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2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199933

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is the causative agent of winter dysentery (WD). In adult dairy cattle, WD is characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea and a reduction in milk production. Therefore, WD leads to significant economic losses in dairy farms. In this study, we aimed to isolate and characterize local BCoV strains. BCoV positive samples, collected during 2017-2021, were used to amplify and sequence the S1 domain of S glycoprotein and the full hemagglutinin esterase gene. Based on our molecular analysis, local strains belong to different genetic variants circulating in dairy farms in Israel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all local strains clustered together and in proximity to other BCoV circulating in the area. Additionally, we found that local strains are genetically distant from the reference enteric strain Mebus. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing molecular data on BCoV circulating in Israel.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Disenteria/veterinária , Filogenia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Disenteria/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Israel/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 398, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250579

RESUMO

Milk serves as a significant source of protein for many families and aids in combating food insecurity. However, the demand for milk and milk-related products far exceeds the supply. The objective of the study was to evaluate dairy farm-workers' knowledge of factors responsible for culling and mortality of dairy cows in the Eastern Cape Province. Data was collected from 106 dairy farm-workers using a questionnaire. Any correctly answered question by the majority amounted to a point and a zero for incorrectly answered questions. Correct answering by the majority to more than half the questions of a subsection amounted to a pass. A less than 50% pass rate was considered a poor level of knowledge, 51-69% pass rate was considered an average level of knowledge, and anything higher than that was considered a good level of knowledge. Most farm-workers (66.0%) relied on their colleagues for dairy health information. Most dairy farm-workers (49.1%) indicated that lameness, milk fever (56.6%), and mastitis (47.2%) do not lead to culling and mortality of dairy cows. A majority (83%) of farm-workers agreed that reproduction problems, poor milk yield (77.3%), and age (81.1%) are the main reasons for culling dairy cows. The participants had varying perceptions and limited knowledge (28.3%) about the major contributing factors of culling and mortality. The lack of training courses and minimal use of other sources of information such as the internet might contribute to this poor knowledge and perceptions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 2075-2080, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060683

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) was diagnosed in a dairy herd after signs of acute gastroenteritis and sepsis. Two hundred eighty-three Holstein cattle were sampled resulting in 700 observations, and serology for S. Dublin was performed. Holstein cattle sampled were divided by origin and arrival date to determine on-farm exposure. Prevalence estimates were calculated and compared with control measures implemented on the dairy during the outbreak. One group of cows, presumed to be the original carrier animals, had the highest overall seroprevalence (76.5%). Seroprevalence decreased throughout the study, coinciding with testing and management changes. This report documents biosecurity measures that identified S. Dublin after the purchase of subclinical carrier cattle and the steps taken to successfully control herd transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Salmonella , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125214

RESUMO

Although more than 3 million head of dairy cows enter the food supply chain in the U.S. every year, research on this topic remains limited and scarce. Meat production from dairy cows is a significant component of beef production, accounting for almost 10% of U.S. commercial beef production. Thus, the purpose of this review is to demonstrate the importance of dairy cows as a beef source, and to provide an overview on topics from farm to meat product-culling, marketing, transportation, welfare, body composition and its relationship with lactation particularities, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and traceability. Current scientific evidence has shown that culling a dairy cow at an appropriate time has beneficial effects on cow welfare and, consequently, cow value. During marketing the dairy cow is visually evaluated for health and factors associated with its expected carcass value; thus, marketing a well-conditioned cow will ensure that the animal is fit for transportation and provides high carcass yield. However, limitations such as low body condition score, lameness or mobility problems, and visual defects remain persistent. Even though beef harvest plants accommodate cows in all body composition states, the current carcass grade system does not reflect the mature cow industry needs. Therefore, improvement of the grading system could maximize carcass utilization and increase cow carcass value by recognizing subprimal cuts that could be merchandised as whole muscle cuts. Lastly, implementation of a traceability system would unify information from the farm to harvest assisting the industry in making further advancements.


Assuntos
Lactação , Carne , Animais , Composição Corporal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Transportes
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076182

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to evaluate the spatial distribution of bedding variables in a climate-controlled compost bedded pack barn (CBP) equipped with an evaporative cooling system associated with a tunnel ventilation mode. The study was conducted on a farm in the West Mesoregion of Minas, MG, Brazil. The interior of the animal facility was divided into a mesh of 120 equidistant points, where the bedding surface temperature (tb-sur), the bedding temperature at 0.20 m depth (tb-20) and the bedding penetration resistance (PRb) of layer 0 to 0.20 m depth were measured. Bedding samples were collected to obtain the moisture (Mb) and pH in the surface and at 0.20 m depth. Geostatistics technique was used to evaluate the dependence and spatial distribution. Through the bedding area, the tb-sur presented low variability, with 6 ºC of amplitude, and tb-20 presented highest values (up to 55 °C). The spatial distribution of Mb-20 was similar to that observed on the surface and its highest levels occurred in the region near the feed alley (> 40%). The distribution of pH was similar in both layers. The tendency of high PRb occurred in the layer between 0.15 and 0.20 m (0 and 1500 kPa).


Assuntos
Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Brasil , Abrigo para Animais
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3248, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059677

RESUMO

Water scarcity is rapidly spreading across the planet, threatening the population across the five continents and calling for global sustainable solutions. Water reclamation is the most ecological approach for supplying clean drinking water. However, current water purification technologies are seldom sustainable, due to high-energy consumption and negative environmental footprint. Here, we review the cutting-edge technologies based on protein nanofibrils as water purification agents and we highlight the benefits of this green, efficient and affordable solution to alleviate the global water crisis. We discuss the different protein nanofibrils agents available and analyze them in terms of performance, range of applicability and sustainability. We underline the unique opportunity of designing protein nanofibrils for efficient water purification starting from food waste, as well as cattle, agricultural or dairy industry byproducts, allowing simultaneous environmental, economic and social benefits and we present a case analysis, including a detailed life cycle assessment, to establish their sustainable footprint against other common natural-based adsorbents, anticipating a bright future for this water purification approach.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Nanofibras/química , Proteínas/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Indústria de Laticínios , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/química , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(6): 419-429, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The lying and rumination behavior of dairy cows is internationally used as an animal welfare indicator. Dairy cow housing in Switzerland is subordinated to detailed legal requirements. It is particularly described that the lying area for cows must be covered with a sufficient amount of bedding. In the current study, we investigated whether bedding depth influences the lying and rumination behavior and thus, the animal welfare of healthy dairy cows housed in tie stalls. Bedding depth was categorized as ≤ 2 cm and > 2 cm. The lying and rumination behavior of 145 cows from 33 farms was recorded and analyzed considering farm effects; 105 cows were housed on ≤ 2 cm bedding, and 40 cows on > 2 cm bedding. Cows on > 2 cm bedding had on average a one hour longer daily lying time compared with cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding (mixed-effects linear regression: mean difference [cows on > 2 cm bedding - cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding] = 60,7 min/d; standard error = 28,6 min/d; p-value = 0,037). The odds of a cow to lie while ruminating were significantly higher in cows on > 2 cm bedding against cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding (mixed-effects logistic regression: Odds ratio = 1,27; CI95% [1,17-1,38]; p-value 2 cm can make a significant difference in the lying and rumination behavior of healthy dairy cows housed in tie stalls. Consequently, the animal welfare of dairy cows in tie stalls is improved by providing at least 2 cm of bedding.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Suíça
9.
Animal ; 15(7): 100248, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098520

RESUMO

Minimising phosphorus (P) feeding to dairy cows can reduce feed costs and minimise water pollution without impairing animal performance. This study aimed to determine current P feeding practices and identify the barriers to and motivators for minimising P feeding on dairy farms, using Great Britain (GB) dairy farming as an example of diverse systems. Farmers (n = 139) and feed advisers (n = 31) were involved simultaneously in independent questionnaire surveys on P feeding in dairy farms. Data on the herd size, milk yield and concentrate fed were analysed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of farm classification, region, and feed professional advice. Chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between farm characteristics and implemented P feeding and management practices. Most farmers (72%) did not know the P concentration in their lactating cow's diet and did not commonly adopt precision P feeding practices, indicating that cows might have been offered dietary P in excess of recommended P requirement. Farmers' tendency to feed P in excess of recommendations increased with herd size, but so did their awareness of P pollution issues and likeliness of testing manure P. However, 68% of farmers did not analyse manure P, indicating that mineral P fertiliser application rates were not adjusted accordingly, highlighting the risk of P being applied beyond crops' requirement. Almost all farmers (96%) were willing to lower dietary P concentration but the uncertainty of P availability in feed ingredients (30%) and concerns over reduced cow fertility (22%) were primary barriers. The willingness to reduce dietary P concentrations was driven by the prospect of reducing environmental damage (28%) and feed costs (27%) and advice from their feed professionals (25%). Most farmers (70%) relied on a feed professional, and these farmers had a higher tendency to analyse their forage P. However, farmers of pasture-based systems relied less on feed professionals. Both farmers (73%) and feed advisers (68%) were unsatisfied with the amount of training on P management available. Therefore, the training on P management needs to be more available and the influence that feed professionals have over P feeding should be better utilised. Study findings demonstrate the importance of considering type of dairy farming systems when developing precision P feeding strategies and highlight the increasing importance of feed professionals in minimising P feeding.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Agricultura , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Leite/química , Fósforo/análise , Reino Unido
10.
Animal ; 15(7): 100274, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120073

RESUMO

Health and welfare impairments in dairy cows have been described to increase environmental impacts of milk production due to their negative effect on cow productivity. One of the welfare problems is heat stress, which is gaining importance even in temperate regions. While improving animal welfare may reduce emissions, the mitigation potential depends on the environmental costs associated with specific intervention measures. Taking abatement of heat stress as an example, the aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of implementing mechanical ventilation devices on the contribution potential of milk production to global warming (GWP), terrestrial acidification (TAP) and freshwater eutrophication (FEP). Environmental impacts of two modelled production systems located in alpine and lowland production areas of Austria were estimated before and after the implementation of basket fans, using life cycle assessment. Region-specific climate data were retrieved to determine the number of days with heat stress and to evaluate heat stress-induced productivity shortfalls in the baseline scenario (Sbasic). In the intervention scenario with increased ventilation (Svent), this decline was assumed to be eliminated due to the convective cooling effect of fans. For Sbasic, mean GWP, TAP and FEP impacts were estimated at 1.2 ± 0.09 kg CO2-, 21.1 ± 1.44 g SO2- and 0.1 ± 0.04 g P-equivalents per kg milk, respectively. Independent from the production system, in Svent, implementation of fans did not result in significant environmental impact changes, except for FEP of the alpine system (+5.9%). The latter reflects the comparatively high environmental costs of additional cooling regarding FEP (+2.3%) in contrast to GWP (+0.4%) and TAP (+0.1%). In conclusion, the estimated overall effects of mechanical ventilation on GWP, TAP and FEP of milk production were minor and the model calculations point to the potential of heat stress abatement to at least outweigh the environmental costs associated with fan production and operation. To confirm this trend, further assessments are needed, which should be based on primary data regarding the effectiveness of fan cooling to improve cow productivity, and on emission calculation schemes that are sensitive to environmental factors such as wind speed and temperature.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Áustria , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Leite
11.
Animal ; 15(7): 100277, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126385

RESUMO

Monitoring individual cow feed intake is necessary for calculating the cow individual feed efficiency. The cost and maintenance time necessary for research systems make them impractical for most of the commercial producers. We developed a measurement system with producer convenience and low investment as key design criteria. The goal of this study was to design the system and validate its ability to rank cows by their feed conversion efficiency in commercial farms. The new system consisted of three principal parts: (a) a hanging weighing system, (b) a visual cow identification system and (c) an automatic cleaning system. The weighing system consisted of hanging a single load cell to provide feed mass measurements. The image-based cow identification system (replacing Radio-Frequency Identification) entailed cameras installed above the feeding area and an image processing algorithm that recognized cows by their collar numbers. The new system worked within normal farm routines: the feed supplying truck distributed the animal feed, and a tractor cleaned feed residual. To validate the accuracy and convenience of the system and to rank the cows by their efficiency, an experiment with six scales and 12 cows was conducted in a research barn, succeeded by eight-scale system in a commercial farm with 16 cows. The feed intake of each cow participating in the experiments was monitored for one month. The validation experiment showed that the system had the following specification: scales were accurate within 120 g; the visual cow identification rate was greater than 96%; feeding duration was accurate to 52 s; and routine farm practices (feed distribution, pushing, and residual removal) continued as usual. The cost for a feeding station (utilized consequently for a number of cows) was about 1 500 USD. An example of application of the system to rank cows by their efficiency under commercial conditions was shown. The system can potentially be used for ranking cows by their efficiency in commercial facilities.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Comportamento Alimentar , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Leite
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 2045-2060, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955540

