Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 884
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935252

RESUMO

The exchange of diverse ideas has been shown to be a major driver of economic growth and innovation in local labor markets across the U.S. Yet, persistently high levels of occupational gender segregation pose a barrier to such exchange between women and men workers. Consistent with this, organizational sociologists have identified multiple economic benefits to gender diversity in workplaces. Yet, it is unclear whether these trends apply to local labor markets, which constitute the ecological geographic environment for firms. In this study, I use fixed effects regression models to examine the relationship between labor market levels of segregation and economic growth from 1980 through 2010. I find that gender segregation hinders the expansion of finance and technology sectors as two industries that rely on the exchange of information and innovation. Consequently, higher levels of gender segregation are also a bane to economic productivity, as measured through hourly wages. Results from this study suggest that gender equity, manifested in lower levels of occupational segregation, is a vital ingredient in the economic development of local U.S. labor markets.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Emprego/economia , Sexismo/economia , Demografia , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/tendências , Masculino , Ocupações/economia , Ocupações/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/tendências , Segregação Social/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
2.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113853, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923813

RESUMO

To highlight the levels and distributions and to assess the risk of human exposure of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in PM2.5 in China, the concentrations and homologue patterns of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM2.5 from 10 cities in China were studied in 2013 and 2014. The mean concentrations of ΣSCCPs and ΣMCCPs were 19.9 ± 41.1 ng m-3 and 15.6 ± 18.6 ng m-3, respectively. Unexpectedly, the highest pollution levels occurred in two central cities (Xinxiang and Taiyuan) rather than in well-known eastern megacities such as Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. By comparing with earlier research, it has indicated the trend of CPs industry shifting from large eastern cities to small and medium-sized cities in central China to some extent. In addition, the composition pattern of SCCPs demonstrated an obviously differences from previous studies, with C11 and Cl7 predominating and accounting for 45.1% and 24.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ratio of MCCPs/SCCPs in most cities was less than 1.00 except for Guangzhou (1.92), Shanghai (1.29), and Taiyuan (1.11). Combined with the results of correlation analysis and principal component analysis, the observed pollution characteristics of CPs in PM2.5 had similar sources, which were more influenced by the ratio of MCCPs/SCCPs than by organic carbon, elemental carbon, temperature, population, and gross domestic product. Overall, the composition of CPs reflected the characteristics of local industrial production and consumption, and also implied efforts of Chinese enterprises to reduce the content of short carbon groups of CPs production. The CPs mainly deposited in head airways during the process of entering the human respiratory system. However, at the present levels, there was no significant carcinogenic effect for human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Indústrias , Parafina/análise , Material Particulado , Pequim , China , Cidades , Indústrias/tendências , Material Particulado/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal
4.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(4): 294-296, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460725

RESUMO

There is no corresponding product standard and industry standard for the search and development of magnetocardiograph at home and abroad. In this paper, based on the working principle and clinical application function of magnetocardiograph, and on the basis of relevant regulations and normative documents of medical device registration, some thoughts and concerns about the technical review of this kind of product are put forward.


Assuntos
Magnetocardiografia , Indústrias/tendências , Magnetocardiografia/normas
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 435, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201540

RESUMO

Serious environmental problems have accompanied remarkable global economic growth for decades. To assist managers in the semiconductor industry with economic and environmental management, this study executes DuPont analysis to examine economic impacts from the effective implementation of sustainability initiatives. We propose a two-stage process including economic development efficiency and environmental protection efficiency through the dynamic data envelopment analysis (DDEA) to reflect the characteristics of eco-efficiency. Through DuPont analysis, the main finding shows the potential improvement in firms' return on equity (ROE) by efficiently utilizing assets to generate sales quickly.Relative to economic development efficiency, the firms show lower scores and higher standard deviations in the environmental protection ability, thus denoting a large gap in the level of environmental protection production technology. The findings in this study reveal that the financial foundations and sustainable development of industries should be improved simultaneously even though specific levels of semiconductor industrial eco-efficiency improvement vary among companies in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Semicondutores/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Comércio , Eficiência , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Taiwan
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(4): 2086-2117, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137201

