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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562127

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the largest global health crisis in decades. Apart from the unprecedented number of deaths and hospitalizations, the pandemic has resulted in economic slowdowns, widespread business disruptions, and significant hardships. This study focused on investigating the early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the U.S. construction industry since the declaration of the national emergency on 13 March 2020. The study objectives were achieved through 34 telephone interviews with project managers, engineers, designers, and superintendents that represented different states and distinct industry sectors in the United States (U.S.). The interviewees offered information on their experience with the pandemic, including the general and adverse effects experienced, new opportunities created, and risk management efforts being undertaken. The reported adverse effects included significant delays on projects, inability to secure materials on time, reduction in productivity rates, material price escalations, and others. The new opportunities that were created included projects involving the fast-track construction of medical facilities, construction of residential buildings, transportation-related work, and opportunities to recruit skilled workers. The risk management measures that were widely adopted included measures to enhance safety and reduce other project risks. The safety measures adopted included requiring employees to wear cloth face masks, adoption of social distancing protocols, staggering of construction operations, offering COVID-19-related training, administering temperature checks prior to entry into the workplace, and others. Measures to manage other project risks included the formation of a task force team to review the evolving pandemic and offer recommendations, advocating that construction businesses be deemed essential to combat delays and taking advantage of government relief programs. The study findings will be useful to industry stakeholders interested in understanding the early impacts of the pandemic on the construction industry. Industry stakeholders may also build upon the reported findings and establish best practices for continued safe and productive operations.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Indústria da Construção/tendências , Pandemias , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Máscaras , Gestão de Riscos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 22, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to an increase in mosquito habitats and the lack facilities to carry out basic mosquito control, construction sites in China are more likely to experience secondary dengue fever infection after importation of an initial infection, which may then increase the number of infections in the neighboring communities and the chance of community transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate how to effectively reduce the transmission of dengue fever at construction sites and the neighboring communities. METHODS: The Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious/Asymptomatic-Recovered (SEIAR) model of human and SEI model of mosquitoes were developed to estimate the transmission of dengue virus between humans and mosquitoes within the construction site and within a neighboring community, as well between each of these. With the calibrated model, we further estimated the effectiveness of different intervention scenarios targeting at reducing the transmissibility at different locations (i.e. construction sites and community) with the total attack rate (TAR) and the duration of the outbreak (DO). RESULTS: A total of 102 construction site-related and 131 community-related cases of dengue fever were reported in our area of study. Without intervention, the number of cases related to the construction site and the community rose to 156 (TAR: 31.25%) and 10,796 (TAR: 21.59%), respectively. When the transmission route from mosquitoes to humans in the community was cut off, the number of community cases decreased to a minimum of 33 compared with other simulated scenarios (TAR: 0.068%, DO: 60 days). If the transmission route from infectious mosquitoes in the community and that from the construction site to susceptible people on the site were cut off at the same time, the number of cases on the construction site dropped to a minimum of 74 (TAR: 14.88%, DO: 66 days). CONCLUSIONS: To control the outbreak of dengue fever effectively on both the construction site and in the community, interventions needed to be made both within the community and from the community to the construction site. If interventions only took place within the construction site, the number of cases on the construction site would not be reduced. Also, interventions implemented only within the construction site or between the construction site and the community would not lead to a reduction in the number of cases in the community.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Indústria da Construção , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Características de Residência , Local de Trabalho
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430202

RESUMO

The implementation of precursor management can improve safety performance of construction projects through effectively managing the correlations between construction accidents and their precursors. However, a system of comprehensive knowledge about what precursors mean within the context of construction safety is still lacking. This study aims to capture the nature of precursors in the construction industry and explore the process of a precursor event evolving into a construction accident to fill this gap. Based on 135 construction accident reports in China, this study adopts grounded theory to identify different types of accident precursors and explore their interactions with the development of the accident. An indicator system of precursors for construction accidents was developed, which included two major categories of precursors: behavioral factors and physical factors and five minor categories of precursors: individual behavior factors, organizational driving factors, objective physical factors, construction environmental factors, mechanical equipment factors. In addition, a precursor management strategy that includes the three stages of identification, response and effectiveness testing was established. The results of the study reveal the correlations between precursors and construction accidents, which can promote construction professionals' better understanding about precursors and improve their capabilities of managing precursors in practice.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gestão da Segurança , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , China , Teoria Fundamentada
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430219

RESUMO

The construction industries' unsafe conditions require increased efforts to improve safety performance to prevent and reduce accident rates. Safety performance in the Iraqi construction industry is notoriously poor. Despite this condition, safety research has so far been neglected. Implementing a safety program is a proven initial step to improve safety. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify the key elements of a safety program in the Iraqi construction industry. To verify and validate a list of safety program elements identified in the literature review, a mixed method approach was used by using interviews and questionnaire surveys. A final list of 25 elements were then analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The analysis found that these elements can be grouped into four interrelated dimensions: management commitment and employee involvement, worksite analysis, hazard prevention and control systems, and safety and health training. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on safety in the Iraqi construction sector, a research area which has not been adequately investigated previously. They also help decision-makers focus on key elements that are needed to start improving safety performance in this context.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Iraque , Gestão da Segurança , Local de Trabalho
5.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111879, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465712

RESUMO

As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral stock, as well as the waste derived from it is decisive in ensuring the application of the best practices of circular economy. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the mineral building stock through a combination of geospatial and image analysis. By analysing old topographic maps, buildings are grouped according to their building age into different typologies and based on these maps the construction and demolition activity is evaluated. The mineral stock is assessed and estimations of the mineral construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated for different stochastic scenarios. This methodology is applied exemplarily on the country of Luxembourg. It was found that the total mineral construction stock for Luxembourg is 276.75 Mt and has been growing at a rate of 20.81%-24.39% in the last 30 years. Furthermore, the study identified a mean age of the urban building stock of about 60 years and a typical maximum building lifetime of 122 years. Based on the stochastic projections the mineral CDW generated from the existing building stock is expected to be up to 226.9 Mt by 2100, while if future building scenarios are considered, it can be as high as 885.3 Mt. The annual CDW production is expected to be sufficient for a viable concrete recycling activity if regulations on the waste volume flows are made available.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Minerais , Reciclagem
6.
Waste Manag ; 121: 343-353, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418446

RESUMO

Around the global construction industry, there is an emerging trend to pursue a "zero-waste" goal at the site level, but little is known about it. This paper aims to shed insights on the waste management concept of "zero waste construction site" by delineating its meaning, system boundary, assessment period, and operation strategies, which are further formulated in an analytical framework. Owing to the nascent nature of the concept, we adopted a qualitative approach including archival study, a series of semi-structured interviews, and two in-depth case studies in Shenzhen, China to sketch the analytical framework. Meanwhile, an analogy between "zero waste construction site" and "net zero building" is continuously made to fine-tune and finalize the framework. This research demonstrates that the zero-waste goal is challenging but achievable on individual construction sites. The system boundary to examine the zero-waste goal is contingent on the project scope, be it a new construction, renovation, or demolition project. The assessment period is dependent on the duration of the construction project. However, it would be too costly, if not entirely impossible, to achieve a "zero waste construction site" by treating it as a closed system. Rather, one needs to consider open, off-site strategies, e.g., engaging third-party recycling services, reusing recycled materials in subsequent projects, or trading it in to a recycled material market. The analytical framework can be utilized to scrutinize existing construction waste management practices. In the long term, the research will contribute positively to a "zero waste" society.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Materiais de Construção , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Reciclagem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435506

RESUMO

The development of low-carbon buildings (LCBs) in China has not reached its expected status, although the Chinese government has formulated many relevant regulations. The real estate developers and consumers are essential participants in the development of LCBs. This paper explores whether the government's implementation of the carbon tax will change their choices of LCBs. Evolutionary game models between developers and consumers are established under static and dynamic carbon taxes. Their evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) are deduced in different situations. According to the real scenarios in China, numerical simulations are further conducted to show that carbon tax influences the low-carbon behaviors of stakeholders in the construction industry. Under a static carbon tax, the two players cannot reach an equilibrium state, while the game system is stable under a dynamic tax. The probability of the developers constructing LCBs is positively related to the carbon tax, while its degree is gradually weakened as the tax rate increases. Therefore, an appropriate tax should be set to promote the development of LCBs effectively. Finally, policy implications are put forwarded to guide the participants' low-carbon behaviors and reduce the carbon emissions in the Chinese construction industry.


Assuntos
Carbono , Indústria da Construção , Evolução Biológica , China , Humanos , Impostos
8.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(1): 42-53, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147586

RESUMO

Objetivo: Construir y evaluar la validez de un instrumento que mida los conocimientos que tienen los estudiantes de enfermería y medicina sobre la detección del abuso sexual en menores de 18 años Materiales y métodos: Descriptivo, cuantitativo-transversal. Se diseñó una escala de 44 ítems agrupados en cinco categorías. A continuación, se realizó una prueba de validez aparente con análisis de estadística descriptiva. Posteriormente, se efectuó la validez de contenido, determinando la razón (CVR) para cada uno de los ítems, así como el índice de validez de contenido global (CVI), basado en el modelo de Lawshe, con un criterio de calificación mayor o igual 0,58. Resultados: En la validez aparente, 18 ítems obtuvieron un porcentaje ≥ 75 % con un óptimo cumplimento en los tres criterios; en 12 ítems se observaron dos criterios > 75 a 100%; 9 ítems con 1 criterio >75% y 5 ítems no cumplieron con ningún criterio <65%. Para la validez de contenido, la escala de 44 ítems obtuvo un CVR < 0.58 para 19 ítems, lo que indica que los ítems presentan un des-acuerdo en el criterio. Con respecto a la segunda medición, se eva-luó la escala con 38 ítems, observando una alta validez de contenido >0,58 para 35 ítems y un índice de validez global satisfactorio de 0.88; se eliminaron tres ítems con bajo índice de contenido. Conclu-sión: La escala diseñada demuestra validez para 35 ítems. Se sugiere continuar con el proceso de validez del constructo y de confiabilidad para que pueda ser implementado en otras culturas.


Objective: To construct and evaluate the validity of an instrument that measures the knowledge that nursing and medical students have about the detection of sexual abuse in children under 18 years of age. Materials and methods: Descriptive, quantitative-cross-sectional. A scale of 44 items grouped into five categories was designed; tests of apparent validity were carried out with descriptive statistical analysis; then, content validity was carried out, where the reason (CVR ) for each of the items and the global content validity index (CVI), based on the Lawshe model, were determined, with a higher qualification criterion ≥ 0.58. Results: In apparent validity, 18 items obtained a percentage ≥ 75% with optimal compliance in all three criteria; 12 items met two criteria > 75 to 100%, 9 items met one criterion > 75%, and 5 items did not meet any criterion < 65%. For content validity, the 44-item scale obtained a TRC < 0.58 for 19 items, which indicates that the items present a disagreement in the criteria. For the second measurement, the scale was evaluated with 38 items, observing a high content validity >0.58 for 35 items and a satisfactory global validity index of 0.88; three items with a low content index were eliminated. Conclusion: The scale finally designed demonstrates validity for 35 items; it is suggested to continue with the process of construct validity and reliability so that it can be implemented in other cultures.


Objetivo: Construir e avaliar a validade de um instrumento que mensure os conhecimentos que têm os estudantes de enfermagem e medicina sobre a detecção do abuso sexual em menores de 18 anos. Materiais e métodos: Descritivo, quantitativo, transversal. Formulou-se uma escala de 44 itens agrupados em cinco categorias. Realizou-se uma prova de validade aparente com empregan-do-se estatística descritiva. Posteriormente, efeituou-se a validade de conteúdo, determinando a razão (CVR) para cada um dos itens, assim como o índice de validade de conteúdo global (CVI), baseado no modelo de Lawshe, com um critério maior ou igual a 0,58. Resultados: Na valida-de aparente 18 itens obtiveram percentuais ≥ 75% com óptimo cumprimento dos três critérios; em 12 itens observaram-se critérios > 75% a 100%; 9 itens com um critério >75% e 5 itens não cumpriram com nenhum critério <65%. Para a validade de conteúdo, a escala de 44 itens obteve um CVR <0,58 para 19 itens, indicando que apresentavam discordância no critério. Na segunda medição, avaliou-se o instrumento com 38 itens, observando-se alta validade de conteúdo >0,58 para 35 itens e um índice de validade global satisfatório de 0,88. Eliminaram-se três itens com baixo índice de conteúdo. Conclusão: O instrumento formulado demostrou validade para 35 itens. Sugere-se continuar no processo de validade de constructo e confiabilidade para poder ser utilizado em outras culturas.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Indústria da Construção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(4): 555-560, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353533

RESUMO

Urbanization and related construction activities generate massive construction and demolition (C&D) waste, which poses considerable risks to the environment and human health. However, it is difficult to assess the significance of these issues without a quantitative understanding of spatial patterns of C&D waste generation (source), transportation (flow), and treatment (sink). This paper maps source, sinks, and flows of C&D waste by coupling a geographic information system and material flow analysis. The methodology is new in the field of C&D waste quantification at the city level, especially downscaling to 5 km × 5 km grids. The results showed that a total of 37.72 million metric tonnes (Mt) of C&D wastes were generated in Beijing, 2019, and ~72% of them were reused and recycled. In space, C&D waste generation in suburban and rural districts (28.73 Mt) was over three times more than that in the downtown area (8.99 Mt). However, the downtown area was the net source region and transported massive amounts of C&D waste to suburban and rural districts. In comparison, several suburban and rural districts had self-sufficient treatment capacity. Our study highlights that a series of C&D waste maps on multiple spatial scales are of great help to design effective policies for waste management by providing spatial details of magnitude and components, and explicitly recognizing primary source and sink areas in cities.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Pequim , Cidades , Materiais de Construção , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Reciclagem
10.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(7): 9-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351180

RESUMO

The construction industry creates 1.3 trillion revenue each year in the United States. After Coronavirus (COVID-19) becoming a pandemic virus, many industries are shutting down and being on lockdown. This situation can lead to millions of people becoming unemployed and eventually causing a financial recession. Although the government and health organizations have issued guidelines to prevent the spread of the virus in the jobsites, there have not been any specific guidelines for construction industry workers. The contribution of this research is to develop a preliminary model and indicator of coronavirus (COVID-19) spread in the construction industry. This paper investigates the preliminary indexes, which can affect the spread of coronavirus in the construction industry. The developed model would act as a guide for stakeholders to take the most appropriate precautions in the jobsite with the available equipment and facilities.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Coronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371434

RESUMO

Mega infrastructure projects provide a basic guarantee for social development, economic construction, and livelihood improvement. Their operation and maintenance (O&M) management are of great significance for the smooth operation and the realization of the value created by the projects. In order to provide an approach for effectively evaluating O&M management, this study develops a holistic indicator system using a mixed-review method from the national macro perspective in China. In this study, literature analysis, policy texts, expert interviews, and grounded theory were used to collect relevant data at home and abroad, and establish an initial evaluation indicator system with 23 indicators covering two dimensions and five aspects. Then the questionnaire survey and factor analysis were used to score and categorize the indicators, and finally an evaluation indicator system for O&M management of mega infrastructure projects was formed. The results show that social relations, environmental benefits, macro policy, and operational capacities play an important role in the evaluation of the O&M of mega infrastructure projects. This study helps the management team to avoid negative impacts in the O&M management of mega infrastructure projects and lays a theoretical foundation for future research. The indicator system in this study is based on the Chinese context, and it remains to be verified whether the indicator system is applicable to other countries due to the differences in political and cultural backgrounds in different regions.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Manutenção , China , Indústria da Construção
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317147

RESUMO

Currently, nanotechnology plays a key role for technological innovation, including the construction sector. An exponential increase is expected in its application, although this has been hampered by the current degree of uncertainty regarding the potential effects of nanomaterials on both human health and the environment. The accidents, illnesses, and disease related to the use of nanoproducts in the construction sector are difficult to identify. For this purpose, this work analyzes in depth the products included in recognized inventories and the safety data sheets of these construction products. Based on this analysis, a review of the recommendations on the use of manufactured nanomaterials at construction sites is performed. Finally, a protocol is proposed with the aim of it serving as a tool for technicians in decision-making management at construction sites related to the use of manufactured nanomaterials. This proposed protocol should be an adaptive and flexible tool while the manufactured nanomaterials-based work continues to be considered as an "emerging risk," despite the expectation that the protocol will be useful for the development of new laws and recommendations for occupational risk prevention management.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Nanoestruturas , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gestão de Riscos , Indústria da Construção/métodos , Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Meio Ambiente , União Europeia , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Nanotecnologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375247

RESUMO

The increasing sophistication and complexity of construction technology have also increased workers' physical risk and psychological stress. This study examined the relationships between health risks, work motivation, and productivity as perceived by construction workers. A hypothetical model of worker perceptions, and the psychological factors influencing these perceptions, was developed. A total of 324 construction workers at a Japanese construction company participated in the study and were divided into two groups: younger (45 years of age and below) and older adults (46 years of age and above). Data were collected using a questionnaire. The differences between the age groups were analyzed with regard to their perceptions of health risks, motivation, work skills, and productivity. Both younger and older workers were affected by intrinsic motivations and extrinsic motivations, but the effect of these motivations on work performance differed depending on age. Higher health risks are anticipated to affect the work motivation and productivity perceptions of older workers. The proposed model and findings of this study contribute to understanding worker motivations and have important implications for labor management of construction projects. By addressing construction workers' intrinsic (e.g., interest) and extrinsic (e.g., reward) motivations, it is possible to sustainably improve project productivity.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Eficiência , Motivação , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45752, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117683

RESUMO

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência do uso do preservativo e os fatores associados em trabalhadores da construção civil. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, com 370 trabalhadores da grande João Pessoa, Paraíba. Considerou como variável de desfecho o uso do preservativo na última relação sexual. Utilizou-se questionário estruturado. Análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla foi utilizada para identificar associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e o uso do preservativo. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes é do sexo masculino, adultos jovens, casados e com baixa escolaridade. A prevalência estimada de uso do preservativo foi de 23,5% (IC 95%: 19,2% - 27,8%). Indivíduos com menos de 39 anos possuem 1,82 vezes mais chances de usar o preservativo e ser casado diminui (RC=0,26) as chances de uso. Conclusão: há baixa prevalência de uso do preservativo em trabalhadores da construção civil. A prevenção combinada é uma alternativa para controle das infecções transmissíveis, sendo o preservativo o principal coadjuvante.


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of condom use and the associated factors in construction workers. Method: in this crosssectional, analytical study with 370 workers from greater João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, the outcome variable was condom use at last sexual intercourse. A structured questionnaire was used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic variables and condom use. Results: most participants were young, male adults, married and with little education. Estimated prevalence of condom use was 23.5% (95% CI; 19.2% - 27.8%). Individuals under 39 years old were found to be 1.82 times more likely to use condoms than individuals aged 40 years or older (OR = 1.82; 95% CI), while being married reduced the likelihood (OR = 0.26). Conclusion: prevalence of condom use is low among construction workers. Combined prevention is one option for controlling communicable diseases, with condoms as the main support.


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia del uso de condón y los factores asociados en trabajadores de la construcción. Método: en este estudio transversal y analítico con 370 trabajadores del área metropolitana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, la variable de resultado fue el uso de condón en la última relación sexual. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado y análisis de regresión logística bivariada y múltiple para identificar asociaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas y el uso del condón. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes fueron jóvenes, varones adultos, casados y con poca educación. La prevalencia estimada del uso de condones fue del 23,5% (IC del 95%; 19,2% - 27,8%). Se encontró que las personas menores de 39 años tenían 1,82 veces más probabilidades de usar condones que las personas de 40 años o más (OR = 1,82; IC del 95%), mientras que estar casado redujo la probabilidad (OR = 0,26). Conclusión: la prevalencia del uso de condones es baja entre los trabajadores de la construcción. La prevención combinada es una opción para controlar las enfermedades transmisibles, con el condón como principal apoyo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Indústria da Construção , Estudos Transversais , Prevenção de Doenças , Correlação de Dados , Enfermagem do Trabalho
15.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 23(4): 443-457, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the compliance of the preventive instructions formulated by the Health Authority against COVID-19 for the de-escalation phase among the industrial and construction sectors in Navarre. METHODS: On the basis of those preventive instructions, questionnaires were drawn up to verify their implementation on site. The occupational risk prevention technicians of the Occupational Health Service (OHS) of the Institute of Public and Work Health of Navarre and those of the External Prevention Services (EPS), under the executive coordination of the OHS, visited the enterprises to advise, verify and require, if necessary, compliance with the instructions dictated. RESULTS: The compliance of the preventive instructions is higher in the industrial sector than in the construction sector. Cleaning practices, hygienic resources and the provision of respiratory protection equipment are widespread. The application of necessary measures in common places (restrooms, dining rooms) are less frequent. There is a lack of informative posters and written corroboration of the preventive instructions. The difference of several results between the OHS and the EPS technicians is remarkable. CONCLUSIONS: Weaknesses have been identified in achieving safe workplaces in the construction and industrial sectors during the de-escalation phase in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The role of Public Health in the enterprises and the integration of the prevention services in public policies against occupational risks must be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Retorno ao Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Espanha
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114546

RESUMO

Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at Test@Work workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n = 464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n = 9) and message fidelity testing (n = 291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were: opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4% times, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r = -6.24, p = 0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusions: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience, and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Indústria da Construção , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Reino Unido
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2026373, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119111

RESUMO

Importance: Policy makers have relaxed restrictions for certain nonessential industries, including construction, jeopardizing the effectiveness of social distancing measures and putting already at-risk populations at greater risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. In Texas, Latinx populations are overly represented among construction workers, and thus have elevated rates of exposure that are compounded by prevalent high-risk comorbidities and lack of access to health care. Objective: To assess the association between construction work during the COVID-19 pandemic and hospitalization rates for construction workers and the surrounding community. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model used a mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission, stratified by age and risk group, with construction workers modeled explicitly. The model was based on residents of the Austin-Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, with a population of 2.17 million. Based on 500 stochastic simulations for each of 15 scenarios that varied the size of the construction workforce and level of worksite transmission risk, the association between continued construction work and hospitalizations was estimated and then compared with anonymized line-list hospitalization data from central Texas through August 20, 2020. Exposures: Social distancing interventions, size of construction workforce, and level of disease transmission at construction worksites. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each scenario, the total number of COVID-19 hospitalizations and the relative risk of hospitalization among construction workers was projected and then compared with relative risks estimated from reported hospitalization data. Results: Allowing unrestricted construction work was associated with an increase of COVID-19 hospitalization rates through mid-August 2020 from 0.38 per 1000 residents to 1.5 per 1000 residents and from 0.22 per 1000 construction workers to 9.3 per 1000 construction workers. This increased risk was estimated to be offset by safety measures (such as thorough cleaning of equipment between uses, wearing of protective equipment, limits on the number of workers at a worksite, and increased health surveillance) that were associated with a 50% decrease in transmission. The observed relative risk of hospitalization among construction workers compared with other occupational categories among adults aged 18 to 64 years was 4.9 (95% CI, 3.8-6.2). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that unrestricted work in high-contact industries, such as construction, is associated with a higher level of community transmission, increased risks to at-risk workers, and larger health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minority groups.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Hospitalização , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Texas/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883009

RESUMO

Risk assessment on a construction site is based on the probability and consequences of the accident. But due to the complexity of the construction processes, this new methodology for the evaluation of occupational risks, called Level of Preventive Action, develops a new parameter for evaluating preventive action based on documentary environment that reflects the complexity of the work units, location and interdependence, construction environment referred to construction and protection systems, and social environment relative to the perception of the environment and the workers' emotional states. The evaluation criteria of the new method are established by developing the William T. Fine methodology and incorporating concepts such as risk tolerance, the importance of work and personal satisfaction, which justify the degree of correction of preventive actions. This methodology determines the amount of preventive action control that is required during the construction process. This research proposes a risk assessment protocol adapted to construction sites based on specialized technical observation with a psychosocial survey on site. Some results of the implementation of the method in real work are shown. In conclusion, the determining parameter towards optimal control of preventive action is the direct and active participation of workers in safety matters.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição de Risco , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110989, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888600

RESUMO

AIM: The city of L'Aquila (central Italy) was hit by a strong earthquake in 2009 that caused the collapse of several buildings, deaths and injured people. In the following years, a great number of building sites were activated, building workers resulted intensely exposed and represent a relevant target for research on environmental mutagenesis and epidemiological surveillance. Cells of buccal mucosa are considered an appropriate site for early detecting of cytogenetic damage, since it represents the first barrier in inhalation or ingestion and can metabolize carcinogenic agents into reactive chemicals. Our study is aimed 1) at comparing the early genotoxic damage as measured by the buccal mucosa micronucleus test in two subgroups of workers defined by different occupational exposure and 2) at evaluating possible confounding variables such as lifestyle factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in L'Aquila, on 24 outdoor workers (OWs) highly exposed on the construction sites and 26 indoor workers (IWs), all subjected to the compulsory occupational surveillance system, in the period 2017-2018. Buccal cells samples were collected and, based on the Micronucleus test, the exfoliated cells were classified in respect of nuclear changes observed. Moreover, a self-report questionnaire composed of 84 items, was administered to the workers. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between Exp+ (OWs) and Exp- (IWs) in the number of the analyzed cells (expressed as mean value out of 1000 cells): respectively 954.46 vs 990.06 normal cells, (p < 0.001); 19.79 vs 4.95 micronucleated cells, as marker of chromosomal damage (p < 0.001); 13.93 vs 8.96 binucleated cells, as marker of failed cytokinesis (p < 0.001); 2.09 vs 1.18 karyolytic cells, as marker of cell death and damaged DNA (p < 0.05). According with a multivariate regression analysis, in addition to the job exposure (OW vs IW, beta = 12.221, p < 0.001), the only variable independently associated with an increase in Micronuclei (MNs) is the smoking habit (OWs vs IWs, beta = 6.683, p < 0.001) which, even if not associated with dust exposure, worsens cell integrity. Moreover, this worsening effect is weaker in workers not exposed to the site dust (moderation effect). Within social demographic factors, the high educational level only apparently seems to affect MNs number: even if unbalanced in favor of IWs vs OWs, this variable resulted a confounder, since its effect disappears when the interaction between these two factors is considered, because it is a covariate of smoking habit as well as of the job condition. CONCLUSION: Despite some limitation, our findings clearly confirm the role of occupational exposure as a marker of cytogenetic damage associated with MNs number in construction workers. Moreover, smoking status appears as the only other investigated factor independently associated to the outcome. The statistical model, in addition, highlights possible moderation and confounding effects, such as interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and the unbalanced school education level in workers. Micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells would be considered a suitable method for studying the early genotoxic damage in the construction occupational setting as well as in evaluating the efficacy of preventive practices.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Dano ao DNA , Poeira , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238864, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960904

RESUMO

The objectives are exploring the impacts of geologic hazards on the construction of homestays, improving the safety of homestay buildings, guaranteeing the safety of tourists, and enhancing the disaster-resistance of homestays in scenery spots. The computer simulation system and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology are employed to construct a geologic hazard prediction model for homestays. The model utilizes a time history method to establish a complete early-warning and monitoring system by learning the geologic disaster data. The detection of various geologic hazards has verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results show that the model can reduce the losses in the case of water accumulation and landslides during storms, and the BIM technology-based homestay buildings will suffer fewer losses. In the case of earthquakes, BIM technology-based homestay buildings have no noticeable shaking and displacement. Compared to traditional construction methods, the displacement is reduced by 49.15%. In the case of a spontaneous fire, the burning area of the BIM technology-based homestay building is only 270m2. The most severe factors affecting the construction of homestay buildings are earthquakes and landslide risks. The BIM technology generates 3D building planning; therefore, planners can fully understand the problems in the building. In the meantime, the multi-source monitoring data of multiple geologic hazards can be monitored and fed back, thereby improving the timeliness of early-warning of geologic hazards. The results are of considerable significance to the prevention of losses caused by geologic hazards, which can significantly improve the understanding of geologic hazards.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Indústria da Construção/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fenômenos Geológicos , Humanos , Deslizamentos de Terra , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
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