RESUMO

The United States regulates the use of antibiotics in agricultural settings to address the global antibiotic resistance problem. Conventional dairy cows treated with antibiotics are kept in the herd and after the withholding period milk is harvested. On organic farms, the US organic standard on antibiotic use requires sick dairy cows to be treated, but treated cows must be removed from the herd and their milk can never again be sold as certified organic. This study investigated the US public's perceptions of the organic dairy farming, antibiotic use on dairy farms, and whether these perceptions affect consumer's self-reported purchasing behavior for organic. We used a nationally representative phone-based survey of 1000 US adults and characterized participants' self-reported (i) knowledge of the legality of antibiotic use on dairy farms (conventional and organic) and (ii) frequency of purchasing organic instead of conventional dairy products, as well as several demographic and other variables. The results indicated that participants' knowledge about antibiotic use practices in dairy farming have no effect on their self-reported purchasing behavior for organic or conventional dairy products. However, respondents who were familiar with the regulations of antibiotic use on dairy farms were more likely to oppose the US organic standard on antibiotic use in dairy farming and thought that past antibiotic use should not permanently remove a cow's organic status. These findings contribute to understanding of public perceptions that shape the US dairy organic market. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Income, employment, health and political values, but not consumers' knowledge about antibiotic use in dairy farming, affect self-reported purchasing behavior for organic dairy products. However, consumers who are familiar with the regulations of antibiotic use on US dairy farms disagree with the US organic standard on antibiotic use mandating loss of organic status for any cattle treated with antibiotics. These findings may be useful to organic markets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/normas , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Comportamento do Consumidor , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Agricultura Orgânica/normas , Opinião Pública , Autorrelato , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Humanos
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 8885-8900, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053765

RESUMO

The association between dry period length (DPL) and time to culling and pregnancy in the subsequent lactation may be important for the economically optimal length of the dry period. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) quantify the association between DPL and hazard of culling and pregnancy in the subsequent lactation; (2) develop continuous functions of DPL for the hazard ratios of culling and pregnancy; and (3) investigate the effect of a cause-specific hazards model and a subdistribution model to analyze competing events. The data used in this observational cohort study were from dairy herd improvement milk test lactation records from 40 states in the United States. After edits, there remained 1,108,515 records from 6,730 herds with the last days dry in 2014 or 2015. The records from 2 adjacent lactations (current, subsequent) were concatenated with the DPL of interest, 21 to 100 d, in between both lactations. We defined 8 DPL categories of 10 d each. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to show associations between DPL and time to culling or pregnancy for 3 lactation groups: lactation 1 and 2, lactation 2 and 3, and lactation 3 and greater. To control for confounding factors in Cox proportional models, we included 6 current lactation covariates and 3 time-dependent variables in the survival models. Hazard ratios of culling were estimated for 4 days in milk (DIM) categories from 1 to 450 DIM. Hazard ratios of pregnancy were estimated for 3 DIM categories from 61 to 300 DIM. Competing risk analysis of 8 disposal codes (i.e., farmer reported reasons) for culling and the culling event for pregnancy were conducted by a cause-specific hazards model and a subdistribution model. Hazard ratios were also estimated as quadratic polynomials of DPL. Compared with the reference DPL category of 51 to 60 d, hazard ratios of culling and pregnancy of the other 7 DPL categories ranged between 0.70 and 1.49, and 0.93 and 1.15, respectively. Short DPL were associated with lower risk of culling in the early lactation but not over the entire lactation. Short DPL were associated with greater hazard of pregnancy. Trends in hazard ratios over the ranges of the 8 DPL categories were not always consistent. Competing risk analysis with both models provided little differences in hazard ratios of culling and pregnancy. In conclusion, variations in DPL were associated with meaningful differences in the hazard ratios for culling and pregnancy and minor differences in the relative frequency of disposal codes. Subdistribution hazards models produced hazard ratios similar to cause-specific hazard models. The quadratic polynomials may be useful for decision support on customization of DPL for individual cows.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tempo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 8931-8946, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934855

