Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28.840
Filtrar
1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 941-950, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362549

RESUMO

AIMS: The EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire is a widely used multiattribute general health questionnaire where an EQ-5D < 0 defines a state 'worse than death' (WTD). The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a health state WTD and to identify associations with this state. Secondary aims were to examine the effect of WTD status on one-year outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 2073 patients undergoing 2073 THAs (mean age 67.4 years (sd 11.6; 14 to 95); mean body mass index (BMI) 28.5 kg/m2 (sd 5.7; 15 to 72); 1253 female (60%)) and 2168 patients undergoing 2168 TKAs (mean age 69.3 years (sd 9.6; 22 to 91); BMI 30.8 kg/m2 (sd 5.8; 13 to 57); 1244 female (57%)) were recorded. Univariate analysis was used to identify variables associated with an EQ-5D score < 0: age, BMI, sex, deprivation quintile, comorbidities, and joint-specific function measured using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) or Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Multivariate logistic regression was performed. EQ-5D and OHS/OKS were repeated one year following surgery in 1555 THAs and 1700 TKAs. RESULTS: Preoperatively, 391 THA patients (19%) and 263 TKA patients (12%) were WTD. Multivariate analysis identified preoperative OHS, deprivation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in THA, and OKS, peripheral arterial disease, and inflammatory arthropathy in TKA as independently associated with WTD status (p < 0.05). One year following arthroplasty EQ-5D scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and WTD rates reduced to 35 (2%) following THA and 53 (3%) following TKA. Patients who were WTD preoperatively achieved significantly (p < 0.001) worse joint-specific Oxford scores and satisfaction rates one year following joint arthroplasty, compared with those not WTD preoperatively. CONCLUSION: In total, 19% of patients awaiting THA and 12% awaiting TKA for degenerative joint disease are in a health state WTD. Although specific comorbidities contribute to this, hip- or knee-specific function, mainly pain, appear key determinants and can be reliably reversed with an arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:941-950.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/psicologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Osteoartrite do Quadril/psicologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Listas de Espera , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
S D Med ; 72(5): 206-213, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individual health is influenced by multiple, potentially correlated factors including healthcare availability, community context, and socioeconomic factors. To measure the health changes at county-levels across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, a measure of relative health, health index, was developed incorporating multiple indicators from domains of health conditions, health behaviors, and social determinants. METHODS: We combined data from all 206 counties in the aforementioned three states for the years 2008-2012 from multiple data sources. We performed factor analysis that accounted for a hierarchical structure of the overall health index comprising of 15 indicators. RESULTS: A hierarchical structure is identified in which three intermediate factors are connecting the health index with 15 health indicators. The grouping results of the 206 counties based on health index values demonstrate the existence of a gradient in health conditions in the Northern Plains. CONCLUSIONS: The health status of urban areas was generally better than that of rural areas in the Northern Plains during this study period. The developed index adds stability to the estimates of the population characteristics, especially in rural, sparsely populated counties.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Minnesota , North Dakota , South Dakota
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 61, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic state of Brazil, from 2001-2015. METHODS: This is a time-series study of leprosy indicators in the state of Maranhão, Northeastern region of Brazil. The study used data from the Brazilian National System of Reportable Diseases, for the period between 2001 and 2015. The following indicators were evaluated: (i) detection coefficient in the general population; (ii) detection coefficient in people under 15 years old; (iii) rate of cases with grade 2 physical disability in the diagnosis; (iv) rate of examined contacts, and (v) proportion of healing . The Prais-Winsten regression model was used for trend analysis. Analyses were performed for the state and by each health region. RESULTS: 77,697 leprosy cases were analyzed in the general population and 7,599 in individuals under 15 years old. The detection coefficient in the general population ranged from 80.7/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001 to 51.2/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015. The coefficient in the general population presented a downward trend (annual percentage variation [APV] = -2.98; 95%CI -4.15- -1.79). For the population under 15 years old, the rate was 24.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001, and 19.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015, with downward trend (APV = -3.07; 95%CI -4.95- -1.15). It was observed upward trend in rate of contacts examined (APV = 2.35; 95%CI 0.58-4.15) and rate of cases with grade 2 disability (APV = 2.19; 95%CI 0.23-4.19). Stationary trend was observed in the proportion of healing (APV = -0.10; 95%CI -0.50-0.30). Regional differences were found in the performance of the indicators. CONCLUSIONS: A downward trend for the detection coefficients in the general population and in individuals under 15 years old was found in Maranhão. Despite this result, the rates are still very high, demanding efforts from all spheres of public administration and health professionals to reduce the burden of the disease in the state.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/transmissão , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393346

RESUMO

Validated risk scoring systems in African American (AA) population are under studied. We utilized history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and initial troponin (HEART) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in non-high cardiovascular (CV) risk predominantly AA patient population.A retrospective emergency department (ED) charts review of 1266 chest pain patients where HEART and TIMI scores were calculated for each patient. Logistic regression model was computed to predict 6-week and 1-year MACE and 90-day cardiac readmission. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was constructed to differentiate between clinical strategies in non-high CV risk patients.Of the 817 patients included, 500 patients had low HEART score vs. 317 patients who had moderate HEART score. Six hundred sixty-three patients had low TIMI score vs. 154 patients had high TIMI score. The univariate logistic regression model shows odds ratio of predicting 6-week MACE using HEART score was 3.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-6.76, P = .004) with increase in risk category from low to moderate vs. 2.07 (95% CI 1.18-3.63, P = .011) using TIMI score with increase in risk category from low to high and c-statistic of 0.86 vs. 0.79, respectively. DCA showed net benefit of using HEART score is equally predictive of 6-week MACE when compared to TIMI.In non-high CV risk AA patients, HEART score is better predictive tool for 6-week MACE when compared to TIMI score. Furthermore, patients presenting to ED with chest pain, the optimal strategy for a 2% to 4% miss rate threshold probability should be to discharge these patients from the ED.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Dor no Peito/etnologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dor no Peito/mortalidade , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina/sangue
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 292-295, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349325

RESUMO

Mental health indicators are essential for monitoring people's mental health status, developing mental health policies, and evaluating the performance of such policies. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a web-based tool for mental health indicators capable to support the management of Brazilian mental health care networks. The SISAM is a web information system responsible for management and provision of mental health information in Brazil and it was chosen as the use case of this study. The indicators were developed as a decision support web tool for public health managers. The tool is able to calculate 11 indicators related to inpatient care. A descriptive analysis of all indicators is presented using SISAM data from 2017. The results generated by the tool are promising and could provide improvements on care monitoring, evaluation of possible trends and investments in prevention and promotion in mental health care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Internet , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Brasil , Política de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7): 800-807, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256659

RESUMO

AIMS: Psychological factors play a critical role in patient presentation, satisfaction, and outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression are important to consider, as they are associated with poorer outcomes and are potentially modifiable. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression in patients with a range of hip pathology and to evaluate their relationship with patient-reported psychosocial and functional outcome measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients presenting to a tertiary-centre specialist hip clinic were prospectively evaluated for outcomes of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Validated assessments were undertaken such as: the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Patient characteristics and demographics were also recorded. Multiple linear regression modelling, with adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection, was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 328 patients were identified for inclusion, with diagnoses of hip dysplasia (DDH; n = 50), femoroacetabular impingement (FAI; n = 55), lateral trochanteric pain syndrome (LTP; n = 23), hip osteoarthrosis (OA; n = 184), and avascular necrosis of the hip (AVN; n = 16) with a mean age of 31.0 years (14 to 65), 38.5 years (18 to 64), 63.7 years (20 to 78), 63.5 years (18 to 91), and 39.4 years (18 to 71), respectively. The percentage of patients with abnormal levels of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, or depression was: 22.0%, 16.0%, and 12.0% for DDH, respectively; 9.1%, 10.9%, and 7.3% for FAI, respectively; 13.0%, 4.3%, and 4.3% for LTP, respectively; 21.7%, 11.4%, and 14.1% for OA, respectively; and 25.0%, 43.8%, and 6.3% for AVN, respectively. HADS Anxiety (HADSA) and Hip Disability Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living subscale (HOOS ADL) predicted the PCS total (adjusted R2 = 0.4599). Age, HADS Depression (HADSD), and PCS total predicted HADSA (adjusted R2 = 0.4985). Age, HADSA, patient's percentage of perceived function, PCS total, and HOOS Quality of Life subscale (HOOS QOL) predicted HADSD (adjusted R2 = 0.5802). CONCLUSION: Patients with hip pathology may exhibit significant pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Identifying these factors and understanding the impact of psychosocial function could help improve patient treatment outcomes. Perioperative multidisciplinary assessment may be a beneficial part of comprehensive orthopaedic hip care. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:800-807.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Catastrofização/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/psicologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/psicologia , Luxação do Quadril/psicologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Catastrofização/diagnóstico , Catastrofização/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7): 793-799, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256660

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the functional outcome of two different surgical approaches to the hip in patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with a hemiarthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 150 patients who were treated between February 2014 and July 2017 were included. Patients were allocated to undergo hemiarthroplasty using either an anterolateral or a direct lateral approach, and were followed for 12 months. The mean age of the patients was 81 years (69 to 90), and 109 were women (73%). Functional outcome measures, assessed by a physiotherapist blinded to allocation, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected postoperatively at three and 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 11 patients in the direct lateral group had a positive Trendelenburg test at one year compared with one patient in the anterolateral group (11/55 (20%) vs 1/55 (1.8%), relative risk (RR) 11.1; p = 0.004). Patients with a positive Trendelenburg test reported significantly worse Hip Disability Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (HOOS) compared with patients with a negative Trendelenburg test. Further outcome measures showed few statistically significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: The direct lateral approach in patients with a femoral neck fracture appears to be associated with more positive Trendelenburg tests than the anterolateral approach, indicating a poor clinical outcome. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:793-799.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hemiartroplastia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46625

RESUMO

Demonstrando a atuação governamental no âmbito do SUS, a Sage possibilita projeções e inferências setoriais, além de contribuir para a transparência das ações desenvolvidas na área da saúde.


Assuntos
Sistema Único de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Troca de Informação em Saúde
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 764, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition is a global health concern. Many studies have focused on the association of childhood undernutrition indicators with their predictors. A few studies have looked at relationship between the undernutrition indicators. This study aimed at investigating the possible association structures of childhood undernutrition indicators. METHODS: A log-linear model of cell counts of a three way table of stunting, wasting, and underweight was fitted based on the 2016 Ethiopia demographic health survey data. The variables of interest were generated based on the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards as: stunted, wasted and underweight if z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for age are below-2, respectively; otherwise not stunted, wasted and underweight. RESULTS: This study showed that 36.34, 12.09 and 24.87% were stunted, wasted and underweight out of sampled children respectively and the prevalence of total undernutrition in children was about 45.96%.The fitted log-linear model showed that underweight was associated with both stunting (P-value< 0.001), and wasting (P-value< 0.001). There was no association between stunting and wasting (P-value = 0.999). Furthermore, the model showed that there is no a three way interaction among stunting, wasting, and underweight (P-value = 1.000). CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that there is lack of three way association of stunting, wasting, and underweight. This confirms that the three anthropometric indicators of children have multi-dimensional nature. Thus, the concerned body should consider the three undernutrition indicators simultaneously to estimate the actual burden of childhood undernourishment as they are not redundant of each other.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 733, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When communicating risks to the general population, the format of the epidemiological results may affect individual reactions. In environmental epidemiology, no study has compared the use of different statistical formats in communicating results to the population. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the degree of concern expressed by residents of a high environmental risk site, regarding epidemiological results on cancer mortality in the area where they live, is influenced by the statistical indicator used in communication. METHODS: A sample of residents in the high environmental risk area of Livorno (Italy) was randomized to respond to different questionnaires, in which the same epidemiological results were expressed by two alternative risk indexes: percent excess risk and time needed to harm, defined as the number of days that one has to wait for, on average, to observe 1 death in excess in respect to the baseline. Participants were asked to express their concern on a quantitative scale or to rank different diseases according to their impressions. The statistical analysis was performed using an Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting approach based on propensity score, in order to account for sample stratification and adjust for unbalance between groups occurring despite randomization. RESULTS: The probability of high concern levels was larger under time needed to harm than under percent excess, with a difference between proportions of 6.7% (95% Confidence Interval, 0.6,12.8%). Mortality from sexual glands cancer was ranked as more worrisome and mortality from thyroid gland cancer as less worrisome under time needed to harm than under percent excess. No rank change was found for lung cancer. Larger differences between the two indicators arose in subjects with higher education or better numerical skills. CONCLUSIONS: Communicating epidemiological results to the population is not a neutral task. The degree of concern and judgments when comparing results on different diseases may depend on the risk indicators used. Translating scientific results into lay language should not exempt from careful evaluation of the impact of this translation on lay people.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 425, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study seeks to assess quality of life (QOL) and utility scores of head and neck cancer survivors. METHODS: We compared QOL as indicated by EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-H&N35, utility scores by time trade off (TTO) with previous published reference values and tested series characteristics related to global QOL and utility. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients were recruited. Of the patients, 102 (80%) completed the utility assessment. Cancer survivors had lower scores compared with norm values. Patients without a spouse had a lower utility than those with a spouse. Patients with a low annual family income also had lower global QOL and utility scores (p < 0.05). Other factors were not significantly related to QOL and utility scores. CONCLUSION: Disease and treatment of head and neck cancer lead to disability and poor health-related QOL and utility. Economic status may contribute to health-related QOL and utility, while marital status is related to utility for head and neck cancer patients.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Cônjuges/psicologia , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 495, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Breast Cancer Register (NBCR) of Sweden was launched in 2008 and is used for quality assurance, benchmarking, and research. Its three reporting forms encompass Notification, Adjuvant therapy and Follow-up. Target levels are set by national and international guidelines. This national validation assessed data quality of the register. METHODS: Data recorded through the Notification form were evaluated for completeness, timeliness, comparability and validity. Completeness was assessed by cross-linkage to the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). Comparability was analyzed by comparing registration routines in NBCR with national and international guidelines. Timeliness was defined as the difference between the earliest date of diagnosis and the reporting date to NBCR. Validity was assessed by re-abstraction of medical chart data for 800 randomly selected patients diagnosed in 2013. RESULTS: The completeness of the NBCR was high with a coverage across regions and years (2010-2014) of 99.9%. Of all incident cases reported to the NBCR in 2013 (N = 8654), 98.5% were included within 12 months and differences between health regions were essentially negligible. Coding procedures followed guidelines and were uniformly adhered to. The proportion of missing values was < 5% for most variables and reported information generally had high exact agreement (> 90%). CONCLUSIONS: Completeness of data, comparability and agreement in the NBCR was high. For clinical quality purposes and benchmarking, improved timeliness is warranted. Assessment of validity has resulted in a thorough review of all variables included in the Notification form with clarifications and revision of selected variables.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Controle de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Adulto , Benchmarking , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suécia
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 182-191, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a neglected disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Brazil has the second largest number of cases in the world. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the spatial distribution of leprosy in the state of BAHIA, Brazil, and the association between his occurrence and the synthetic indicators of municipal socioeconomic performance, social vulnerability and income inequality. METHODS: An ecological study with secondary data obtained from the National System of Notifiable Diseases. Dependent variables: coefficient of detection in the general population and in the population under 15 years old and the rate of grade II of physical disability. Independent variables: Synthetic indicators of socioeconomic performance, social vulnerability and income inequality. RESULTS: The highest coefficients of detection of new cases in the general population and in children under 15 years old are concentrated in the north-west axis and in the southern region of the state. On the other hand, the highest rates of degree II of physical incapacity are concentrated in the north, northeast and south regions. Only the Index of Social and Economic Performance(IPESE)-Economy and Finance composed the final regression model of the general detection coefficients and in children under 15 years old. The municipalities with the highest indexes had the highest detection coefficients, reflecting the capacity to diagnose new cases. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The use of synthetic indicators is a limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy presents a heterogeneous spatial pattern in the state of BAHIA, and the IPESE-Economics and Finance indicator is the only one with explanatory potential of the disease.


Assuntos
Demografia/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 504, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among community-dwelling older adults, frailty is highly prevalent and recognized as a major public health concern. To prevent frailty it is important to identify those at risk of becoming frail, but at present, no accepted screening procedure is available. METHODS: The screening process developed as part of the PERSSILAA project is a two-step screening pathway. First, older adults are asked to complete a self-screening questionnaire to assess their general health status and their level of decline on physical, cognitive and nutritional domains. Second, older adults who, according to step one, are at risk of becoming frail, are invited for a face-to-face assessment focusing on the domains in depth. We deployed the PERSSILAA screening procedure in primary care in the Netherlands. RESULTS: In total, baseline data were available for 3777 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 69.9 (SD ± 3.8)) who completed first step screening. Based on predefined cut-off scores, 16.8% of the sample were classified as frail (n = 634), 20.6% as pre-frail (n = 777), and 62.3% as robust (n = 2353). Frail subjects were referred back to their GP without going through the second step. Of the pre-frail older adults, 69.7% had evidence of functional decline on the physical domain, 67% were overweight or obese and 31.0% had evidence of cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: Pre-frailty is common among community-dwelling older adults. The PERSSILAA screening approach is a multi-factor, two-step screening process, potentially useful for primary prevention to identify those at risk of frailty and who will benefit most from preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Países Baixos , Prevalência
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(21): e15810, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124981

RESUMO

The prevalence of overweight-obesity has increased sharply among undergraduates worldwide. In 2016, approximately 52% of adults were overweight-obese. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight-obesity and explore in depth the connection between eating habits and overweight-obesity among Chinese undergraduates.The study population included 536 undergraduates recruited in Shijiazhuang, China, in 2017. They were administered questionnaires for assessing demographic and daily lifestyle characteristics, including sex, region, eating speed, number of meals per day, and sweetmeat habit. Anthropometric status was assessed by calculating the body mass index (BMI). The determinants of overweight-obesity were investigated by the Pearson χ test, Spearman rho test, multivariable linear regression, univariate/multivariate logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.The prevalence of undergraduate overweight-obesity was 13.6%. Sex [male vs female, odds ratio (OR): 1.903; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.147-3.156], region (urban vs rural, OR: 1.953; 95% CI: 1.178-3.240), number of meals per day (3 vs 2, OR: 0.290; 95% CI: 0.137-0.612), and sweetmeat habit (every day vs never, OR: 4.167; 95% CI: 1.090-15.933) were significantly associated with overweight-obesity. Eating very fast was positively associated with overweight-obesity and showed the highest OR (vs very slow/slow, OR: 5.486; 95% CI: 1.622-18.553). However, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that only higher eating speed is a significant independent risk factor for overweight/obesity (OR: 17.392; 95% CI, 1.614-187.363; P = .019).Scoremeng = 1.402 × scoresex + 1.269 × scoreregion + 19.004 × scoreeatin speed + 2.546 × scorenumber of meals per day + 1.626 × scoresweetmeat habit and BMI = 0.253 × Scoremeng + 18.592. These 2 formulas can help estimate the weight status of undergraduates and predict whether they will be overweight or obese.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 114(2): 152-161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060646

RESUMO

In the fine balance between tumor invasion and our defensive systems, the role played by the adaptive immune response at the tumor site is critical. Beyond the fact that all the immune components of the innate and adaptive response can be observed to varying degrees in the tumor microenvironment, it appears that a high density of T cytotoxic and memory lymphocytes, in a context of Th1 immune orientation in the tumor and its invasion front, provides a prognostic marker of paramount importance for colorectal cancer and more generally all solid tumors. The understanding of the role of immunity in cancer, tailored during one century of intensive research, has led to a complete paradigm shift.based on a sharp dissection In order to show the major impact of this conceptual revolution, we herein retrace through the example of colorectal cancer, how an effective immune test, namely the "Immunoscore", has been developed. We also provide up to date data demonstrating the capacity of the Immunoscore to prognosticate with a better accuracy than the TME classification clinical outcomes and to guide therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Neoplasias Retais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Células Th1/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010429, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131102

RESUMO

Background: Globally, progress in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) has been inconsistent, with several evidence showing both between and within country disparities in several RMNCH outcome measures. In this study, we aim to meta-analyse existing literature on association between three major equity stratifiers and a selection of RMNCH indicators. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus databases and grey literatures from the WHO, UNICEF and World Bank publications. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we identified and reviewed studies from low and middle-income countries, that explored the effects of inequalities on RMNCH, with focus on studies that utilised data from a nationally representative survey. The review protocol was registered at the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. Results: A total of 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results revealed the existence of marked inequality based on income levels, education and place of residence. The most significant level of disparity was with regards to unmet need for contraception and antenatal coverage. For both respective indicators, those with secondary or higher education were 6 times more likely to have better coverage, than those with lesser level of education; (odds ratio (OR) = 6.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-23.23; I2 = 98%, P = 0.006) and (OR = 6.17 (95% CI = 3.03-12.56; I2 = 97%, P < 0.00001) respectively. In contrast, the lowest inequality was in the completion of 3 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccines (DPT3), those with primary or no education, were equally as likely as those with secondary or higher education to have received DPT3; (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.34-4.27; I2 = 96%, P = 0.77). Conclusions: In developing countries, maternal and child health coverage remains highly inequitable and assess to maternal and child health services are governed by factors such as income, level of education, and place of residence.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Saúde Reprodutiva , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 627, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Area-level measures of socioeconomic deprivation are important for understanding and describing health inequalities. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation for Cypriot communities and the investigation of its association with the spatial distribution of all-cause premature adult mortality. METHODS: Six area-level socioeconomic indicators were used from the 2011 national population census (low educational attainment, unemployment, not owner occupied household, single-person household, divorced or widowed and single-parent households). After normalization and standardization of the geographically smoothed indicators, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to construct indicator weights. The association between deprivation indices and the spatial distribution of all-cause premature adult mortality was estimated in Poisson log-linear spatial models. RESULTS: PCA resulted in two principal components explaining the 65.7% of the total variance. The first principal component included four indicators (low educational attainment, single-person households, divorced or widowed and single-parent households, the latter however with a negative loading) and it thought more likely to capture rural-related aspects of deprivation. The second principal component included the other two indicators (unemployment and not owner occupied households) and it is more likely to capture urban-related aspects of material deprivation. Restricting the analysis in the metropolitan areas of the island resulted in a different set of indicators for the urban-specific deprivation index. All developed indices were linearly associated with all-cause premature adult mortality. The all-cause premature adult mortality increased by 17% per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in rural-related socioeconomic deprivation (95% CrI: 8-27%) and 8% per 1 SD increase in urban-related aspects of material deprivation (95% CrI: 3-15%) in the nationwide analysis and 9% per 1 SD increase in urban-specific socioeconomic deprivation (95% CrI: 4-15%) across metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that a set of small-area indices of socioeconomic deprivation across Cypriot communities have good construct and predictive validity. However, the study indicates that different aspects of socioeconomic deprivation may be important in rural and urban areas in Cyprus. The developed socioeconomic deprivation indices could offer a valid new tool for Cypriot public health research and policy in terms of identifying areas in greatest need, guiding resource allocation and developing area-targeted public health programmes and policies.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Censos , Chipre/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais Solteiros , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Desemprego , Viuvez
20.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(1): 134-157, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987710

RESUMO

O Brasil se destaca na América Latina pela alta institucionalização de políticas de proteção à pessoa idosa. Contudo, um problema para sua consolidação é a falta de indicadores para seu acompanhamento. O objetivo deste artigo é propor indicadores sensíveis às dimensões da saúde contempladas nas políticas em vigor voltadas para esta população. O estudo foi dividido em três etapas. Na primeira, foi traçado um panorama das políticas voltadas para a pessoa idosa e foram identificadas as diretrizes e metas comuns no que tange à saúde. Na segunda, foram selecionados indicadores sociais e de saúde para acompanhamento das áreas temáticas. Na terceira, foram calculados indicadores para o Brasil e suas grandes regiões. Considerando esta análise preliminar, podemos concluir que, apesar de ser possível calcular indicadores para o acompanhamento de políticas a partir das fontes de dados disponíveis, limitações concernentes à oportunidade dos dados, sua desagregabilidade e confiabilidade restringem sua utilização para o aprimoramento das políticas nacionais.


The high level of institutionalization of Brazilian social policies for the elderly stands out in Latin America. However, a problem underlying its consolidation is the lack of indicators for their monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to propose indicators that are sensitive to the different dimensions of health policies carried out for this population. The study is divided in three stages of research. On the first it was outlined an overview of the main public health policies dedicated to the elderly and identified common guidelines and goals concerning health. On the second stage we selected social and health indicators to follow the thematic areas. The third stage consisted in calculating the indicators proposed for Brazil and its macroregions. Considering the preliminary analysis, we can conclude that although it is possible to calculate sensitive indicators to follow the health policies using data sources available in Brazil, limitations regarding the timeliness of the data, their disaggregability and reliability restrict their use in the improvement of public policies.


Brasil se destaca en América Latina por la alta institucionalización de políticas de protección a los ancianos. Sin embargo, un problema para su consolidación es la falta de indicadores para su seguimiento y apreciación suya. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer indicadores sensibles a las dimensiones de salud de las políticas dirigidas a esta población. El estudio se dividió en tres etapas. en la primera, ha sido trazado un panorama de las políticas dirigidas hacia los ancianos y fueron identificadas las directrices y metas comunes en salud. En la segunda, han sido seleccionados indicadores sociales y de salud para seguimiento de las áreas temáticas. En la tercera, se calcularon indicadores para Brasil y sus grandes regiones. En este análisis preliminar, podemos concluir que, no obstante sea posible calcular indicadores a partir de las fuentes de datos disponibles, limitaciones concernientes a la oportunidad de los datos, su desagregación y confiabilidad suya restringen su utilización para el perfeccionamiento de las políticas públicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Política Pública , Direitos dos Idosos , Saúde do Idoso , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Brasil , Saúde Pública , Guias como Assunto , Violência Doméstica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA