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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114427, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516623

RESUMO

Mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatin B (ENN B) affect negatively several systems and demand more studies as the mechanisms are still unclear. The simultaneous presence of contaminants in the environment manifests consequences of exposure for both animals and flora. Daphnia magna is considered an ideal invertebrate to detect effects of toxic compounds and environmental alterations. In this study, the potential toxicity and the basic mechanism of BEA and ENN B individually and combined were studied in D. magna. Acute and delayed toxicity were evaluated, and transcript levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (mox, gst, abcb1, and abcc5), reproduction, and oxidative stress (vtg-SOD) were analyzed by qPCR. Though no acute toxicity was found, results revealed a spinning around and circular profile of swimming, a strong decrease of survival after 72 h for BEA and ENN B at 16 µM and 6.25 µM, respectively, while for BEA + ENN B [8 + 1.6] µM after 96 h. The amount of mycotoxin remaining in the media revealed that the higher the concentration assayed the higher the amount remaining in the media. Differential regulation of genes suggests that xenobiotic metabolism is affected denoting different effects on transcription for tested mycotoxins. The results provide new insights into the underlying risk assessment of BEA and ENN B not only through food for consumers but also for the environment.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Micotoxinas , Animais , Daphnia/genética , Indicadores Ambientais , Xenobióticos/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 25: e220039, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analyze the temporal trend and spatial distribution of the incidence rate of dengue cases in Paraná and its regions between 2012 to 2021 and investigate associated sociodemographic and environmental variables. METHODS: Ecological study with temporal and spatial analysis of the dengue incidence rate reported in the Disease and Notification Information System (SINAN) in the period 2012 to 2021 and investigation of sociodemographic and environmental variables. To identify differences between municipal incidence rates the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test for multiple comparisons were used. Prais-Winsten regression was used for temporal trend analysis and for spatial analysis the univariate and bivariate Local Moran analysis were applied. RESULTS: 548,683 cases of dengue were confirmed in the period, the highest state incidence rate was observed in 2020, with 15 health regions presenting more than 500 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Higher incidences were observed among women, age group of 20-59 years and white color/race. Despite annual variations, a stationary trend was observed for incidence rates according to sex, age group, color/race and macro-region. More than half of the municipalities in Paraná formed spatial clusters (Moran's I=0.679), where 73 (18.3%) municipalities with high incidence rate formed clusters. High-High clusters of dengue incidence rate with urbanization and High-Low clusters of incidence rate with vegetation cover were observed. CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic and environmental determinants were related to the high incidence rates of dengue and heterogeneous spatial distribution in the state of Paraná, indicating the need to strengthen health surveillance actions.


Assuntos
Indicadores Ambientais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
3.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 108-115, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381304

RESUMO

La salud ambiental es relaciona entre factores físicos, químicos y biológicos externos y el ser humano, inmerso en el ecosistema; ésta puede incidir en la salud, por eso, se basa en la prevención de las enfermedades y en la creación de ambientes propicios. Bajo un estudio inicial longitudinal para identificar las variables e indicadores ambientales para el método instruccional de la promoción de la salud ambiental, para ello, se consideró los propuestos por la OMS, en el 2009, y estadales como el Ministerio del Ambiente, Agua y Transición Ecológica del Ecuador, en el 2014, y en el 1990 la UNESCO. Con un índice de 0,30; de 19 variables y 124 indicadores de tres bases de datos oficiales, se recuperaron por experticia un total de 37 a incluir, 6 de OMS Europa, 7 de OMS Perfil ambiental Ecuador y 24 del Estado; de este últimoel 29% corresponden a indicadores de presión, el 42% de estado, y otro 29% de respuesta. En el Ecuador, es conceptualizado como un proceso dinámico cambiante y participativo en la realidad temporo-espacial, sin embargo, la educación para el desarrollo sostenible sólo se hará realidad si los problemas básicos se abordan desde el punto de vista de las múltiples partes interesadas. Las pautas, variables e indicadores son adaptadas a la realidad local, regional o nacional, e incluso internacional; por la definición de prioridades y patrones epidemiológicos(AU)


