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2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1693, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a concern in ferry shipping as it has a negative impact on crew members health and plays a major role in marine incidents and accidents. Research within land-based occupational settings has found that work-family conflict is an important risk factor for fatigue and that support from leaders constitutes a possible resource with the potential to buffer a negative impact from work-family conflict. Though, the working conditions of ferry shipping are likely to interfere with employee's family life those two factors have received little attention in research on seafarers' health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the direct associations between work-family conflict as well as leaders' support with fatigue in employees of the Danish ferry shipping industry. Further, the study aimed at testing whether support could buffer potential detrimental associations between work-family conflict and fatigue. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and 193 respondents answered to a self-administered questionnaire. Fatigue was measured with the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory. Perceived work-family conflict and perceived supervisor support were assessed with two subscales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The association of potential risk factors with fatigue was determined using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding, work-family conflict was found to be positively associated with four of the five subdimensions of fatigue; lack of energy, physical discomfort, lack of motivation and sleepiness, while more support from supervisors was related to less lack of energy, physical exhaustion and lack of motivation. Further, supervisor support was found to moderate the effect from work-family conflict on the physical subdimensions of fatigue. CONCLUSION: Although restricted by its cross-sectional design and a limited sample, this study provides support for the independent relevance of work family conflict and support from nearest superior for employee fatigue in ferry shipping. Further, there was evidence for a moderating role of such support on the negative impact of work-family conflict on the physical aspects of fatigue. Shipping companies may consider commencing initiatives which reduce conflicts between family life and work obligations, and that leader support may be a relevant component in such initiatives.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Família/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Indústrias/organização & administração , Navios , Apoio Social , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491886

RESUMO

Industrial chemicals differ in their treatment methods and types, depending on their physicochemical properties. Highly volatile chemicals are emitted despite installation of preventive facilities, such as scrubbers and adsorption towers. Some countries release a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), which is a mandatory report on the amount of chemicals emitted annually. This report is released to the citizens to ensure their right to knowledge and life. Numerous methods have been devised to investigate the amount of chemical emissions. There are four methods to estimate TRI emissions (Emission Factor Method; Material Balance Method; Source Testing Method; Emission Model Method). Moreover, efforts have been made to increase awareness and formulate plans to reduce chemical emissions. Despite this, the TRI method tends to underestimate and overestimate, especially due to volatile compounds. If the results of the TRI emissions are underestimated, toxic chemicals can have a negative impact on citizens. Volatile compounds are commonly used in chemical manufacturing plants, such as paint plants. In this study, a suitable method for each industrial process was suggested based on conservative estimates of multiple toxic chemical inventory method, focusing on the paint manufacturing process. In the paint manufacturing plant, storage, weighing, and mixing processes should be used emission model method to estimate TRI. In the reaction process, TRI must be estimated by the source test method. In the transfer process, the emission factor method should be used to estimate TRI. In the atmosphere prevention process, the emission factor method or source testing method should be used depending on the physical and chemical properties such as vapor pressure of the chemical.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Indústrias/organização & administração , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/organização & administração , Pintura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382549

RESUMO

In recent years, with the rapid development of the economy, industrial pollution problems have become more and more serious. This paper constructs an evolutionary game model for industrial pollution between the local governments and enterprises to study the dynamic evolution path of a game system and the evolutionary stable strategy under two punishment mechanisms. The results show that, in a static punishment mechanism (SPM), the strategy between governments and enterprises is uncertain. Moreover, the evolutionary trajectory between governments and enterprises is uncertain. However, under the dynamic punishment mechanism (DPM), the evolution path between governments and enterprises tends to converge to a stable value. Thus, the DPM is more conducive than the SPM for industrial pollution control.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , Indústrias/organização & administração , Modelos Estatísticos , Punição , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/normas
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30252-30267, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428964

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of government environmental regulation and industrial structure changes on carbon dioxide emissions, this research analyzes annual data over the period 2003-2015 covering 30 provinces in China (except for Tibet) with the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model. The empirical results show obvious non-linear effects of environmental regulation and industrial structure on carbon dioxide emission. Taking the effects of both linearity and non-linearity into consideration, environmental regulation will reduce carbon emissions with the change of industrial structure rationalization (SR). When the level of industrial structure optimization (SH) is low, environmental regulation promotes carbon dioxide emissions. When the level of industrial structure optimization (SH) is high, environmental regulation plays a significant inhibitive role on carbon dioxide emissions. The Kuznets relationship between GDP per capita (PGDP) and carbon dioxide emissions is influenced by local industrial structure rationalization and industrial structure optimization. Therefore, environmental regulation policies suitable for local conditions should be made based on the transition of the local industrial structure.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Indústrias/organização & administração , China , Tibet
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461936

RESUMO

From the perspective of green growth, which seeks to coordinate and make sustainable the development of resources, the environment, and the economy, this study's aim was to find out whether the high-tech industry along the Belt and Road (B&R) is sustainable and effective in using resources, reducing environmental pollution, and increasing performance. This study used panel data covering 16 provinces (municipalities) along the B&R in China between 2009 and 2016. This study used the directional distance function (DDF) and the global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index model to analyze the technological innovation efficiency (TIE) of the high-tech industry (HTI) while considering the undesirable output (environmental pollution). Further, supplemented by ArcGIS geographical analysis, this study carried out a comparative analysis of the TIE and its decomposition in the HTI along the B&R from geographical and time-series dimensions. Moreover, the panel Tobit regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of TIE. The results show that the direct financial support of the government has no impact on the improvement of TIE in the HTI, the government's regulation of environmental pollution can significantly affect the improvement of the TIE, the intensity of R&D has a significantly negative impact on the TIE, a higher level of R&D personnel in the HTI can be helpful in improving TIE, and increasing the import and export trade volumes of the HTI can promote TIE.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Eficiência Organizacional , Indústrias/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 758, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs). RESULTS: The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Indústrias/organização & administração , Autonomia Profissional , Apoio Social , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934700

RESUMO

The carbon emission problem in China needs to be solved urgently. Industrial symbiosis, as an effective means to improve resource efficiency, can better alleviate the carbon emission problem. Under such a circumstance, this paper regards an industrial symbiosis system as a collection of producers, consumers and decomposers, and analyzes the strategic selections and behavioral characteristics of their carbon emission reduction activities through a tripartite evolutionary game model, and then the effects of related parameters on the evolutionary stable strategies of stakeholders are discussed. The results demonstrate that: (1) the regular return and the rate of return determine the ability of stakeholders to undertake carbon reduction activities; (2) the initial willingness of stakeholders to participate will affect the evolutionary speed of the strategies; (3) a high opportunity cost reduces the inertia of stakeholders to carry out carbon emission reductions; (4) producers, consumers and decomposers can avoid "free rides" by signing agreements or adopting punitive measures.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Indústrias/organização & administração , Relações Interinstitucionais , China
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935121

RESUMO

In this paper, a vector autoregression (VAR) model has been constructed in order to analyze a two-way mechanism between PM2.5 pollution and industry development in Beijing via the combination of an impulse response function and variance decomposition. According to the results, long-term equilibrium interconnection was found between PM2.5 pollution and the development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. One-way Granger causalities were found in the three types of industries shown to contribute to PM2.5 pollution, though the three industries showed different scales of influences on the PM2.5 pollution that varied for about 1⁻2 years. The development of the primary and secondary industries increased the emission of PM2.5, but the tertiary industry had an inhibitory effect. In addition, PM2.5 pollution had a certain inhibitory effect on the development of the primary and secondary industries, but the inhibition of the tertiary industry was not significant. Therefore, the development of the tertiary industry can contribute the most to the reduction of PM2.5 pollution. Based on these findings, policy-making recommendations can be proposed regarding upcoming pollution prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Indústrias/organização & administração , Material Particulado/análise , Pequim , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais
13.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(5): 264, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917773

RESUMO

The updated Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) beryllium standard for general industry, construction, and shipyards reduced exposure limits for this known human carcinogen and became effective in 2018. Occupational and environmental health nurses need to monitor updates recently proposed for general industry to clarify implementation of the standard.


Assuntos
Berílio/efeitos adversos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/tendências , Humanos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Indústrias/tendências , Padrões de Referência , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/organização & administração
14.
Int J Health Serv ; 49(1): 142-164, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428268

RESUMO

This scoping review identified what kinds of work disability policy issues are critiqued in articles published in countries with cause-based versus comprehensive welfare systems. Drawing on a review of work disability policy research, we identified 74 English-language, peer-reviewed articles that focused on program adequacy and design. Articles on cause-based systems dwelled on system fairness and policies of proof of entitlement, while those on comprehensive systems focused more on system design complexities relating to worker inclusion and scope of medical certificates. Overall, we observed a clear difference in the nature of problems examined in the different systems. Gaps in work disability policy literature are identified, and challenges for comparative policy research are discussed.


Assuntos
Políticas , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/organização & administração , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Documentação/normas , Definição da Elegibilidade/normas , Órgãos Governamentais/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguradoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho , Fatores de Risco , Previdência Social/normas , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/normas
15.
Clin Ther ; 40(11): 1807-1812, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415863

RESUMO

In the field of medicine, cooperation between academia and industry has become increasingly important in order to create innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices. This paper presents an overview of academia-industry cooperation within the medical field in Japan. The overview begins with a brief history of the origins of academia-industry cooperation in Japan, and how it has developed up to the present day. It continues with examples of current academia-industry cooperation in the medical field. This includes details about organizations such as the Academic Research Organization (ARO) established by Japanese universities and the government to promote academia-industry cooperation; details about various matching events such as BioJapan; information about networks such as ARDENT, established to return results of basic research to society, and information about a case study by Kyushu University's Hospital Center for Clinical and Translational Research. It concludes by suggesting what will need to be done in the future to improve academia-industry cooperation in Japan.


Assuntos
Indústrias/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Governo , Humanos , Japão
16.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(11): 919-928, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the health- and safety-related experiences of specific occupations among non-union casino hotel employees to identify processes leading to worker health and safety risks. METHODS: Using purposive, criterion sampling, 61 workers participated in 13 recorded focus groups (FGs). A semi-structured topic guide addressed work-related health and safety impacts, workplace hazards, and management responses, among others. FG transcripts were analyzed following grounded theory methodology. Demographic and occupational health information was collected via survey. RESULTS: Codes (97) were collapsed into seven themes: activities/exposures negatively affecting health/safety; barriers to health/safety; injury/pain occurrences; coping mechanisms; job vulnerability; management policies/enforcement; lack of management concern for employees. From these themes emerged the Dynamic Theoretical Framework of Employee Health and Safety Risk. CONCLUSIONS: "Management's lack of concern" creates a negative environment whereby employer-controlled factors jeopardize employees' health and safety. Interventions targeting management's lack of concern for employee health and safety could favorably change work-based risks.


Assuntos
Indústrias/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador , Cultura Organizacional , Gestão da Segurança , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Sindicatos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
17.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202739, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157210

RESUMO

This paper studies the structure of the Japanese production network, which includes one million firms and five million supplier-customer links. This study finds that this network forms a tightly-knit structure with a core giant strongly connected component (GSCC) surrounded by IN and OUT components constituting two half-shells of the GSCC, which we call awalnut structure because of its shape. The hierarchical structure of the communities is studied by the Infomap method, and most of the irreducible communities are found to be at the second level. The composition of some of the major communities, including overexpressions regarding their industrial or regional nature, and the connections that exist between the communities are studied in detail. The findings obtained here cause us to question the validity and accuracy of using the conventional input-output analysis, which is expected to be useful when firms in the same sectors are highly connected to each other.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Indústrias/organização & administração , Japão
19.
New Solut ; 28(3): 515-538, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126335

RESUMO

Product warnings are theoretically designed to reduce injuries associated with occupational, environmental, or consumer product exposures. Unfortunately, in an effort to protect sales, some companies have produced media and information to falsely reassure their customers about the risks associated with their products. These tactics have been termed "anti-warnings." We reviewed corporate documents uncovered in litigation alongside other historical publications to ascertain the types of anti-warnings used by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) regarding their asbestos products. Our review finds that UCC went to great lengths to confuse their customers and make their particular asbestos product-which contained short-fiber, chrysotile asbestos-look safe. We discuss three primary communications methods UCC used: industry-produced publications, sales force direct communication with customers, and public speeches. These examples provide further insight into how corporations encourage uncertainty about the risks associated with their products. Understanding anti-warning methods is critical for the implementation of future policies that protect consumer, worker, and environmental health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Comunicação , Indústrias/organização & administração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Segurança , Incerteza
20.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202120, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107002

RESUMO

Anecdotes abound regarding the decline of basic research in industrial and governmental settings, but very little empirical evidence exists about the phenomenon. This article provides a systematic and historical analysis of the contribution of various institutional sectors to knowledge production at the world and country levels across the past four decades. It highlights a dramatic decline in the diffusion of basic research by industrial and governmental sectors across all countries-with a corresponding increase in the share from universities-as well as an increase of partnerships between universities and other sectors. Results also shows an increase in the relative share of industries in applied research, as measured through patents. Such divergence in university and industry research activities may hinder industries' ability to translate basic knowledge into technological innovation, and could lead to a growing misalignment between doctoral training and future job expectations. Industries and universities must rethink strategies for partnerships and publishing to maximize scientific progress and to ensure the greatest gains for society.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Publicações , Pesquisa , Universidades , Financiamento de Capital , Humanos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , Universidades/organização & administração
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