RESUMO

In this study, our objectives were to evaluate the economic feasibility of implementing selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) in large US herds and to estimate the potential reduction in antibiotic use around the dry period if SDCT management is adopted. Cow-level data were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (AgriTech, Visalia, CA) and individual dairy herds in California. Logistic regression models were used to predict the incidence risk of subclinical and clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation for 96 last test-day somatic cell score categories. Linear programming was used to optimize the costs of dry cow therapy in 3 simulated large US dairy herds with different bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The objective function was aimed at minimization of the total cost of mastitis around the dry period (TCMD), under a varying constraint of the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics. A sensitivity analysis was performed on milk price, dry-off antibiotic price, and risk ratio of mastitis in the subsequent lactation when no antibiotics and only teat sealant was used at dry-off. For all situations, blanket dry cow therapy was more expensive than SDCT. In a herd with medium BTSCC, the TCMD was $54.7 per primiparous dry cow and $58.5 per multiparous dry cow annually. In the optimal economic situation where SDCT was used, only 30% of primiparous cows received antibiotics, leading to a TCMD of $52.4 per primiparous dry cow, whereas 88% of multiparous cows received antibiotics, at a cost of $58.2 per multiparous dry cow. This corresponded with an overall reduction of 29% in the use of antibiotics around the dry period in a conservative scenario. This study showed that it is economically feasible to reduce antibiotic use associated with dry cow therapy in large US dairy herds. This contributes to the efforts of reducing antibiotic use worldwide.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Leite
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9355-9361, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934868

RESUMO

Increasing milking frequency (MF) increases milk yield (MY) and farm profit, and optimal milking intervals (MI) prevent milk production decline. The objective of this experiment was to compare the MY effect of even and uneven 4 times daily (4×) MI in early lactation under increased MF. Fourteen multiparous and 6 primiparous cows were milked using unilateral frequent milking, with right udder halves milked 4× and left udder halves milked 2 times daily (2×) for 20 d in early lactation starting on d 5 postpartum. Ten (7 multiparous and 3 primiparous) cows were allocated evenly based on parity and assigned to either the even or the uneven MI groups distinguished by intervals of 9:3:9:3 h or 6:6:6:6 h. The left and right udder halves were milked at 0100 and 1300 h. The right udder glands were additionally milked at 0400 and 1600 h for the uneven MI group and at 0700 and 1900 h for the even MI group. Milk from each udder half was weighed and sampled for components on the final day of treatment and at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 d in milk. The overall effect of 4× milking on the right udder halves was a 5.96 ± 0.70 kg/d increase in MY on d 21 of unilateral frequent milking compared with the 2× udder halves. This elevated MY continued through 300 d in milk and averaged 1.56 ± 0.70 kg/d. Increased MF in early lactation increased the udder half difference in total yield throughout a 300-d lactation by 508 kg for milk, 25 kg for milk fat, and 15 kg for milk protein. Increased MF in early lactation increased milk component yields, but there were no differences between MI groups. The lack of treatment difference may be beneficial to farmers. The ability to achieve the same increased MY effect with uneven MI may optimize labor efficiency because early-lactation cows could be milked at the beginning and end of milking sessions. Farmers would not have to add additional milking sessions to achieve the enhanced MY response regardless of normal milking session length.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Leite , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9037-9051, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985777

RESUMO

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of disorders in preweaned calves in 3 regions in Germany, exemplary for structural diversity in dairy farming. A farm visit was performed on a single occasion on 731 dairy farms in the northern, eastern, and southern regions of Germany between December 2016 and July 2019. Farms differed in herd size, geographical location, and management. In the northern region, the farms had a median of 90 milking cows and were often run as full-time family businesses, partly with external workers. The eastern region tended to have larger farms (a median of 251 milking cows), which were often large-scale agricultural enterprises with employees. In the southern region, the farms had a median of 39 milking cows and were often traditional family businesses, some of these being part-time businesses. Clinical examinations were performed on 14,164 preweaned dairy calves (median 12 calves per farm) by trained veterinarians. A complete data set was available for 13,656 calves. Almost half (42.0%) of the evaluated calves were classified as being affected by at least 1 of the common calf disorders. Omphalitis (O, 20.9%; n = 2,876) and diarrhea (D, 18.5%; n = 2,670) were the most frequently recorded diagnoses, whereas respiratory diseases (RD) were observed to a lesser extent (8.7%; n = 1,100). A striking feature was the fact that 7.1% (n = 987) of the calves were affected by more than 1 disorder at the same time (multimorbidity, M). The following combinations of disorders were frequently observed: O and D (n = 596), O and RD (n = 164), and D and RD (n = 140). Disorders such as O and D, as well as M, were predominantly observed in calves aged 2 wk. A gradual increase in the frequency of RD was observed with age. For all disorders except RD, male calves were more often affected than females. Omphalitis was predominantly diagnosed in the summer months, whereas RD, D, and M were more common in the fall. We detected several statistically significant differences in the prevalence of clinical signs and disorders in preweaned dairy calves between the 3 exemplary regions. The prevalence of RD was higher in the south (10.8%) than in the north (8.2%) and east (7.4%). In the north (33.2%), O was observed more frequently than in the other regions (east: 18.9%; south: 10.5%), whereas D was found less frequently in the north (13.8%) than in the east (21.6%) and south (20.0%).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Leite , Prevalência
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 8870-8884, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024604

RESUMO

The objective of this systems-scale study was to investigate grazing season timeframes on pasture and milk production and on milk processability of dairy systems with compact spring-calving dairy cows grazing white clover (Trifolium repens L.) based grassland. Fifty-four primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a one-factor study with 3 systems (n = 18) and repeated over 2 yr (2008/09 and 2009/10). The 3 systems were: early spring calving with annual fertilizer N input of 100 kg·ha-1 applied in spring (ES100N; 2.1 cows·ha-1; grazing February to November), early spring calving without fertilizer N (ES0N; 1.6 cows·ha-1; grazing February to November) and late spring calving without fertilizer N (LS0N; 1.53 cows·ha-1; grazing April to January). Annual pasture production was affected by an interaction between grazing system and year: Mean annual pasture yields for 2008 and 2009 were ES100N; 10.35 and 9.88, ES0N; 8.88 and 8.63, LS0N; 9.18 and 10.31 t of dry matter (DM)·ha-1 (SEM 0.39). LS0N had higher pasture DM yield in 2009 due to higher clover DM production and biological N fixation compared with the other systems. Clover stolon and root mass in the following February was correlated with stolon and root mass in the previous November with 64% of stolon mass present on LS0N in February (R2 = 0.84). There were no detectable differences in per-lactation milk yield (6,335 kg·cow-1), fat, protein and lactose yields (271, 226, 297 kg·cow-1, respectively), cow liveweight (585 kg) or body condition score (3.02). Although winter grazing favored subsequent clover DM production, biological N fixation and pasture DM production, delaying calving date in spring and extending lactation into the following winter led to inefficient use of this pasture by the grazing herd and lowered the quality of late-lactation milk for processing purposes. Hence, a mean calving date in mid- to late-February is recommended for zero-fertilizer N input clover-based grassland.


Assuntos
Trifolium , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Lactação , Medicago , Leite , Nitrogênio , Poaceae , Estações do Ano
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9173-9184, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024607

RESUMO

Digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe bacterial hoof disease found worldwide. The disease can be classified into 5 different stages, denoted as M1 to M4 and M4.1, by clinical examination. The main objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of DD lesions in Finnish freestall dairy cattle population through hind feet inspection of standing cows with a mirror. Another aim was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of mirror scoring on standing cows in a pen or in a milking parlor without washing the feet. Three veterinarians visited 81 randomly selected herds across the country. During the herd visits, hind feet of standing cows (n = 7,010) were scored with a mirror without washing the feet, either when the cows were standing in a pen (n = 4,992) or in the milking parlor (n = 2018). In total, 128 cows (111 from pen and 17 from milking parlor) including 256 feet were chosen with cross-sectional sampling and scored in a trimming chute. Animal-level sensitivity for scoring M2 lesions with a mirror was 55% and specificity was 97%; for all active DD lesions (M1, M2, or M4.1), sensitivity was 36% and specificity was 96%. Sensitivity for scoring any DD lesions was 90% and specificity was 82%. The bias-corrected sensitivity and specificity for scoring any DD lesions were 79% and 92%, respectively. The bias-corrected sensitivity and specificity for scoring M2 DD lesions were 10% and 100%. We found M2 lesions in 12.1% of the study herds, and true herd-level prevalence was the same. Altogether, 33.3% (true prevalence 28.4%) of the herds had either M1, M2, or M4.1 DD lesions. However, only 0.7% (true prevalence 5.4%) of cows in total had active M2 lesions. The within-herd prevalence of M2 lesions (in herds where at least 1 cow had a M2 lesion) was 5.7% and varied between 0.4% and 18.8%. Herds with active DD lesions also had more any DD lesions than herds without active DD lesions. The herd-level prevalence was higher than previously thought, with only 1 herd without any DD lesions. However, the animal-level prevalence of active DD lesions was relatively low. Farmers and veterinarians need to be informed of the disease and possible control measures. Because of the low within-herd prevalence, the control of the disease might be easier than in countries where DD is widespread. Further studies are needed to identify factors associated with DD prevalence in Finnish dairy herds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(8): 9082-9092, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024610

RESUMO

Transiently increased teat wall thickness in response to machine milking has been documented by various methods, including ultrasound. However, correlative ultrasonography and histology to detect the origin of this phenomenon is lacking. The first goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare milking-related changes of the teat tissue in 2 breeds of dairy cows (11 Simmental and 3 Holstein) using B-mode ultrasonography. Additionally, the observed changes were compared with ultrasonographic findings in a Holstein cow with periparturient udder edema. Finally, corresponding histological sections of the Simmental teats were analyzed and compared with those from a lactating nonmilked Angus cow. We hypothesized that the mechanical load of both stretching by the vacuum during phases of open teat cup liner and compression by the closed liner during machine milking results in a transient congestion of blood vessels in the teat wall. The barrel of 1 front teat of each cow was scanned immediately before and after machine milking (system vacuum: 42 kPa; pulsation rate: 60 cycles/min; pulsation ratio: 65:35). Shortly after milking (33 ± 6 min), the Simmentals were slaughtered, and their scanned teat was immediately removed and processed for investigation by light microscopy. Ultrasonography after milking revealed anechoic tubular structures mainly in the inner half of the teat wall. Histological examination revealed these structures to be thick-walled veins. The left front and hind teats of the nonmilked lactating cow, collected and prepared identically to those from the Simmental cows, showed the same histological features. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that the diameter of these veins significantly increased after milking compared with matching images before milking. This effect was most pronounced in the Holstein cows. Similarly, these veins were very prominent in the periparturient cow. However, neither the milked cows, including the periparturient cow, nor the lactating nonmilked cow provided any evidence of edematous extravasation on ultrasonography or histology. These findings corroborated our hypothesis that the increase in size of thick-walled veins in the teat tissue is the main reason for the thickening of the teat walls in response to machine milking.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Mamilos
20.
J Agromedicine ; 26(3): 352-359, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969812

RESUMO

Dairy farms that had participated in previous and ongoing projects with the National Farm Medicine Center (NFMC), Migrant Clinicians Network (MCN), and Upper Midwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center (UMASH) were asked to participate in a 17-question survey by phone or email to investigate biosecurity principles on Minnesota and Wisconsin dairy farms in response to COVID-19 and the effects of the pandemic on the dairy industry. Three additional farms were recruited via a press release published in agricultural newsletters. Of 76 farms contacted, 37 chose to participate in this study from June to July 2020. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, dairies have implemented or increased biosecurity measures and COVID-19 precautions. Dairies reported adequate personal protective equipment for their workers, though face masks were not required on most dairies (n = 32, 86%). Producers were concerned about the safety of their families, maintaining a healthy workforce, and keeping their farms profitable. Access to healthcare was not perceived to be an issue for their workers. One-quarter of dairies reported COVID-19 infections on their farms. Even though the majority had an isolation protocol in place if someone on the farm were to become ill, less than half of respondents felt their farm was protected against COVID-19. Two-thirds of producers have not had to decrease production, and a majority of operations have not furloughed or terminated employees due to COVID-19. Our data suggest that dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin have implemented biosecurity and safety measures in response to COVID-19. These measures can be improved. Farms would benefit from additional guidance and education on implementation of personal protective measures and disease prevention strategies to keep workers employed and safe.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , SARS-CoV-2 , Fazendas , Humanos , Minnesota , Pandemias , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes , Wisconsin
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