , Nova Zelândia
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 143, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millions of poor households in India undertake short duration rural to urban migration along with their children to find work in the informal economy in the city. While literature has documented the precarity of such temporary jobs, typically characterized by low wages, insecure jobs, harsh recruitment regimes and economic vulnerability, little is known about its implications for children who migrate with their parents to the city. In this study, we draw attention to children of migrant construction workers and focus on their overall nutritional well-being, which remains under-studied. Our objectives were to categorize the current nutritional status of children under the age of five and determine the underlying causes of poor nutritional outcomes. METHODS: The field work for this study was undertaken between May 2017 and January 2018 at five construction sites in the city of Ahmedabad. We undertook anthropometric measurements of children under the age of five [N = 131; (male: 46%, female 53%); (mean age: 31.7 months)] and categorized their nutritional status. Using the UNICEF framework on undernutrition, we examined the underlying causes of poor nutritional outcomes among this group of children with the help of qualitative methods such as interviews, focused group discussions and participant observation at the field sites. RESULTS: Undernutrition was highly prevalent among the children (N = 131): stunted (40.5%); wasted (22.1%); and underweight (50.4%). We found common factors across parents interviewed such as similar misperceptions of malnutrition, long hours of work and lack of childcare provision at the worksite which resulted in disrupted quality of care. While socio-cultural beliefs and lack of information influenced breastfeeding, other factors such as inability to take breaks or lack of space further impaired infant feeding practices more broadly. Lack of dietary diversity at home, poor hygiene and sanitation, and economic inability to seek healthcare further affected child nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study addresses a critical gap in migration literature in India by building a comprehensive narrative of migrant children's experiences at construction sites. We find that parents' informal work setting exposes children to a nutritionally challenging environment. Policies and programs seeking to address undernutrition, a critical challenge in India, must pay attention to the specific needs of migrant children.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Indústria da Construção , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 447-459, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509901

RESUMO

Introduction: The mining and tunneling industries are historically associated with hazardous exposures that result in significant occupational health concerns. Occupational respiratory exposures causing pneumoconiosis and silicosis are of great concern, silicosis being non-curable. This work demonstrates that compressed-air workers (CAWs) performing tunnel hyperbaric interventions (HIs) may be at risk for hazards related to bentonite exposure, increasing the likelihood of developing harmful illnesses including cancer. Bentonite dust inhalation may result in respiratory levels of silica exceeding acceptable industrial hygiene standards. Methods: A qualitative observational exposure assessment was conducted on CAWs while they were performing their HI duties. This was followed by quantitative data collection using personal and area air sample techniques. The results were analyzed and interpreted using standard industrial hygiene principles and guidelines from NIOSH and OSHA. Results: Our work suggests bentonite dust exposure may be an emerging particulate matter concern among CAWs in the tunneling industry. Aerosolized bentonite particles may have potential deleterious effects that include pneumoconiosis and silicosis. Silicosis can result in the development of pulmonary carcinoma. Conclusions: The modern tunneling industry and required hyperbaric interventional tasks represent a potential public health and occupational concern for CAWs. This paper introduces the modern tunneling industry and the duties of CAWs, the hazardous environment in which they perform their duties, and describes the risks and potential harmful health effects associated with these hazardous exposures.


Assuntos
Bentonita/toxicidade , Ar Comprimido , Materiais de Construção/toxicidade , Poeira , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/química , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Bentonita/química , Indústria da Construção , Materiais de Construção/análise , Segurança de Equipamentos , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Pressão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/normas
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