RESUMO

The harmony search (HS) algorithm is one of the most popular meta-heuristic algorithms. The basic idea of HS was inspired by the music improvisation process in which the musicians continuously adjust the pitch of their instruments to generate wonderful harmony. Since its inception in 2001, HS has attracted the attention of many researchers from all over the world, resulting in a lot of improved variants and successful applications. Even for today, the research on improved HS variants design and innovative applications are still hot topics. This paper provides a detailed review of the basic concept of HS and a survey of its latest variants for function optimization. It also provides a survey of the innovative applications of HS in the field of intelligent manufacturing based on about 40 recently published articles. Some potential future research directions for both HS and its applications to intelligent manufacturing are also analyzed and summarized in this paper.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Indústrias/instrumentação , Indústrias/tendências , Software , Algoritmos , Automação , Tomada de Decisões , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Veículos Automotores , Distribuição Normal , Tecnologia sem Fio
8.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(5): 264, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917773

RESUMO

The updated Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) beryllium standard for general industry, construction, and shipyards reduced exposure limits for this known human carcinogen and became effective in 2018. Occupational and environmental health nurses need to monitor updates recently proposed for general industry to clarify implementation of the standard.


Assuntos
Berílio/efeitos adversos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/tendências , Humanos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Indústrias/tendências , Padrões de Referência , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/organização & administração
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717159

RESUMO

Industrial transfer from advanced regions is a good way to foment economic development in less advanced regions. Nevertheless, does industrial transfer intensify or alleviate haze pollution? To answer this question, this study employed the shift-share method and spatial panel models to explore how industrial transfer processes impact haze pollution in the case of China. The main results are as follows: (1) With the advances made in industrial transfer and upgrading, China has entered the stage of decoupling between the economic development level and haze pollution. (2) Industrial transfer could effectively alleviate the degree of haze pollution in the transferred-out areas, but it would have a significant accelerating effect on haze pollution in the transferred-in areas. Compared with non-polluting industries, polluting industries would be responsible for a large deterioration in the local air quality. (3) Environmental regulations, as the main factor mitigating environmental pollution, do not achieve the desired effects and significantly reduce the regional pollution levels that led to haze. Therefore, the effects of industrial transfer should also be comprehensively considered in government of undertake regions. There would likely be great economic costs if the old path of "pollution first and treatment later" is followed. This study not only advances the existing literature, but also is of considerable interest to policy makers.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias/tendências , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/economia , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial
10.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 29(4): 759-766, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627923

RESUMO

Orthopaedic surgeons often require highly specialized medical devices, implants, and equipment, which are usually offered by several vendors/companies. This study assesses long-term market trends for orthopaedic medical device companies and examines various implications for healthcare cost. Using S&P Capital IQ, a Wall Street database, financial data were gathered on orthopaedic device companies, ranked by worldwide sales, from 1999 to 2015. Annual sales were aggregated to calculate market share and compounded annual growth rates (CAGRs). Overall, the global orthopaedic device market grew at 12.0% CAGR from 1999 to 2008, before slowing to 2.8% from 2009 to 2015. Between 1999 and 2015, the top 5 companies increased total market share from 52.8 to 62.2%. The orthopaedic device market is not only consolidating under a few dominant players, but also growing at a decreasing rate, both of which signal a maturing industry. These trends are likely to shape patient care and healthcare costs in orthopaedic surgery in years to come.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústrias/tendências , Equipamentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Ortopedia
11.
Biotechnol J ; 14(4): e1700766, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350921

RESUMO

High-Throughput (HT) technologies such as miniature bioreactors (MBRs) are increasingly employed within the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Traditionally, these technologies have been utilized for discrete screening approaches during pre-clinical development (e.g., cell line selection and process optimization). However, increasing interest is focused towards their use during late clinical phase process characterization studies as a scale-down model (SDM) of the cGMP manufacturing process. In this review, the authors describe a systematic approach toward SDM development in one of the most widely adopted MBRs, the ambr 15 and 250 mL (Sartorius Stedim Biotech) systems. Recent efforts have shown promise in qualifying ambr systems as SDMs to support more efficient, robust and safe biomanufacturing processes. The authors suggest that combinatorial improvements in process understanding (matching of mass transfer and cellular stress between scales through computational fluid dynamics and in vitro analysis), experimental design (advanced risk assessment and statistical design of experiments), and data analysis (combining uni- and multi-variate techniques) will ultimately yield ambr SDMs applicable for future regulatory submissions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/tendências , Reatores Biológicos , GMP Cíclico/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/tendências , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , GMP Cíclico/biossíntese , Hidrodinâmica , Indústrias/tendências
12.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol ; 166: 69-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265701

RESUMO

Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Óleos Vegetais , Indústrias/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/normas
13.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol ; 166: 99-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265702

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered to be one of the most promising next generation bio-based/food feedstocks with a unique lipid composition, high protein content, and an almost unlimited amount of other bio-active molecules. High-value components such as the soluble proteins, (poly) unsaturated fatty acids, pigments, and carbohydrates can be used as an important ingredient for several markets, such as the food/feed/chemical/cosmetics and health industries. Although cultivation costs have decreased significantly in the last few decades, large microalgae production processes become economically viable if all complex compounds are optimally valorized in their functional state. To isolate these functional compounds from the biomass, cost-effective, mild, and energy-efficient biorefinery techniques need to be developed and applied. In this review we describe current microalgae biorefinery strategies and the derived products, followed by new technological developments and an outlook toward future products and the biorefinery philosophy.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis/normas , Biomassa , Indústrias/normas , Indústrias/tendências , Microalgas/química
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(6): 1494-1506, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506966

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance is an ever-increasing problem that threatens food production globally. Within Australia, the grain industry has a renewed focus on resistance due to diminishing chemical options available to farmers and the increasing prevalence and severity of resistance encountered in the field. Chemicals are too often used as the major tool for arthropod pest management, ignoring the potent evolutionary forces from chemical selection pressures that lead to resistance. A complex array of factors (biological, social, economic, political, climatic) have contributed to current trends in insecticide usage and resistance in the Australian grain industry. We review the status of insecticide resistance and provide a context for how resistance is currently managed. We discuss emerging technologies and research that could be applied to improve resistance management. This includes generating baseline sensitivity data for insecticides before they are launched, developing genetic diagnostics for the full complement of known resistances, expanding resistance monitoring programs, and utilizing new technologies. Additional benefits are likely to be achieved through a combination of industry awareness and engagement, risk modeling, adoption of integrated pest management tactics, greater collaboration between industry stakeholders, and policy changes around chemical use and record keeping. The Australian grain context provides lessons for other agricultural industries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Indústrias/tendências , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Austrália , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Pragas/tendências
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572613

RESUMO

The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, including Shanghai City and the Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, is the largest metropolitan region in China. In the past three decades, the region has experienced an unprecedented process of rapid and massive urbanization, which has dramatically altered the landscape and detrimentally affected the ecological environments in the region. In this paper, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of ecological conditions (Eco_C) via a synthetic index with analytic hierarchy processes in the YRD during 1990⁻2010. The relative contributions of influencing factors, including two natural conditions (i.e., elevation (Elev) and land-sea gradient (Dis_coa)), three indicators of human activities (i.e., urbanization rate (Urb_rate), per capita GDP (Per_gdp), the percentage of secondary and tertiary industry employment (Per_ind)), to the total variance of regional Eco_C were also investigated. The results showed that: (1) The Eco_C over YRD region was "Moderately High", which was better than the national average and demonstrated obvious spatial variations between south and north. There existed fluctuations and an overall increasing trend for Eco_C during the study period, with 20% of the area being deteriorated and 40% being improved. (2) The areas with elevation below 10 m was relatively poor in Eco_C, while the regions above 1000 m showed the best Eco_C and had the most obvious changes (9.33%) during the study period. (3) The selected five influencing factors could explain 91.0⁻94.4% of the Eco_C spatial variability. Elevation was the dominant factor for about 42.4⁻52.9%, while urbanization rate and per capita GDP were about 32.5% and 9.3%.


Assuntos
Ecologia/tendências , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/tendências , Urbanização/tendências , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Previsões , Humanos
18.
Salud Colect ; 14(3): 483-512, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517559

RESUMO

This work discusses the dominant models and tensions within the health field regarding the conceptualization of the human body (as a machine), the process of health work (industrial and artisanal models), institutions (hospitals and health centers) and primary agents (the medical corporation and the medical industrial complex). The context of analysis is the United States from the end of the 19th century to the present. Economic-political, ideological-cultural, and scientific-technical dimensions are discussed, which permeate the historicity of the field. The purpose is to illustrate how the health field has transformed over time, as well as the role instrumental reason and financial capital has played in this process, to the detriment of relational aspects.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Corpo Humano , Indústrias/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Filosofia Médica/história , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Instalações de Saúde/história , Instalações de Saúde/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Indústrias/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Medicalização/história , Medicalização/métodos , Medicalização/tendências , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Robótica/história , Robótica/tendências , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Surg ; 216(4): 723-729, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physician-industry relationships have been complex in modern medicine. Since large proportions of research, education and consulting are industry-backed, this is an important area to consider when examining gender inequality in medicine. METHODS: The Open Payments Program (OPP) database from August 2013 to December 2016 was analyzed. In order to identify physicians' genders, the OPP was matched with the National Provider Index dataset. Descriptive statistics of payments to female compared to male surgeons were obtained and stratified by payment type, subspecialty, geographic location and year. RESULTS: 3,925,707 transactions to 136,845 physicians were analyzed. Of them, 31,297 physicians were surgeons with an average payment per provider of $131,252 to male surgeons compared to $62,101 to female surgeons. Significantly fewer women received consultant, royalty/licensure, ownership and speaker payments. However, women received a higher average amount per surgeon compared to their male counterparts within research payments. Overall payments to women trended upwards over time. CONCLUSION: Gender inequality still exists in medicine, and in industry-physician payments. Industry should increasingly consider engaging women in consultancies, speaking engagements, and research.


Assuntos
Apoio Financeiro , Indústrias/economia , Médicas/economia , Sexismo/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Revelação , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro/ética , Humanos , Indústrias/ética , Indústrias/tendências , Masculino , Médicas/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/economia , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/ética , Cirurgiões/tendências , Estados Unidos
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 75(19): 3569-3592, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046841

RESUMO

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a pervasive family of enzymes that oxidize a wide range of phenolic and nonphenolic aromatic substrates, concomitantly with the reduction of dioxygen to water. MCOs are usually divided into two functional classes: metalloxidases and laccases. Given their broad substrate specificity and eco-friendliness (molecular oxygen from air as is used as the final electron acceptor and they only release water as byproduct), laccases are regarded as promising biological green tools for an array of applications. Among these laccases, those of bacterial origin have attracted research attention because of their notable advantages, including broad substrate spectrum, wide pH range, high thermostability, and tolerance to alkaline environments. This review aims to summarize the significant research efforts on the properties, mechanisms and structures, laccase-mediator systems, genetic engineering, immobilization, and biotechnological applications of the bacteria-source laccases and laccase-like enzymes, which principally include Bacillus laccases, actinomycetic laccases and some other species of bacterial laccases. In addition, these enzymes may offer tremendous potential for environmental and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Bioengenharia/tendências , Química Verde/tendências , Indústrias/tendências , Lacase/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bioengenharia/métodos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Química Verde/métodos , Humanos , Indústrias/métodos , Invenções/tendências , Lacase/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA