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1.
BMJ ; 368: m345, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019763
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 57-62, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971929

RESUMO

In 2017, nearly 38,000 persons of working age (16-64 years) in the United States died by suicide, which represents a 40% rate increase (12.9 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 18.0 in 2017) in less than 2 decades.* To inform suicide prevention, CDC analyzed suicide data by industry and occupation among working-age decedents presumed to be employed at the time of death from the 32 states participating in the 2016 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS).†,§ Compared with rates in the total study population, suicide rates were significantly higher in five major industry groups: 1) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (males); 2) Construction (males); 3) Other Services (e.g., automotive repair) (males); 4) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (males); and 5) Transportation and Warehousing (males and females). Rates were also significantly higher in six major occupational groups: 1) Construction and Extraction (males and females); 2) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair (males); 3) Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media (males); 4) Transportation and Material Moving (males and females); 5) Protective Service (females); and 6) Healthcare Support (females). Rates for detailed occupational groups (e.g., Electricians or Carpenters within the Construction and Extraction major group) are presented and provide insight into the differences in suicide rates within major occupational groups. CDC's Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices (1) contains strategies to prevent suicide and is a resource for communities, including workplace settings.


Assuntos
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 109997, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929047

RESUMO

China's economic development has entered a "new normal" stage where economic growth has slowed down. In this context, China's local authorities and industry circles are particularly concerned about the impact of emissions trading scheme (ETS), China's first major market-based approach to control greenhouse gas emissions, on competitiveness. This paper contributes to the thin empirical studies on this issue from the perspective of China's provincial industrial sub-sectors. We divide the industry of each province into 37 sub-sectors and screen the actual industrial sub-sector coverage of China's pilot ETSs. Taking advantage of the rich information of sub-sector characteristics and the longitudinal structure of our dataset over 2005-2015, we use a combination of propensity score matching technique and difference-in-difference models to analyze the impact of China's pilot ETSs on gross industrial output value (GIOV) and employment. Empirical results indicate that China's pilot ETSs have exerted a negative impact on the GIOV, and production cut is still the major approach to achieve carbon emission reductions. We also find China's pilot ETSs have led to a significant decrease in employment of the covered industrial sub-sectors. Several robustness checks confirm our findings. Further, our discussions suggest that in the short term, China's pilot ETSs have not promoted the "decoupling" of carbon emissions and economic outputs in industrial sub-sectors. While achieving carbon emission reductions, the pilot ETSs have failed to avoid a negative impact on competitiveness. Lastly, we suggest that competent authorities should prudently tailor the quota allocation methods according to sectorial conditions and consider setting up compensation measures, and covered enterprises should incorporate low-carbon development concept and address the challenges proactively from the long run.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Indústrias , Carbono , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico
4.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125266, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896197

RESUMO

Determining the reliable source contribution and spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a focal issue for soil regulation and remediation. For this purpose, three receptor models, US-EPA positive matrix factorization (EPAPMF), weighted alternating least squares positive matrix factorization (WALSPMF), and non-negative constrained absolutely principle analysis (NCAPCA), were used to a dataset consisting of ten PTEs (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) for source apportionment. Hazardous areas of ten PTEs were delineated using sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and uncertainty analysis. Three factors for ten PTEs were derived by three receptor models with a one-to-one correspondence between the factors. To obtain more appropriate results, the three receptor models were combined to calculate the ensemble-average source contributions. As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni were derived from a natural source with ensemble-average contributions higher than 85.72%. Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn were contributed by both parent material and anthropogenic influence. More than half of Hg concentrations were associated with atmospheric deposition caused by human emissions. The concentrations of 28.04% for Cd, 20.74% for Hg, 43.49% for Pb, and 23.71% for Zn were associated with human inputs including agriculture practice, industrial activities, and vehicle emissions. The maps of spatial distribution generated by the SIS indicated that parent materials controlled the spatial distributions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. 27.1% and 32.1% of the total area for Cd and Hg were identified as hazardous areas exceeding 1.5 times background values of Shandong province.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Indústrias , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Water Res ; 170: 115275, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759236

RESUMO

Wastewater from food processing facilities can have high nutrient valorisation potential. Valorising sugar-rich agro-industrial wastewater may have significant impacts on sustainability of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The objective of this study is to evaluate the environmental, economic and social impacts of a novel wastewater valorisation technology. This technology is designed to produce single cell protein (SCP) from wastewater of a fruit juice processing facility. To evaluate the comprehensive sustainability impacts on WWTP and overall background economy, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed by combining the multi-regional input-output database (Exiobase) with process-based life cycle inventories of conventional and AgroCycle WWTP. The results indicated the upstream impacts of wastewater could have significant influence on sustainability of WWTP with nutrient valorisation. Therefore the 'zero burden assumption' should not be adopted for upstream wastewater. For the sustainability performance, valorising nutrients from WWTP with AgroCycle technology can improve the environmental performance of WWTP. However, the positive social-economic impacts were directly associated with WWTP system, not the whole background economy. The production of SCP could reduce the Gross Value Added (GVA) and employment in the 'oil seeds sector'. In order to improve the social-economic impacts and promote a circular bioeconomy model in the fruit juice sector, further development is required to improve valorisation productivity and create a better value chain for valorised products.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Águas Residuárias , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122478, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810735

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under unbalanced growth conditions by various microorganisms. They are one of the most promising potential substitutes for conventional non-biodegradable plastics due to their similar physicochemical properties, but most important, its biodegradability. Production cost of PHAs is still a great barrier to extend its application at industrial scale. In order to reduce that cost, research is focusing on the use of several wastes as feedstock (such as agro-industrial and municipal organic waste and wastewater) in a platform based on mixed microbial cultures. This review provides a critical illustration of the state of the art of the most likely-to-be-scale-up PHA production processes using mixed microbial cultures platform and waste streams as feedstock, with a particular focus on both, upstream and downstream processes. Current pilot scale studies, future prospects, challenges and developments in the field are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Carbono , Indústrias , Águas Residuárias
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122496, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831257

RESUMO

Pulp and paper industry is swiftly budding to fulfill industrial needs and with the growth of this industry, a large amount of waste has also generated which includes biological sludge generated from the wood digestion process, fly ash accumulation and lime mud produced in chemical reagent recovery circuit. There are many health hazards associated with generated wastes and this waste material can be utilized in sustainable ways to generate useful resources through technological innovations. This review highlights a few useful aspects of waste conversion to resources like the production of green energy, sorbent development, and clinker preparation. The generation of resources from such wastes is a revolutionary and innovative concept for sustainable development including valorization of the generated waste to integrate pulp and paper industry with biorefinery. This review paper focuses on the sustainable utilization of waste from such industry along with its efficiency and future challenges.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Esgotos , Cinza de Carvão , Indústrias , Madeira
11.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124804, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541900

RESUMO

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most important water quality parameters that quantifies the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize oxidizable pollutants (mainly organics) in water samples. However, erroneous COD results were commonly observed for bromide-rich industrial wastewater samples using standard COD test. Bromide in water sample is known to seriously interfere with COD test. However, there is no satisfactory approach to effectively eliminate bromide interference thus far. In this study, two strategies, namely masking and correction, were investigated for their effectiveness to suppress bromide interference. For the masking strategy, silver ion was assessed for its effectiveness to neutralize bromide in water samples through precipitation and complex formation reactions. Silver ion offered only partial masking effect on bromide, while the residue bromide can still cause significant interference on COD determination. For the correction strategy, an equivalent redox reaction reflecting bromide interference mechanism was proposed, and a theoretical correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was found based on stoichiometry. The effectiveness of the proposed correction factor for bromide interference under different wastewater pollutant matrix was evaluated using different types of wastewater samples (synthetic wastewater, domestic wastewater and bromide-rich industrial wastewater) with varying amounts of bromide (from 0 to 2000 mg L-1) added to the samples. The findings showed that with bromide concentration up to 600 mg L-1, the correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was applicable to all the tested wastewater samples, suggesting that this correction strategy could be practically used to eliminate bromide interference in standard COD test.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Brometos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Indústrias , Oxigênio/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Qualidade da Água
12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124953, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574435

RESUMO

Chemical characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 is important to identify potential compounds that induce biological responses that translate into cardio-respiratory health problems. This study shows the reliability of the use of crystalline phases, identified in samples from receptor sites, as source markers, helping researchers to infer the main sources of air pollution, even without the use of receptor models. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at two sites in an urban industrialized region located at southeast of Brazil and analyzed by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction to identify crystalline compounds. Results show 5 PM10 and PM2.5 species not previously reported in the literature. We propose reaction mechanisms for these species and identify specific sources for each crystalline phase found: BaTiO3 was found in PM10 receptor samples and proved to be a vehicular marker formed during brake action; maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), pyracmonite [(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3], ammonium perchlorate (NH3OHClO4) and potassium ferrate (K2Fe2O4) were found in PM2.5 proved to be markers of industrial activities. The crystalline phases found in PM samples from receptor sites and the mechanisms of reactions showed the reliability of the use of crystalline phases as source markers in the identification of potential sources of air pollution without misinterpretation of the likely source.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Sulfato de Amônio/análise , Compostos de Bário/análise , Brasil , Compostos Férricos/análise , Indústrias , Compostos de Ferro/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Percloratos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síncrotrons , Titânio/análise , Difração de Raios X/métodos
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124669, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524613

RESUMO

Sugar production is a water intensive process that produces a large amount of wastewaters with high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), mostly consists of organic carbon compounds. Conventional treatment methods are limited to provide the necessary treatment of effluent COD to meet the regulatory limits prior to discharge. The treatment performance of electrooxidation (EO) and electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) for organic removal were investigated in a laboratory scale study. The experimental conditions were optimized for both EO and ECP using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and the models provided highly significant quadratic models for both treatment methods. The effects of pH, H2O2 dosage, current density, and operation time were investigated using BBD. The results showed that EO could remove 75% of organics at optimum conditions of pH 5.3; current density of 48.5 mA cm-2; and operation time of 393 min. The predicted values were in reasonable agreement with measured values. ECP could remove total and soluble COD and total and dissolved organic carbon by 65, 64, 66, and 63%, respectively at optimum conditions of H2O2 dosage of 21 mL L-1; current density of 48 mA cm-2; and operation time of 361 min. The methods were compared based on removal efficiency and energy consumption during operation.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/normas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Indústrias , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução , Açúcares , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/normas
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109838, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677564

RESUMO

Due to population growth and the considerable increase in usage of the resources, Human environment quality has been highly threatened by pollutants in recent decades. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread, persistent organic pollutants which are of great concern due to their carcinogenicity. The present study is the first investigation that assesses contamination, sources and cancer risk of 16 priority PAHs proposed by US EPA in urban dust samples (n = 80) taken in different land-uses of Tehran metropolis, the capital of Iran. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used to measure PAHs concentrations. The results showed that the average concentration of the total 16 PAHs and the average Benzo[a]pyrene total potency equivalency were 566 µg kg-1 dry weight and 36.4 µg kg-1, respectively. In the commercial and residential land-uses high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were dominated, whereas in green lands, light molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed maximum contribution. The highest concentration of total PAHs were observed in the commercial areas due to limited air circulation and heavy traffic loads. Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model was applied to evaluate the cancer risk of exposure to PAHs contaminated dust. Based on the results, Tehran's residents (children and adults) in various land-uses except for green lands, are in high potential cancer risk of PAHs via ingestion and dermal contact exposure routs. Ace, Chr, Pyr, and BghiP which are indicators of traffic emissions, were found to be predominant PAH contributors in urban dust of commercial areas. Also, Ace, Fl, Phe, and BghiP which are derived from fossil fuel combustion, were mainly observed in the industrial land-use. Based on the results of factor analysis and diagnostic ratios, Diesel/gasoline engine vehicular emissions and combustion were found to be the main sources of PAHs in urban dust of Tehran.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Gasolina/análise , Humanos , Indústrias , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109843, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678701

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in creosote oil are particularly difficult to remove from the soil environment. Their hydrophobic character and low bioavailability to soil microorganisms affects their rate of biodegradation. This study was performed on samples of soil that were (for over forty years) subjected to contamination with creosote oil, and their metagenome and physicochemical properties were characterized. Moreover, the study was undertaken to evaluate the biodegradation of PAHs by autochthonous consortia as well as by selected bacteria strains isolated from long-term contaminated industrial soil. From among the isolated microorganisms, the most effective in biodegrading the contaminants were the strains Pseudomonas mendocina and Brevundimonas olei. They were able to degrade more than 60% of the total content of PAHs during a 28-day test. The biodegradation of these compounds using AT7 dispersant was enhanced only by Serratia marcescens strain. Moreover, the addition of AT7 improved the effectiveness of fluorene and acenaphthene biodegradation by Serratia marcescens 6-fold. Our results indicated that long-term contact with aromatic compounds induced the bacterial strains to use the PAHs as a source of carbon and energy. We observed that supplementation with surfactants does not increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon biodegradation.


Assuntos
Caulobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Creosoto/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pseudomonas mendocina/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caulobacteraceae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Polônia , Pseudomonas mendocina/metabolismo , Solo/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124717, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499315

RESUMO

Long-term atmospheric measurement of 17 total (gaseous and particulate) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been made from 2007 to 2016 at five industrial and urban sites in Busan, South Korea, based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. In the present study, two pooled datasets covering a combination of 2 industry sites and 3 urban sites have been subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) to identify and quantify the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Additionally, PMF has been applied to the industrial urban dataset consisting of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCDD/Fs. The results show that the sum of PCDD/F mass (Σ17PCDD/Fs) at the industrial sites is determined by five major sources: non-ferrous metal production (33.7%), diesel vehicle emissions (30.2%), ferrous metal production (22.4%), other industrial emissions (11.1%), and traffic emissions (2.6%), while the PAH mass (Σ16PAHs) is predominantly associated with emissions from coal combustion, followed by traffic emissions. At the urban sites, the largest contribution to the Σ17PCDD/Fs was observed from transported emissions being emitted from metallurgical industry (75.5%), followed by diesel vehicle emissions (24.5%). The application of congener-specific toxicity to PCDD/F mass (Σ17fg I-TEQ Sm-3) indicates enhanced contributions from the ferrous metallurgical emission factor associated with penta- and hexa-chlorinated furans across the study sites.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia , Urbanização , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124757, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726607

RESUMO

In this study, in order to determine atmospheric PAH concentrations in Inegol/Turkey, ambient air samples were collected from two different sites representing industrial and uncontrolled furniture manufacturers regions. Sampling campaign took place between December 2017 and November 2018. Air samples were collected using high volume air samplers (HVAS) and PAH concentrations were determined in both gas and particulate phases. The mean of the atmospheric PAH concentrations obtained in the gas phase in the furniture workshops (FW) and industrial district (ID) regions were 697.82 ±â€¯637 ng/m3 and 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3, respectively. The concentrations in the particulate phase in the regions were 413.52 ±â€¯430.23 ng/m3 and 342.40 ±â€¯527.48 ng/m3, respectively. The average total (gas + particlulate phases) concentration of ∑16PAH determined in the site of FW was 1111.34 ±â€¯1045.24 ng/m3 while that was 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3 in ID. These values are over the ambient levels reported for urban sites wherein big industries exist around the world. Additionally, the average of particle phase percentage was 30% because of nearby combustion sources. The determination of possible sources of PAHs in the regions was performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA results showed that the main sources of pollutants of the regions are intertwined (combustion, traffic, industries). However, the most effective source is thought to be uncontrolled combustion of furniture wastes as fuel for residential heating. Health risks for the citizens were calculated for both regions and were found not to be at high-class risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Turquia
19.
Gen Dent ; 68(1): 56-60, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859664

RESUMO

The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to characterize the amounts and types of healthcare industry payments made to dental care providers in 2017. Data were collected from the Open Payments database of the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Dentists were classified as providing general services or services in 1 of 9 specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (prior to the recognition of dental anesthesiology). The value and nature of each payment made to providers were recorded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Distributions across dental specialties were compared with analyses of variance. In 2017, US dentists received a total of 321,627 industry payments totaling $110,750,601. The most money was spent on service fees ($37,333,870; 33.7%), followed by consulting fees ($12,983,013; 11.7%) and royalties and licenses ($11,426,776; 10.3%). Each provider received a median payment of $63.27 (range, $0.21-$22,931,027.12) spread over 2 payments (range, 1-285). Participation rates among dental specialists ranged from 19% to 62%, and the highest rates were found among orthodontists (61.8%), oral and maxillofacial surgeons (55.7%), and periodontists (54.6%). The greatest median payments per provider were made to specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology ($187.52), periodontics ($127.31), and oral and maxillofacial surgery ($123.39). The mean number (P < 0.01) and amount of payments (P < 0.01) per provider differed significantly across all specialties. The majority of dentists in this study received less than $200; however, the distribution of payments was positively skewed by a few top earners. The effect of these payments on clinical practice remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Economia em Odontologia , Indústrias/economia , Idoso , Odontologia , Honorários e Preços , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Medicare , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109540, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665687

RESUMO

Despite the considerable Brazilian coastline and vast water transportation cargo and passenger capacity, Brazil currently does not have a satisfactory amount of research aimed at ship recycling markets, especially in the Amazon region. This study aims to characterize this market in Brazil through research and data filtering related to national vessel fleets. Fleet data were obtained from the National Agency of Waterway Transportation (ANTAQ). Quantitative spatialization of the fleet was based on geostatistical distribution that show the current state of this market potential in the country. According to the ANTAQ database, in Brazil, there are approximately 3.8 million tons of steel that are suitable for dismantling, and this steel is distributed among 5319 vessels. There is no disposal plan for these vessels, which can result in environmental and social harm, and creates business opportunities. In this research, the great potential of this market was characterized to contribute, under socially and environmental optics, to the better organization of this sector in the country. Today 36% of existing vessels in the country have been operating for more than 20 years, and operation is concentrated in two major poles: the first is in the north, which is influenced by the city of Manaus (Amazon Region), and the second is in the state of Rio de Janeiro which is influenced by the offshore market. Based on the total amount of lightweight (LDT) and the number of vessels, both that could be potentially considered for decommissioning, this research shows the Brazilian market has global potentiality to attract and retain the ship recycling industry.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Navios , Brasil , Cidades , Indústrias
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