Environmental health is a relationship between external physical, chemical and biological factors and the human being, immersed in the ecosystem; this can affect health, therefore, it is based on the prevention of diseases and the creation of favorable environments. Under an initial longitudinal study to identify the environmental variables and indicators for the instructional method of promoting environmental health, for this, those proposed by the WHO, in 2009, and state ones such as the Ministry of the Environment, Water and Transition were considered. Ecological Institute of Ecuador, in 2014, and in 1990 UNESCO. With an index of 0.30; of 19 variables and 124 indicators from three official databases, a total of 37 were retrieved by expertise to include, 6 from WHO Europe, 7 from WHO Ecuador Environmental Profile and 24 from the State; Of the latter, 29% correspond to pressure indicators, 42% to status, and another 29% to response. In Ecuador, it is conceptualized as a dynamic changing and participatory process in the temporal-spatial reality, however, education for sustainable development will only become a reality if the basic problems are addressed from the point of view of the multiple stakeholders. The guidelines, variables and indicators are adapted to the local, regional or national, and even international reality; for the definition of priorities and epidemiological patterns(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Ambiental , Educação em Saúde Ambiental , Indicadores Ambientais , Estudos Longitudinais , Equador
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409604

RESUMO

This article aims to contribute to the existing literature about liveability in rural areas by explicitly focusing on the level of residential satisfaction of older adults (55+) in four small Dutch villages. We strive not only to identify the key indicators of residential satisfaction among older villagers but also to better understand how these indicators affect their (daily) life. Moreover, in line with the person-environment fit tradition, we differentiate according to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of older villagers. To this end, we use a mixed-method approach, in which we combine survey data with qualitative data collected with photovoice in the four villages. The findings indicate that older adults' perceptions of spatial, social and functional aspects of the living environment are related to the degree of residential satisfaction overall. However, these perceptions appear to be strongly intertwined, especially perceptions about spatial characteristics, local identity and connectedness. Older adults who are hindered by health problems in undertaking daily activities experience a lower level of person-environment fit, which is reflected in a lower level of residential satisfaction. However, this relationship between subjective health and residential satisfaction can only be partially explained by different perceptions of the spatial, social and functional environment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Satisfação Pessoal , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Indicadores Ambientais , Felicidade , Humanos
5.
Nature ; 601(7893): 380-387, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046607

RESUMO

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important contributor to air pollution and can adversely affect human health1-9. A decrease in NO2 concentrations has been reported as a result of lockdown measures to reduce the spread of COVID-1910-20. Questions remain, however, regarding the relationship of satellite-derived atmospheric column NO2 data with health-relevant ambient ground-level concentrations, and the representativeness of limited ground-based monitoring data for global assessment. Here we derive spatially resolved, global ground-level NO2 concentrations from NO2 column densities observed by the TROPOMI satellite instrument at sufficiently fine resolution (approximately one kilometre) to allow assessment of individual cities during COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 compared to 2019. We apply these estimates to quantify NO2 changes in more than 200 cities, including 65 cities without available ground monitoring, largely in lower-income regions. Mean country-level population-weighted NO2 concentrations are 29% ± 3% lower in countries with strict lockdown conditions than in those without. Relative to long-term trends, NO2 decreases during COVID-19 lockdowns exceed recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)-derived year-to-year decreases from emission controls, comparable to 15 ± 4 years of reductions globally. Our case studies indicate that the sensitivity of NO2 to lockdowns varies by country and emissions sector, demonstrating the critical need for spatially resolved observational information provided by these satellite-derived surface concentration estimates.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Ambientais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Altitude , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagens de Satélites , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(5): 7352-7365, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476697

RESUMO

Globally, agricultural productivity is adversely impacted due to climatic changes as the temperatures rises and precipitation decreases, and especially in Pakistan, which ultimately enhanced groundwater salinity and harmed water quality in the country. However, the impacts of groundwater salinity and climate change on farmers' revenue have not been fully understood in Pakistan. Therefore, the focus of current research is the assessment of shadow price of water, farmers' revenue, and socioeconomic and environmental indicators affected by variations in groundwater salinity, precipitation, and temperature. The estimation of crop yield sensitivity to groundwater salinity, precipitation, and temperature and their prediction for 2030, 2040, and 2050 time periods was accomplished through the technique of General Maximum Entropy and Response-Yield function. Moreover, the assessment of groundwater quality and climate variable impacts on socioeconomic and environmental indicators was obtained through Target Motad-PMP model. In the end, the most suitable climate change scenario in the study area was established by applying a multi-criteria decision-making method. The results revealed that groundwater salinity and temperature expressed a significantly increasing trend with the Z values of 5.82 and 2.15, respectively. While the precipitation depicted a significantly decreasing trend (Z value = -3.37). The negative impact of climatic changes and groundwater salinity was revealed for revenue risk and shadow prices of water. The most negative impact on income risk and shadow prices is during 2050 horizon with a decrease by 11.4 and 19.4% respectively. The environmental index is the most important with a priority of 43.4% compared to the socio-economic indicators. The sub-index water use is also significant in the study area with a priority of 28.1%. A2 is the most appropriate climate scenario conferring to the TOPSIS ranking method. Therefore, the A2 scenario should be taken into account for the policy of adaptation to the climate change wonder in district Kohat.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Água Subterrânea , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Indicadores Ambientais , Humanos , Paquistão , Salinidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 533, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How to quickly predict and evaluate urban dust deposition is the key to the control of urban atmospheric environment. Here, we focus on changes of plant reflectance and plant functional traits due to dust deposition, and develop a prediction model of dust deposition based on these traits. RESULTS: The results showed that (1) The average dust deposition per unit area of Ligustrum quihoui leaves was significantly different among urban environments (street (18.1001 g/m2), community (14.5597 g/m2) and park (9.7661 g/m2)). Among different urban environments, leaf reflectance curves tends to be consistent, but there were significant differences in leaf reflectance values (park (0.052-0.585) > community (0.028-0.477) > street (0.025-0.203)). (2) There were five major reflection peaks and five major absorption valleys. (3) The spectral reflectances before and after dust removal were significantly different (clean leaves > dust-stagnant leaves). 695 ~ 1400 nm was the sensitive range of spectral response. (4) Dust deposition has significant influence on slope and position of red edge. Red edge slope was park > community > street. After dust deposition, the red edge position has obviously "blue shift". The moving distance of the red edge position increases with the increase of dust deposition. The forecast model of dust deposition amount established by simple ratio index (y = 2.517x + 0.381, R2 = 0.787, RMSE (root-mean-square error) = 0.187. In the model, y refers to dust retention, x refers to simple ratio index.) has an average accuracy of 99.98%. (5) With the increase of dust deposition, the specific leaf area and chlorophyll content index decreased gradually. The leaf dry matter content, leaf tissue density and leaf thickness increased gradually. CONCLUSION: In the dust-polluted environment, L. quihoui generally presents a combination of characters with lower specific leaf area, chlorophyll content index, and higher leaf dry matter content, leaf tissue density and leaf thickness. Leaf reflectance spectroscopy and functional traits have been proved to be effective in evaluating the changes of urban dust deposition.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Indicadores Ambientais
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 829, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797410

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal the trends in soil nutrient (NPK) balances for agricultural land in Albania for the period 1950-2019, through the analysis of the main NPK sources to NPK inputs and outputs. The results showed a large temporal variation in the balances of these nutrients, especially nitrogen. This variability depends mainly on the dynamics of land use change, the amount of chemical fertilizers used, and the number of animals during study period. For all three soil nutrients, negative trends have been observed in their balance sheets. From 1950 to 1990, the negative balance has declined, returning to positive for nitrogen in 1990 and phosphorus between 1970 and 2000, but has increased again in the last two to three decades. For 2019, the deficit for N was -104.8 kg ha1, for P -8.7 kg ha-1, and for K -134.5 kg ha-1, making Albania have the largest deficit of soil nutrients compared to EU and OECD countries. This deficit is mainly due to the application of small amounts of chemical fertilizers. In this context, the increase in crop yields in the last two decades seems to be related more to the improvement of plant production technologies than to the increase in the use of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. Currently, there appears to be no environmental pressure or potential risk of pollution at nationwide scale. However, this risk may exist at regional and field scales. Therefore, the assessment of soil nutrient balance at these two scales is necessary.


Assuntos
Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura , Albânia , Animais , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3687-3698, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676731

RESUMO

The wood used for funeral utensil in ancient tomb is a kind of valuable materials and important for understanding vegetation, climate and society conditions in the history. Here, we identified the tree species and dated the time of wooden utensils for funeral excavated from tombs in Shuijia Village, Shenyang, using wood anatomy methods and dendrochronological techniques. The results showed that 7 out of the 16 wood samples were identified as Pinus tabuliformis from Pinaceae, 8 were Larix sp. from Pinaceae and most likely Larix olgensis, and the rest one was Acer sp. from Aceraceae. Currently, these tree species are still widely distributed in Liaoning Province, indicating that forest structure (tree species composition) is relatively stable and that the climate at that time was quite similar to that at present. The timbers used for wooden utensils of funeral for civilian tombs had regional biogeographic characteristics and reflected regional social productivity development level in Mukden (now Shenyang) in Qing Dynasty: most of them were native tree species with low cost and high availability; the main timber trees were conifer species, and a few of them were broadleaved trees. These timbers were likely from the forest in Shenyang or mountainous areas in Eastern Liaoning, with Hunhe River waterway being an important transport way for timbers to Shenyang. Some P. tabuliformis and Larix sp. timbers could be cross-dated well, and the growth period of the trees was determined to be 1680s-1770s (early to mid-Qing Dynasty). The variations of tree-ring width of these timbers had good consistency and high climate sensitivity, reflecting the consistency of regional climate and environment. These timbers have the potential to indicate the climate condition of the early to mid-Qing Dynasty.


Assuntos
Pinus , Árvores , China , Indicadores Ambientais , Florestas
10.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(6): 2662-2672, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress is implicated in behavioral and health issues in cats, but methods for recognition, evaluation, and measurement of stress are lacking. Cortisol concentration is typically used as an indicator of stress. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate use of an enzyme immunoassay to quantitate hair and nail cortisol concentrations (HCC and NCC) in cats and evaluate associations between HCC and NCC and behavioral, physical, and environmental correlates of chronic stress in cats. ANIMALS: Forty-eight adult, owned or community cats. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Nail clippings and hair were collected from cats. Medical history and cat daily lifestyle questionnaires were completed by owners or caretakers. A commercial laboratory performed cortisol extraction and quantification using a validated enzyme immunoassay kit. Correlational and regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between HCC and NCC and behavioral, environmental, and medical factors. RESULTS: Hair and nail cortisol concentrations were significantly associated (rs  = 0.70; P < .001), but HCCs varied widely within and among cats. Cats with litterbox issues had significantly increased HCC (P = .02) and NCC (P = .001) as compared to cats without litterbox issues. Cats with groomed coats had lower HCCs (P = .02) as compared to cats without groomed coats, whereas cats with dander and mats had higher NCCs (P = .01) as compared to cats without dander and mats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The quantification of NCCs might improve identification and evaluation of chronic stress in cats. The variability of HCCs in individual cats warrants caution using this measurement in chronic stress studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Indicadores Ambientais , Hidrocortisona , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Estresse Psicológico
11.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200458

RESUMO

Bacteriophages are promising tools for the detection of fecal pollution in different environments, and particularly for viral pathogen risk assessment. Having similar morphological and biological characteristics, bacteriophages mimic the fate and transport of enteric viruses. Enteric bacteriophages, especially phages infecting Escherichia coli (coliphages), have been proposed as alternatives or complements to fecal indicator bacteria. Here, we provide a general overview of the potential use of enteric bacteriophages as fecal and viral indicators in different environments, as well as the available methods for their detection and enumeration, and the regulations for their application.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Fezes/virologia , Microbiologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas
12.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 113-121, jun. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1353412

RESUMO

Este estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer o ciclo reprodutivo da ostra do mangue, Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivada no estuário de macromarés do Rio Paciência, Maranhão, na costa nordeste do Brasil, e suas relações com fatores ambientais. As ostras foram coletadas mensalmente ao longo de 2013 para análise histológica da proporção sexual, desenvolvimento gonadal e índice de condição. A proporção sexual foi de 1:1,39 (M:F) e apenas 5 espécimes apresentaram hermafroditismo. A maturação foi contínua ao longo do ano e ostras maduras (estágio IIIA) e em desova (estágio IIIB) estiveram presentes em praticamente todos os meses. A baixa variação de temperatura parece ser o principal fator para a continuidade da gametogênese. Entretanto, além da temperatura, a relação entre precipitação, salinidade e produtividade primária afetou o estímulo e o tempo dos eventos reprodutivos. A estação chuvosa, com baixos valores de salinidade e altos valores de clorofila a e matéria orgânica particulada, pareceu ser o principal período reprodutivo, com liberação de gametas e produção e maturação de novas coortes de gametas em curto prazo. Nos trópicos, onde a maturação e liberação de gametas parecem ser contínuas e concomitantes, o índice de condição não se apresenta como o melhor método para avaliar os picos de acúmulo de reserva e desenvolvimento gonadal.(AU)


Assuntos
Reprodução , Aquicultura , Indicadores Ambientais
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 53679-53699, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036491

RESUMO

Given the complexity of the correlation of economic growth with financial development, and their interactive impacts on environmental quality, this study attempted to present new insights into indecisive outcomes from the contribution of financial development in determining the impressionability of environmental indicators under economic growth conditions. Previous studies only employed a single environmental indicator for analyzing the correlation between economic factors and environmental quality. However, six environmental indicators are adopted in this study to evaluate environmental quality and to reach major goals of this research. To this end, using 2-stage system generalized technique of moment estimator, the association of economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, environmental indicators, and trade openness is determined in selected OPEC countries for years 2010 to 2019. Findings indicated that accompanied by the effects of economic growth on any EFI, ANS, PN, and EPI variables, the financial development enhances such effect. This is while, the financial development would weaken the economic growth effect on the ESI variable. Regarding EVI, no significant association was observed. Regarding to ESI, EPI, and PN, trade openness applies a significantly positive impact on environmental quality; on the other hand, it has positive role in environmental degradation based on EFI and ANS. This is while, according to the EVI variable, trade openness has not meaningful impact on environmental status. Finally, energy use has significant and positive effects on environmental degradation in each of environmental indicators. However, this variable has not shown significant impact on EPI and ANS. Alternatively, findings indicated that financial development can be considered an important and key variable in improvement of the environmental quality due to the moderating role it plays relative to the negative economic growth effect on the environmental quality. At the end of this paper, some limitations are presented, and some suggestions for further studies are provided as well.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indicadores Ambientais , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(6): 345, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013430

RESUMO

This paper presents a methodology to assess the influence of the correlation-covariance structure of measurement errors in online monitoring over the propagation of uncertainties, applied to wet-weather environmental indicators in sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDSs). The effect of auto-correlated and heteroskedastic errors in measured time-series over the estimated probability density function (PDF) of different environmental indicators is analyzed for a wide variety of possible error structures in the data. For this purpose, multiple correlation-covariance structures are randomly generated from exploring the parametric space of a linear exponent autoregressive (LEAR) model, employing a Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling technique. Significant differences tests are proposed to identify the most correlated parameters of the correlation-covariance error model with statistics of the environmental indicator PDFs. The method is applied to total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) time-series recorded during 13 rainfall events at the inlet and outlet of a SUDS train (stormwater settling tank-horizontal constructed wetland). In this case, results showed that the total error in the estimation of the analyzed environmental indicators is mostly explained by standard uncertainties (flattening of the PDFs) rather than bias contributions (displacement of the PDFs). The correlation-covariance model parameters related to the temporal delimitation of hydrographs/pollutographs and the intensity of the autocorrelation showed to have the strongest influence in the propagation of measurement errors (flattening/displacement of the PDFs).


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Teorema de Bayes , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801918

RESUMO

The European Union (EU) has launched two regional investment programs of European Funds (FE) in the last decade. One covers the period of 2007 to 2013, and the second from 2014 to 2020. Among the goals contained in FE regulations is that of achieving sustainable growth through the conversion of fossil energy production systems to renewable energy. This research has had a goal to determine whether the countries of the Eurozone maintain homogeneous levels of efficiency in the use of these resources to improve the levels of environmental quality related to the use of this type of energy. The adopted research method for efficiency analyses was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Findings revealed that the efficiency in the use of renewable energies is very uneven among the analyzed countries and that these differences are maintained throughout the analyzed period. These results suggest that the criteria for the distribution of the funds should be modified. The current distribution is mainly based on the per capita income of the countries and/or regions. In this way, compliance with the European Green Pact approved in September 2020 would be guaranteed.


Assuntos
Indicadores Ambientais , Administração Financeira , União Europeia , Investimentos em Saúde , Energia Renovável
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(10): 1303-1313, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927367

RESUMO

Archaeological data and demographic modelling suggest that the peopling of Sahul required substantial populations, occurred rapidly within a few thousand years and encompassed environments ranging from hyper-arid deserts to temperate uplands and tropical rainforests. How this migration occurred and how humans responded to the physical environments they encountered have, however, remained largely speculative. By constructing a high-resolution digital elevation model for Sahul and coupling it with fine-scale viewshed analysis of landscape prominence, least-cost pedestrian travel modelling and high-performance computing, we create over 125 billion potential migratory pathways, whereby the most parsimonious routes traversed emerge. Our analysis revealed several major pathways-superhighways-transecting the continent, that we evaluated using archaeological data. These results suggest that the earliest Australian ancestors adopted a set of fundamental rules shaped by physiological capacity, attraction to visually prominent landscape features and freshwater distribution to maximize survival, even without previous experience of the landscapes they encountered.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Antropologia Física , Arqueologia , Austrália , Indicadores Ambientais , Geografia , Humanos , Sociobiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141667, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871370

RESUMO

Stable isotopes are increasingly used to detect and understand the impacts of environmental changes on riverine ecological properties. The δ13C and δ15N signatures of fish with different feeding habits were measured in a large subtropical river to evaluate how fish isotopic niches respond to environmental gradients and human disturbance. From basal resources to fish consumers, the high values of epilithic periphyton (biofilm) δ13C and suspended particulate organic matter δ15N concurrently determined the niche ranges and space (e.g., convex hull area) of fish communities. Along a longitudinal gradient (except in the industrial zone), the number of fish trophic guilds identified by Bayesian ellipses continuously increased; meanwhile, higher trophic diversity and less redundancy were observed near the lower reaches and estuary. Variance inflation factors were estimated to detect the multicollinearity of 40 environmental variables, 14 of which were selected as indicators. Relative importance (RI) analysis was used to evaluate the explanatory power of these indicators for the spatial variation in isotopic niche metrics; the results showed that riffle habitat area, water nitrate concentration, gravel-cobble substrate, and riparian buffer width were the 4 key environmental indicators (average RI > 12%) that determined the longitudinal pattern of fish isotopic niches. These findings suggested that community-level δ13C signatures are more responsive to changes in habitats (e.g., riffle) and substrates (e.g., gravel-cobble) supporting the productivity of autochthonous diatoms while δ15N signatures respond to water quality altered by nitrogen pollution from manure-fertilized farming and poultry livestock effluent. Furthermore, δ15N may be more robust and interpretable than δ13C as an isotopic indicator of ecosystem change in rivers exposed to multiple or complex anthropogenic stressors.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 33809-33827, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333343

RESUMO

The installation of district heating (DH) systems constitutes an advantage from the energetic, climate, and air quality aspects. However, the configuration and operational features of a DH system affect significantly its environmental performance. The objective of the present study is the energetic and environmental assessment of DH networks that present differences in size and operating configurations, to define relevant environmental performance indicators. Three case studies in Italy are analyzed, following a methodology based on the impact pathway approach that was presented by the authors in previous studies. Case studies are evaluated in terms of total emission, pollutant concentration (NOx, CO, PM), and health damage external costs. Results show that lower pollutant emissions are associated with the installation of a DH system compared to autonomous residential boilers. Air quality is also improved and health externalities are reduced. The results of CO2 savings are differentiated depending on the efficiency and emission factors of the systems. An inter-comparison of different cases is then presented, based on the elaboration of specific indicators of environmental and health impacts. This section shows that, besides the size of the DH system, other factors, such as population density and geographical distribution of pollutants concentration, are important. Among the indicators considered, those based on health externalities provide more complete and comparable information on the final impact of the alternative solutions on the exposed population. Their application seems thus promising for the evaluation of alternative planning strategies for DH systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Calefação , Itália , Material Particulado/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111496, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069147

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only affected health and economics, but also its effect extended to include other aspects, such as the environment. Using Egypt as a case study, this paper presents the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on air pollution levels by studying nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter represented in absorbing aerosol index (AAI), carbon monoxide (CO), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper also highlights the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on other environmental indicators including environmental noise, medical and municipal solid wastes. The paper presents the Egyptian COVID-19 story from its different angles including the development of confirmed COVID-19 cases, containment measures from the government, the impact on the country's economy and the national energy consumption so as to effectively evaluate the effect on both the air pollution levels and the other studied environmental indicators. For the other environmental indicators, a strong link was observed between COVID-19 lockdown and the reduction in environmental noise, beaches, surface and groundwater pollution. For environmental noise, this has been confirmed by officially governmental announcements which reported that the level of environmental noise in Egypt was reduced by about 75% during the lockdown period. On the other hand, there are some negative effects, including an increase in medical solid waste (from 70 to 300 ton/day), municipal solid waste, as well as a less efficient solid waste recycling process. For air pollution levels, the data were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency satellite data sets. The data for the lockdown period in 2020 have been extracted and compared to the corresponding months in the selected baseline period (2015-2019) to identify the effect that the lockdown period had on the air pollution levels in Egypt with focus on Cairo and Alexandria governorates. It was found that the AAI decreased by about 30%, the NO2 decreased by 15 and 33% over Cairo and Alexandria governorates, respectively, and that the CO decreased by about 5% over both governorates. In addition, the GHG emissions in Egypt were reduced by at least 4% during the pandemic. In contrast, ozone levels increased by about 2% over Cairo and Alexandria governorates. It can be concluded that the implemented containment measures during COVID-19 pandemic had resulted in both positive and negative environmental impacts. The positive environmental impacts are not sustainable and deterioration on them is expected to occur after the lockdown as it was before the pandemic. Therefore, stricter laws must be enacted to protect the environment in Egypt.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Egito , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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