Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.468
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 247-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016423

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH4 ), from manure storage facilities can be substantial. Methane production requires adapted microbial communities ("inoculum") to be present in the manure. Complete removal of liquid dairy manure (thus removing all inoculum) from storage tanks in the spring has been shown to significantly reduce CH4 emissions over the following warm season. This study examined whether the same mitigation effect would occur after fall removal of liquid dairy manure. Emissions of CH4 , nitrous oxide (N2 O), ammonia (NH3 ), and CO2 were measured from six 11.88-m3 tanks equipped with flow-through chambers. There were three inoculated controls (20% inoculum) and three uninoculated treatments, where inoculum was completely removed in the fall/winter (0% inoculum). Direct N2 O and NH3 (indirect N2 O) were minor contributors to the total GHG budget, contributing <2% on a CO2 equivalent (CO2 e) basis. Removal of inoculum led to a 34% decrease in total emissions on a CO2 e basis and to a 29% decrease in the CH4 conversion factor compared with the inoculated control (0.37 vs. 0.52; p = .01). Overall, removing inoculum in the fall reduced CH4 emissions from manure storage tanks; however, fall inoculum removal was less effective than in a previous study where inoculum was removed in the spring. The timing of inoculum removal may affect the efficiency of this CH4 mitigation strategy. However, this method may be impractical for larger manure storage tanks. Further study is required to overcome challenges of time-sensitive, complete inoculum removal from farm-scale storage tanks.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Indústria de Laticínios , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 324-334, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016426

RESUMO

Managing a sustainable dairy farm requires balancing phosphorus (P) imports and exports that enter and leave through the farm gate. Over the long term, P surpluses will elevate soil-test P concentrations above crop requirements through routine land applications of manure. The objectives of this study were aimed at Virginia dairy farms (a) to determine P mass balances, (b) to define potential guidelines for a sustainable and feasible zone of operation based on P balance and P use efficiency, and (c) to assess risk factors driving P surplus and P use inefficiencies. Data on farm-gate P imports and exports via feed, manure, crops, fertilizers, bedding, animals, and milk were collected for 58 dairy farms in Virginia. There was no relationship between farm P balance and milk production, indicating that a P surplus was not necessary for good milk productivity. A feasible P balance limit was calculated below which 75% of farms could operate, and this was 18.7 kg P ha-1 . Two risk factors were identified for farms having a P balance above this limit: (a) land application of poultry litter and (b) excessive import of P through feed. Combined dairy and beef operations generally had more land and a lower P balance, whereas having combined dairy and poultry did not raise the P balance as long as poultry litter was exported. Dairy farms in Virginia can operate with a sustainable P balance as long as they avoid using excessive poultry litter and pay attention to P imported through purchased feed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Fósforo/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Nitrogênio/análise , Virginia
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100435, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862896

RESUMO

Faecal specimens from 36 scouring neonatal calves from two dairy farms located in the Al Ain region of the UAE were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Additionally, faecal smears were stained with modified-acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the VITEK 2 system plus Gram's stain used to identify bacteria isolated from the faecal samples. Farm management practices were also evaluated during a farm visit. Of the 36 calves, 29, 13, 5, and 6 were positive for C. parvum, E. coli K99, bovine coronavirus, and rotavirus antigens respectively, while 27 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In various combinations, mixed infections were detected in 20/36 calves. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤14-days-old scouring neonatal dairy calves from the UAE. Molecular characterization of these pathogens and nationwide epidemiological calf scour studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877228

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760112

RESUMO

We evaluated the between-cow (b-cow) variation and repeatability in omasal and milk fatty acids (FA) related to methane (CH4) emission. The dataset was originated from 9 studies with rumen-cannulated dairy cows conducted using either a switch-back or a Latin square design. Production of CH4 per mole of VFA (Y_CH4VFA) was calculated based on VFA stoichiometry. Experiment, diet within experiment, period within experiment, and cow within experiment were considered as random factors. Empirical models were developed between the variables of interest by univariate and bivariate mixed model regression analysis. The variation associated with diet was higher than the b-cow variation with low repeatability (< 0.25) for milk odd- and branch-chain FA (OBCFA). Similarly, for de novo synthesized milk FA, diet variation was ~ 3-fold greater than the b-cow variation; repeatability for these FA was moderate to high (0.34-0.58). Also, for both cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 diet variation was more than double the b-cow variation, but repeatability was moderate. Among the de novo milk FA, C4:0 was positively related with stoichiometric Y_CH4VFA, while for OBCFA, anteiso C15:0 and C15:0 were negatively related with it. Notably, when analyzing the relationship between omasal FA and milk FA we observed positive intercept estimates for all the OBCFA, which may indicate endogenous post-ruminal synthesis of these FA, most likely in the mammary gland. For milk iso C13:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, and C15:0 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA and by energy balance. In contrast, the concentration of milk C17:0, iso C18:0, C18:0, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA but negatively related to calculated energy balance. Our findings demonstrate that for most milk FA examined, a larger variation is attributed to diet than b-cow differences with low to moderate repeatability. While some milk FA were positively or negatively related with Y_CH4VFA, there was a pronounced effect of calculated energy balance on these estimates. Additionally, even though OBCFA have been indicated as markers of rumen function, our results suggest that endogenous synthesis of these FA may occur, which therefore, may limit the utilization of milk FA as a proxy for CH4 predictions for cows fed the same diet.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Efeito Estufa , Lactação/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Rúmen/metabolismo
7.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854875

RESUMO

While milk is a major agricultural commodity, dairy farming also supports a large share of global beef production. In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of dairy farming systems, dairy-beef production is often ignored or 'allocated off', which may give a distorted view of production efficiencies. This study combines LCA with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to develop an indicator of eco-efficiency for each of 738 UK dairy farms (3624 data points in 15 years) that aggregates multiple burdens and expresses them per unit of milk and dairy-beef produced. Within the DEA framework, the importance (weight) of dairy-beef relative to milk is iteratively increased to quantify the environmental losses from heavily focussing on milk-production, via e.g. higher yields per cow, with consequent lower burdens per unit of milk, yet with lower dairy-beef production levels, where burdens for beef production are externalized. Then, the relationship between DEA eco-efficiency and a series of indicators of dairy farming intensity at animal- and farm-levels was studied with Generalized Additive Models (GAM). For all sets of DEA weights (proportion of deviance explained ranged between 68% and 82%) indicate that milk yield per cow and forage area, and larger dairy herds all have a positive effect on eco-efficiency, while concentrate fed per unit of milk and the forage area both have a negative effect (p < 0.05 for all modelled relationships). These findings suggest that more intensive and consolidated dairy farms can positively impact on eco-efficiency. However, as the DEA weight for dairy-beef relative to milk increases, the relationship between environmental efficiency and farming specialization (expressed as L milk per kg dairy-beef produced) reverses from positive to negative. In conclusion, dairy-beef production is pivotal in determining the wider environmental efficiency of dairy (and ruminant food) systems, and its under-representation in efficiency studies has generated a misleading approach to meeting emission targets.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino
8.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111127, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810684

RESUMO

Recently, consumers concerns towards an environmental friendly food production are growing. The dairy sector contributes to the production of important greenhouse gases such as methane. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method enables to quantify the emissions and the use of resources throughout the entire life cycle of a product. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of performance parameters on the level of important environmental impacts (global warming potential (GWP), freshwater eutrophication (FE), terrestrial acidification (TA) and agricultural land occupation (ALO)) associated with milk production. Therein, the environmental impacts were analyzed using LCA considering two separate datasets (total, continuous) from Northern German farms throughout the years 2004-2013. Therefore, the performance parameters determining the level of environmental impacts were identified using the partial least square method. Thereby, a differentiated analysis among regions with various soil characteristics (Heath, Hill, Marsh) was conducted additionally. Further, linear mixed models were applied to each of the environmental impact categories. Energy-corrected milk yield (ECM), ECM from roughage, feed efficiency and the use of concentrates were identified as the most important determinants of environmental impacts. In general, an increase in productivity, especially an increase in ECM per cow and an increase in the amount of ECM produced per area of agricultural land accompanied with an improvement in environmental efficiency. The type of feed used had the major impact on the level of environmental impacts, whereby both concentrates and roughage had disadvantages. These results were in line with previous studies. Although, this study provides additional information relating the most important determinants of different environmental impacts, including a differentiated consideration of the relationship between performance parameters and environmental efficiency among regions. Further analyses on specific soil characteristics and their impact on environmental efficiency are recommended. In line with the concept of eco-efficiency, useful mitigation strategies in practice need to be applied depending on individual framework conditions.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Eutrofização , Fazendas , Feminino , Alemanha
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760129

RESUMO

The factors that influence the diversity and composition of raw milk and fecal microbiota in healthy commercial dairy herds are not fully understood, partially because the majority of metataxonomic studies involve experimental farms and/or single factors. We analyzed the raw milk and fecal microbiota of 100 healthy cows from 10 commercial alpine farms from the Province of Trento, Italy, using metataxonomics and applied statistical modelling to investigate which extrinsic and intrinsic parameters (e.g. herd, diet and milk characteristics) correlated with microbiota richness and composition in these relatively small traditional farms. We confirmed that Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families dominated the fecal and milk samples of these dairy cows, but in addition, we found an association between the number of observed OTUs and Shannon entropy on each farm that indicates higher microbiota richness is associated with increased microbiota stability. Modelling showed that herd was the most significant factor affecting the variation in both milk and fecal microbiota composition. Furthermore, the most important predictors explaining the variation of microbiota richness were milk characteristics (i.e. percentage fat) and diet for milk and fecal samples, respectively. We discuss how high intra-herd variation could affect the development of treatments based on microbiota manipulation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fezes/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Microbiota , Leite/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780761

RESUMO

The impact of cow mammary gland diseases on the quality of colostrum is not conclusively defined; research results are conflicting. However, it is widely believed that mastitis lowers the level of immunoglobulins and the quality of the colostrum produced. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of somatic cell counts (SCC) on the colostrum immunostimulating and chemical components. The experiment was conducted on an experimental organic dairy farm in which a herd of approximately 250 cows was kept in a freestall housing system, with the average performance exceeding 6,000 kg of milk per lactation. Colostrum and milk samples were taken individually from each cow seven times during the experiment: from the first to second day after calving-twice per day, and from the third to fifth day after calving-once per day. Therefore, after preliminary analyses, the cows were divided into two groups based on the cytological quality of their colostrum at the first collection: 1. SCC ≤400,000 cells/ml (good quality colostrum; GCC- 18 cows), 2. SCC ≥ 400,000 cells/ml (low quality colostrum; LCC- 22 cows). The study found almost double the concentration of immunoglobulins and essential fatty acids in first milking colostrum in the GCC group than in colostrum from the LCC group. In addition, an increase in the concentration of lysozyme in first milking colostrum was associated with a decrease in the concentration of immunoglobulins. In addition, the increase in the level of lysozyme was associated with a decrease in the concentration of immunoglobulins. In conclusion, the SCC of first milking colostrum can be used as an indicator of colostrum quality.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células/veterinária , Colostro/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790790

RESUMO

In the transformation of agri-food systems in developing countries, we usually see rapid changes in the dairy sector. However, good data for understanding patterns and inclusiveness of this transformation are often lacking. This is important given implications for policy design and service and technology provision towards better performing dairy sectors in these settings. Relying on a combination of unique diverse large-scale datasets and methods, we analyze transformation patterns in the dairy value chain supplying Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, the second most populous country in Africa. Over the last decade, we note a rapid increase in expenditures on dairy products by urban consumers, especially among the better-off. Relatedly, the number of dairy processing firms in Ethiopia tripled over the same period, supplying a significant part of these dairy products, especially pasteurized milk, to the city's residents. Upstream at the production level, we find improved access to livestock services, higher adoption of cross-bred cows, an increase in milk yields, expanding liquid milk markets, a sizable urban farm sector supplying almost one-third of all liquid milk consumed in the city, and an upscaling process with larger commercial dairy farms becoming more prevalent. However, average milk yields are still low and not all dairy farmers are included in this transformation process. Small farms with dairy animals as well as those in more remote areas benefit less from access to services and adopt less these modern practices. For these more disadvantaged farmers, stagnation in milk yields and even declines-depending on the data source used-are observed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Etiópia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Leite/economia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817620

RESUMO

The application of biomolecular techniques to archaeological materials from the Balkans is providing valuable new information on the prehistory of the region. This is especially relevant for the study of the neolithisation process in SE Europe, which gradually affected the rest of the continent. Here, to answer questions regarding diet and subsistence practices in early farming societies in the central Balkans, we combine organic residue analyses of archaeological pottery, taxonomic and isotopic study of domestic animal remains and biomolecular analyses of human dental calculus. The results from the analyses of the lipid residues from pottery suggest that milk was processed in ceramic vessels. Dairy products were shown to be part of the subsistence strategies of the earliest Neolithic communities in the region but were of varying importance in different areas of the Balkan. Conversely, milk proteins were not detected within the dental calculus. The molecular and isotopic identification of meat, dairy, plants and beeswax in the pottery lipids also provided insights into the diversity of diet in these early Neolithic communities, mainly based on terrestrial resources. We also present the first compound-specific radiocarbon dates for the region, obtained directly from absorbed organic residues extracted from pottery, identified as dairy lipids.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cerâmica/química , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Arqueologia , Península Balcânica , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Ceras
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 536, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696135

RESUMO

Water and energy are closely interlinked during their production and consumption processes. The limited and temporary distribution of energy and water resources poses a significant environmental challenge. Industrial wastewater treatment plants are essential elements of water production and also significant energy consumers. This study proposes a methodology for energy management of a wastewater treatment plant. Specifically, it examines the impact of optimum operating conditions on energy costs for a dairy wastewater treatment plant using a dissolved air flotation process. Monte Carlo simulation was used to optimize the parameters and to determine the reuse potential of dairy effluent. Firstly, the optimum operating conditions were determined. The results revealed a maximum fat, oil, and grease removal efficiency of 97% and a chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 70%. The optimum conditions were pH of 8, a saturation pressure of 5 bars, and a recirculation ratio of 33%. The optimum concentrations of coagulant and flocculant that contain polyaluminum chloride and cationic polymer were 20 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The results of the simulation study gave a recirculation ratio of 26.31%, a polyaluminum chloride concentration of 42.5 mg/L, a cationic polymer concentration of 36.31 mg/L, and a saturation pressure of 4.61 bars. Finally, energy cost assessment was performed using a newly developed model which showed that the energy cost indicator of the existing process was lower than optimum operating conditions. The reuse potential of dairy effluent as cooling water was found to be 52%.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Indústria de Laticínios , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 827-834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602778

RESUMO

The present study was carried out with the objectives to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw milk and identification of associated risk factors from three different types of animal farming systems. A total of 189 pooled raw milk samples were tested for AFM1 with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) as screening and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) as confirmatory techniques. AFM1 was found positive in 58% pooled milk samples with the mean level of 0.917 µg/L, while 50.8% and 36.5% samples were found above the legal limits set by European Commission (EC) and Food safety and standard authority of India (FSSAI), respectively for AFM1 in milk. Among all investigated risk factors, feeding of readymade concentrate feed and leftover household cereals, longer feed storage duration and feed storage quality were found significantly associated with presence of AFM1 in farm milk. High prevalence as well as levels of AFM1 in farm milk poses a health risk to the consumers especially children. Therefore, efforts are urgently required to create awareness among dairy farmers about aflatoxins contamination of feed and milk, to improve farm management practices and to control AFM1 level in milk below the legal limits.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indústria de Laticínios , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fazendas , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 264, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal diarrhea remains one of the main causes of morbi-mortality in dairy calves under artificial rearing. It is often caused by infectious agents of viral, bacterial, or parasitic origin. Cows vaccination and colostrum intake by calves during the first 6 h of life are critical strategies to prevent severe diarrhea but these are still insufficient. Here we report the field evaluation of a product based on IgY antibodies against group A rotavirus (RVA), coronavirus (CoV), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. This product, named IgY DNT, has been designed as a complementary passive immunization strategy to prevent neonatal calf diarrhea. The quality of the product depends on the titers of specific IgY antibodies to each antigen evaluated by ELISA. In the case of the viral antigens, ELISA antibody (Ab) titers are correlated with protection against infection in calves experimentally challenged with RVA and CoV (Bok M, et al., Passive immunity to control bovine coronavirus diarrhea in a dairy herd in Argentina, 2017), (Vega C, et al., Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 142:156-69, 2011), (Vega C, et al., Res Vet Sci, 103:1-10, 2015). To evaluate the efficiency in dairy farms, thirty newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned to IgY DNT or control groups and treatment initiated after colostrum intake and gut closure. Calves in the IgY DNT group received 20 g of the oral passive treatment in 2 L of milk twice a day during the first 2 weeks of life. Animals were followed until 3 weeks of age and diarrhea due to natural exposure to infectious agents was recorded during all the experimental time. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that the oral administration of IgY DNT during the first 2 weeks of life to newborn calves caused a delay in diarrhea onset and significantly reduced its severity and duration compared with untreated calves. Animals treated with IgY DNT showed a trend towards a delay in RVA infection with significantly shorter duration and virus shedding compared to control calves. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that IgY DNT is an effective product to complement current preventive strategies against neonatal calf diarrhea in dairy farms. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the only biological product available for the prevention of virus-associated neonatal calf diarrhea.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/virologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunização Passiva/veterinária
16.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 2. rev; 12 jul 2020. 1-22 p.
Não convencional em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1116580

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de estabelecer medidas de proteção para a contenção e disseminação do COVID-19 na liberação da retomada das atividades econômicas no Estado de Goiás - Brasil, estabelece protocolos para o retorno à operação de academias, quadras poliesportivas, treinamento esportivo profissional, instituições religiosas, shopping centers, shopping centers, restaurantes e similares, indústrias de abate e processamento de carnes, hotéis e similares, transporte público local, intermunicipal e interestadual, serviços de call center e call centers, salões de beleza e afins, para atividades esportivas quadras, piscinas e quadras em condomínios residenciais


In order to establish protective measures for the containment and dissemination of COVID-19 in the liberation of the resumption of economic activities in the State of Goiás - Brazil, it establishes protocols for returning to the operation of gyms, sports courts, professional sports training, religious institutions, shopping centers , Shopping centers, restaurants and the like, slaughtering and meat processing industries, hotels and the like, local, intercity and interstate public transportation, call center services and call centers, beauty salons and the like, for activities in sports courts, swimming pools and blocks in residential condominiums


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança , Esportes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Protocolos , Pandemias , Restaurantes , Piscinas , Indústria da Carne , Saneamento de Hotéis , Academias de Ginástica , Indústria de Laticínios , Centros de Embelezamento e Estética , Call Centers , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne
17.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114853, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480006

RESUMO

This study proposes an integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system that provides zero emission and sustainable livelihood for the community in rural areas. The proposed integrated farming system improves agricultural productivity and environmental and sanitation conditions, minimizes the amount of waste, and increases the family income up to 41.55%. Several waste types can be recycled and transformed into valuable products, such as energy for cooking, organic fertilizer for crops, and cattle feed for breeding. Wastewater effluent from the biogas tank can be treated by biochar and results show that it then meets the standards for irrigation purposes. Also, the waste flow from cattle breeding supplies enough nutrients to cultivate plants, and the plants grown supply are adequate food for the 30 cows living on the farm. This research shows that the use of an integrated farming system could achieve zero-emission goal. Thereby, it provides a sustainable livelihood for cattle breeding family farms. The proposed integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system improves agricultural productivity, environmental and increases the farmer income up to 41.55%.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cruzamento , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Vietnã
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 33527-33542, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566986

RESUMO

The dairy industry can contribute to global food security in a sustainable way by efficiently converting milk into dairy ingredients and products, even though they are polluting on a large scale. In this context, this study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review on sustainable indicators and dairy industries. The methodology used has a qualitative and quantitative approach and its technical procedure was the systematic literature review. The bases of journals consulted, using the keywords "sustainability indicator" and "dairy industry" which resulted in 130 valid scientific articles. The main results show that the sustainability indicators in the dairy industry are emerging and lacking research; being found seven papers, that highlight 12 indicators of the environmental, 11 of the social and eight economic dimensions, that may be considered fragile and initial. The studied problems are related to wastewater treatment methods, electric power consumption, efficiency of the industrial plant, among others, and the benefits on the theme are related to solutions to the difficulties, such as electricity reduction, sustainable practices. Among others, it is concluded that the dairy industries address the sustainability theme since 2011, with an ambiguous trend, being found evidence of the fragility of the sustainability indicators was found, mainly in the initial stage of their conception, when considering holistic approach (triple bottom line).


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Poluentes Ambientais , Leite , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Águas Residuárias
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511270

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating mammary gland development and lactation. We previously analyzed miRNA expression profiles in Laoshan dairy goat mammary glands at the early (20 d postpartum), peak (90 d postpartum) and late lactation (210 d postpartum) stages. To further enrich and clarify the miRNA expression profiles during the lactation physiological cycle, we sequenced miRNAs in the mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats at three newly selected stages: the late lactation (240 d postpartum), dry period (300 d postpartum) and late gestation (140 d after mating) stages. We obtained 4038 miRNAs and 385 important miRNA families, including mir-10, let-7 and mir-9. We also identified 754 differentially expressed miRNAs in the mammary gland tissue at the 3 different stages and 6 groups of miRNA clusters that had unique expression patterns. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that GO terms such as mammary gland development (GO:0030879) and mammary gland morphogenesis (GO:0060443) and important signaling pathways, including the insulin signaling pathway (chx04910), hippo signaling pathway (chx04390) and estrogen signaling pathway (chx04915), were enriched. We screened miRNAs and potential target genes that may be involved in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland growth and differentiation, cell apoptosis, and substance transport and synthesis and detected the expression patterns of important genes at the three stages. These miRNAs and critical target genes may be important factors for mammary gland development and lactation regulation and potentially valuable molecular markers, which may provide a theoretical reference for further investigation of mammary gland physiology.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabras/fisiologia , Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Gravidez/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35112-35125, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583111

RESUMO

Many nations have tended to transform their traditional growth paradigm to green growth policy paradigm to ensure environmentally sustainable development. Governments, therefore, have developed and implemented environmental protection programs to ensure environmentally sustainable development. For accelerating the transformation to green production techniques and technologies, the study aims (i) to calculate the opportunity cost of protecting environment, (ii) to estimate the production efficiency of farms, and (iii) to determine the impact of opportunity cost of protecting environment on the production efficiency in TR83 region in Turkey. Farm-level research data have been collected from totally 361 farms (334 farms participated in the environmental protection programs (EFALP) and 27 conventional farms) by using a well-structured questionnaire during the production year of 2016-2017. Minimization of total absolute deviation (MOTAD) programming model as a linearized version of QP was used to elicit the farm plans under both condition of protecting environmental and conventional farming condition. When estimating the technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies, the net farm revenue under prevailing conditions, potential net farm revenue, and optimum farm revenue were used. The net revenue difference between EFALP farm and conventional farm was attributed to the opportunity cost of protecting the environment. The impact of the opportunity cost of protecting the environment on production efficiency was explored by using two-limit Tobit model. Research results show that the opportunity cost of environmental protection is 3060 TRY per hectare and varied spatially in the research area. Government environmental support has not compensated the farmers' revenue sacrifice completely. The technical efficiency scores of EFALP farms and conventional farms are 0.77 and 0.75, while that of allocative efficiency are 0.83 and 0.86, respectively. The economic efficiency scores of the EFALP farms and conventional farms are 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. Research results further indicate that the opportunity cost of protecting the environment can be said to have a negative impact on the economic efficiency. The variables of labor and farmland have been negatively affected the economic efficiency, while the effects of operating capital, age of operators, and family size seem positive. The study suggests creating regulatory framework providing opportunity to adjust government environmental support spatially based on the farm-level opportunity cost of protecting environment. Government practices should be developed by policymakers to supervise and control the farms participated in the environmental protection programs. Eliminating the conventional decision-making approach and replacing with environmental trade-off analysis-based decision-making techniques, involving stakeholders during the designing environmental policy, and sharing outputs of environmental trade-off analysis may increase the success of the environmental policy and programs. In addition, bringing away the goal mismatch of scientist and users by establishing bridge in between knowledge and action may increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos , Turquia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA