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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4131-4138, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467724

RESUMO

Eleven condensed tannins were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes by various column chromatography techniques including silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). These compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS) data as stachyotannin A(1), epicatechin-(2ß→O→7,4ß→8)-epiafzelechin-(4ß→8)-catechin(2), cinnamtannin D1(3), cinnamtannin B1(4), epicatechin-(2ß→O→7,4ß→8)-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin(5), gambiriin C(6), proanthocyanidin A1(7), proanthocyanidin A2(8), aesculitannin B(9), proanthocyanidin A4(10), and procyanidin B5(11). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-11 were isolated from Indigofera for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4-11 showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced ATP release in platelets.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Proantocianidinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3171-3179, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396734

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) processing is a traditional pharmaceutical technology unique to China,which is an important means to ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. As China' s intangible cultural heritage,it contains a wealth of wisdom. With the evolution and optimization of processing methods,Indigo Naturalis,an ancient dye,has gradually become an effective medicine for the treatment of high fever in children,colitis,psoriasis,and leukemia. However,the quality of Indigo Naturalis pieces is difficult to be fundamentally improved due to the unique traditional processing method,complex technology,unclear principle,and outdated equipment. After spending 20 years in exploring the inheritance,innovation,and transformation of ancient lawtheory-principle-technology-equipment-quality control in Indigo Naturalis processing,our research group has basically expounded the processing principle and realized the modern expression and industrial transformation of traditional technology. As China enters a new era,the TCM industry has begun to undergo the high-quality transformation. It is urgent to carry out new excavations and improve the processing,quality,and clinical application of Indigo Naturalis pieces,to better inherit and innovate traditional processing technologies and meet people's demand for high-quality TCM health services.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Indigofera , Psoríase , Criança , Humanos , Índigo Carmim , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3180-3187, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396735

RESUMO

The soaking and fermentation of Baphicacanthus cusia( Nees),the important intermediate link of Indigo Naturalis processing,facilitates the synthesis of indigo and indirubin precursors and the dissolution of endogenous enzymes and other effective components,while the role of microorganisms in the fermentation is ignored. The present study investigated the changes of microbial community structure in Indigo Naturalis processing based on 16 S amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics. Meanwhile,the contents of indigo,indirubin,isatin,tryptanthrin,indole glycoside,etc. were determined to explore the correlation between the microorganisms and the alterations of the main components. As demonstrated by the results,the microbial diversity decreased gradually with the fermentation,which bottomed out after the addition of lime. Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,and Firmicutes were the main dominant communities in the fermentation. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria declined gradually with the prolongation of fermentation time,and to the lowest level after the addition of lime. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased,and that of Bacteroidetes decreased first and then increased. The contents of effective substances in Indigo Naturalis also showed different variation tendencies. As fermentation went on,indole glycoside decreased gradually; indigo first increased and then decreased; indirubin and isatin first decreased and then increased; tryptanthrin gradually increased. Those changes were presumedly related to the roles of microorganisms in the synthesis of different components. This study preliminarily clarified the important role of microorganisms in the soaking and fermentation and provided a scientific basis for the control of Indigo Naturalis processing and the preparation of high-quality Indigo Naturalis.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Microbiota , Fermentação , Índigo Carmim , Indóis
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3188-3197, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396736

RESUMO

Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim , Indigofera , Animais , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3198-3204, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396737

RESUMO

Indigo Naturalis( IN) is mainly composed of 10% organic matter and 90% inorganic matter,with a poor wettability and strong hydrophobicity. Indigo,indirubin and effective ingredients are almost insoluble in water. And how it exerts its effect after oral administration still needs to be revealed. For this reason,this study put forward the hypothesis that " Indigo Naturalis forms a slightly soluble calcium carbonate carrier in a strong acid environment of gastric fluid,and organic substances are solubilized in the bile environment of intestinal fluid",and then verified the hypothesis. First,the dissolution apparatus was used to simulate the change process of IN in different digestive fluid,and the effects of low-dose and normal bile on the dissolution of inorganic substances and the release of organic substances were compared. After the surface morphology and element changes of IN in different digestive fluid were observed,it was found that bile is the key to promoting the dissolution of organic and inorganic substances in IN. Furthermore,the rat fever model induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol was used to study the antipyretic effect of IN in normal rats and bile duct ligation rats. It was found that the antipyretic effect of IN on normal rats was better than that of bile duct ligation rats. The above results indicated that after oral administration of IN,the calcium carbonate carrier was transformed into a slightly soluble state in acidic gastric fluid,and a small amount of organic matter was released. When IN entered the intestinal fluid mixed with bile,the carrier dissolved in a large amount,and indigo and indirubin were dissolved in a large amount,so as to absorb the blood and exert the effect. This study has a certain significance for guiding clinical application of IN. For patients with insufficient bile secretion( such as bile duct resection),oral administration with IN may not be effective and shall be paid attention.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim , Indigofera , Animais , Bile , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3205-3212, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396738

RESUMO

As an effective antipyretic medicine,Indigo Naturalis has a long history of application in the field of Chinese medicine.The content of organics,mainly indigo and indirubin,is about 10%. However,the active ingredients and mechanism of its antipyretic effect have not yet been fully elucidated. In view of this,they were investigated in this study with the rectal temperature change as an indicator and 2,4-dinitrophenol-induced fever rats as subjects. The content of PGE2 and c AMP in the hypothalamus and the serum levels of TNF-α,IL-1ß and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Moreover,the plasma samples of fever rats were analyzed by metabonomics in combination with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for the exploration of potential biomarkers and the discussion on the antipyretic mechanism of Indigo Naturalis and its active ingredients. The results showed that the rising trend of rectal temperature in rats was suppressed 0. 5 h after the treatment with Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo or indirubin as compared with the rats of model group( P < 0. 05),among which Indigo Naturalis and organic matter had better antipyretic effect. ELISA results showed that organic matter and indigo can inhibit the expression of PGE2 and c AMP( P<0. 01),while Indigo Naturalis and organic matter were effective in curbing the increase in TNF-α( P<0. 05). A total of 21 endogenous metabolites were identified from the plasma samples of the Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo and indirubin groups,which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Indigofera , 2,4-Dinitrofenol , Animais , Índigo Carmim , Ratos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3213-3221, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396739

RESUMO

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface film-forming method was used to prepare hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces with stable effect.The preparation process of modified Indigo Naturalis was optimized and its microscopic properties,hydrophilicity,antipyretic efficacy,and safety were systematically evaluated.With equilibrium contact angle as assessment index,the influence of modifier type,modifier dosage,dispersant dosage,and co-grinding time on water solubility of Indigo Naturalis was investigated by single factor test.The results showed that the optimal preparation process was as follows.The 6%PEG6000 is dissolved in 10%anhydrous ethanol solution by sonification and then the mixture is ground with Indigo Naturalis for 2 min.The resultant product is dried on a square tray in an oven at 60℃to remove ethanol and thereby the PEG-modified hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces are yielded.The morphological observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the modified Indigo Naturalis had smoother surface than Indigo Naturalis,and energy spectrometer measurement showed that the nitrogen (N),calcium(Ca),oxygen (O),and silicon (Si) on the surface of modified Indigo Naturalis powder were less than those of Indigo Naturalis powder.Modified Indigo Naturalis had the equilibrium contact angle 18.96°smaller,polar component 22.222 m J·m~(-2)more,and nonpolar component 7.277 m J·m~(-2)smaller than the Indigo Naturalis powder.Multiple light scattering technique was employed to evaluate the dispersion in water and the result demonstrated that the transmittance of Indigo Naturalis and modified Indigo Naturalis was about85%and 75%,respectively,suggesting the higher dispersity of modified Indigo Naturalis.The suspension rate of modified Indigo Naturalis in water was determined by reflux treatment.The result showed that 57%of Indigo Naturalis was not wetted after refluxing for1 h,while the modified Indigo Naturalis was all wetted and dispersed into water.The dissolution of indigo and indirubin of modified Indigo Naturalis increased and the process was more stable.Then,rats were randomized into the blank group,model group,acetaminophen group,Indigo Naturalis group,and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group.The temperature changes of rats were observed after administration and the concentration of IL-1ßand TNF-αin serum and IL-1ßand PGE_2in hypothalamus was measured.The results indicated that the temperature of Indigo Naturalis group and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group dropped and the IL-1ßlevel of the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis group decreased (P<0.05) as compared with those in the model group.Thus,both Indigo Naturalis and hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis had antipyretic effect,particularly the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis.The acute toxicity test of hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis verified that it had no toxicity to rats.In this study,the hydrophilic Indigo Naturalis decoction pieces were prepared with the PEG surface film-forming method,and the antipyretic efficacy and safety were evaluated,which expanded the technological means of powder modification for Chinese medicine and provided a method for clinical use of Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Indigofera , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Índigo Carmim , Polietilenoglicóis , Ratos
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071579

RESUMO

The leguminous plant species, Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera spicata are distributed throughout the rangeland regions of Australia and the compound indospicine (L-2-amino-6-amidinohexanoic acid) found in these palatable forage plants acts as a hepatotoxin and can accumulate in the meat of ruminant livestock and wild camels. In this study, bovine rumen fluid was cultivated in an in vitro fermentation system provided with Indigofera spicata plant material and the ability of the resulting mixed microbial populations to degrade indospicine was determined using UPLC-MS/MS over a 14 day time period. The microbial populations of the fermentation system were determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and showed distinct, time-related changes occurring as the rumen-derived microbes adapted to the fermentation conditions and the nutritional substrates provided by the Indigofera plant material. Within eight days of commencement, indospicine was completely degraded by the microbes cultivated within the fermenter, forming the degradation products 2-aminopimelamic acid and 2-aminopimelic acid within a 24 h time period. The in vitro fermentation approach enabled the development of a specifically adapted, mixed microbial population which has the potential to be used as a rumen drench for reducing the toxic side-effects and toxin accumulation associated with ingestion of Indigofera plant material by grazing ruminant livestock.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Indigofera/metabolismo , Norleucina/análogos & derivados , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fermentação , Microbiota , Norleucina/metabolismo
9.
J Nat Med ; 75(4): 833-839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963491

RESUMO

Indigo Naturalis, also known as Qing Dai (QD) is a compound obtained from Indigofera tinctoria, Isatis tinctoria, and Polygonum tinctoria and is known to ameliorate refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) by an unknown mechanism. QD maintains both homeostasis and the integrity of colon epithelia in mice that have experimentally induced colitis. The primary component of QD, indigo, comprises 42.4% of the compound. Indigo efficiently suppresses rectal bleeding and reduces the erosion of the colon epithelium, whereas it does not reduce weight loss or increase survival in a certain condition. Indigo is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is involved in the anti-colitis activity of QD. Here we investigate the effects of indigo on wound (erosion) closure in colon epithelial cells. Oral administration of indigo induced expression of Cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) in the colon but not in the liver, suggesting that indigo stimulates AhR from the luminal side of the colon. The erosion-closure activity tested in the scratch assays using Caco-2 cells was accelerated by addition of QD and indigo to the culture medium. QD and indigo also induced nuclear localization of AhR and expression of CYP1A1 in the Caco-2 cells. Acceleration of scratch wound closure was abolished by addition of the AhR-antagonist CH223191. Cell proliferation and actin polymerization were also shown to contribute to erosion closure. The results suggest that indigo exerts its erosion-healing effects by increasing proliferation and migration of colon epithelial cells via activation of AhR in intestinal epithelia.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Humanos , Índigo Carmim , Camundongos , Cicatrização
11.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 25, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the oldest traditional dyes, people worldwide have used natural indigo for centuries. Local people have unique knowledge about indigo identification, which is crucial for indigo quality control and determining the dyeing effects. However, such traditional knowledge is rarely documented and explained. Therefore, the aims of this study were to document and assess the traditional knowledge used by local people when identifying natural indigo paste as well as quantitatively explore the characteristics and material basis of such traditional knowledge. METHOD: Three field surveys were conducted between 2019 and 2020. A total of 283 traditional indigo-paste artisans were interviewed in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Fujian Provinces. The frequency of citation, mention index, and fidelity level of each indigo-paste quality criterion were calculated to determine the most commonly used, recognized, and important quality criteria. To explore the characteristics and material basis of the traditional knowledge, we analyzed 21 indigo-paste samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD), pH, and particle size analyses. RESULTS: Local people possess unique knowledge to identify natural indigo. Based on this knowledge accumulated over thousands of years, four criteria (color, taste, touch, and dyeing ability) were chosen by local people, and using these criteria, nature indigo was divided into five quality grades. The best quality indigo paste was judged according to the following folk criteria: dark blue in color with a purple-red luster; smooth and difficult to wipe off; having a sweet, bitter or spicy taste; and easy cloth dyeing. Additionally, the higher the contents of indigo and indirubin-especially indirubin-the better is the quality of the indigo paste. Within the pH range of 9-12, high-quality indigo-paste was more acidic. There was no significant relationship between particle size and quality. CONCLUSION: The ancient methods used by local people for identifying natural indigo are comprehensive and unique. By documenting the various folk quality criteria and conducting quantitative analyses, this study revealed the importance of indirubin and pH for assessing the quality of indigo paste. These findings differ from existing quality standards for synthetic indigo. Amid rapid modernization, traditional knowledge remains invaluable as a world heritage of humanity that warrants preservation.


Assuntos
Corantes , Índigo Carmim , Indigofera , China , Humanos , Conhecimento
12.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 35(7): e9037, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369891

RESUMO

RATIONALE: High-throughput liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis presents an interesting platform for natural dyes research. A particular example is the assessment of the dynamic changes in fermentation mixtures of Philippine Indigofera, and in the investigation of commercially available indigo prepared using traditional and optimized methods. METHODS: Leaves from Indigofera tinctoria and Indigofera suffruticosa were subjected to methanolic extraction and aqueous fermentation for 48 h. Indigo powders prepared following 2-day and 15-day fermentation were also subjected to profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS). MS2 spectra were annotated through a library search in the community-curated Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS). Spectra with no library hits in GNPS were annotated by analysis of their fragmentation pathways. RESULTS: UHPLC/MS-based detection and fragmentation analysis led to characterization of leucoindigo and the unreported tryptanthrin intermediate, 5a-hydroxy-5,5a-dihydroindolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione, in the fermentation extract of I. tinctoria leaves. Indigo-associated metabolites were absent in an Indigofera specimen in Laguna Province, which explained why it did not produce blue dye. Locally produced indigo was abundant in indigotin and indirubin, differentiated based on product ions with the corresponding predicted fragmentation pattern. The relative intensity of indigotin, however, decreased with the traditional process of extended fermentation to produce indigo. CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to demonstrate simultaneous MS-based analysis of reaction intermediates, indigotin dye, side products, and catabolites on actively transforming fermentation extracts of I. tinctoria. New results include annotated mass spectra for leucoindigo, and for the unreported 5a-hydroxy-5,5a-dihydroindolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione, which is probably an intermediate in tryptranthrin synthesis. The proposed fragmentation schemes could guide the annotation of analogous compounds in complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Indigofera/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Corantes/química , Índigo Carmim/química , Indigofera/metabolismo , Filipinas , Folhas de Planta/química
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(5): 542-549, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749003

RESUMO

Malaria is a worldwide serious-threatening infectious disease caused by Plasmodium and the parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs has confirmed a significant obstacle to novel therapeutic antimalarial drugs. In this article, we assessed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of nanoparticles prepared from Indigofera oblongifolia extract (AgNPs) against the infection with Plasmodium chabaudi caused in mice spleen. AgNPs could significantly suppress the parasitaemia caused by the parasite to approximately 98% on day 7 postinfection with P. chabaudi and could improve the histopathological induced spleen damage. Also, AgNPs were able to increase the capsule thickness of the infected mice spleen. In addition, the AgNPs functioned as an antioxidant agent that affects the change in glutathione, nitric oxide and catalase levels in the spleen. Moreover spleen IL1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α-mRNA expression was regulated by AgNPs administration to the infected mice. These results indicated the anti-oxidant and the anti-inflammatory protective role of AgNPs against P. chabaudi-induced spleen injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Indigofera/metabolismo , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium chabaudi/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-6/análise , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Parasitemia/patologia , Baço/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
15.
Molecules ; 25(13)2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630623

RESUMO

Indigofera zollingeriana Miq (I. zollingeriana) is a widely grown tree in Vietnam. It is used to cure various illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical constituents of an I. zollingeriana extract and test its anticancer activity on hepatocellular cells (Huh7 and HepG2). The experimental results of the analysis of the bioactive compounds revealed that ß-sitosterol (ß-S) and ß-sitosterol-glucoside (ß-SG) were the main ingredients of the I. zollingeriana extract. Regarding anticancer activity, the ß-S and ß-SG of I. zollingeriana were found to exhibit cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not against normal human primary fibroblasts. The ß-S was able to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.85 ± 0.61 µg/mL and 8.71 ± 0.21 µg/mL, respectively (p < 0.01), whereas the ß-SG IC50 values were 4.64 ± 0.48 µg/mL for HepG2 and 5.25 ± 0.14 µg/mL for Huh7 cells (p < 0.01). Remarkably, our study also indicated that ß-S and ß-SG exhibited cytotoxic activities via inducing apoptosis and activating caspase-3 and -9 in these cells. These findings demonstrated that ß-S and ß-SG from I. zollingeriana could potentially be developed into promising therapeutic agents to treat liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Indigofera/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sitosteroides/química , Sitosteroides/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 259: 112966, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418900

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indigofera argentea Burm. f.; commonly known as neel, jantari, hathio; is traditionally used for the treatment of headache, fever, inflammation and body pain. Local communities also used this plant for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, vertigo and gastric disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is aimed to evaluate the toxicity and possible analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic crude extract of Indigofera argentea (IaCr) to support its use in folk medicine and to screen the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous ethanolic (30:70) extract of whole plant of Indigofera argentea (IaCr) was prepared and phytochemical study was performed by preliminary methods followed by HPLC and DPPH method. In vivo experiments were performed in Wistar albino rats including hot plate, tail immersion, formalin and capsaicin-induced pain tests in rats and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using in vitro human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while antipyretic activity was evaluated by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia test. RESULTS: The crude extract of Indigofera argentea confirmed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins as soluble ethanolic constituents in preliminary study. The maximum quantity of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) phenolics, and quercetin equivalent (QE) flavonoid content found was 81 ± 2 mg GAE/g and 56 ± 1.4 mg QE/g of extract respectively. Quantification based on HPLC exposed the presence of phenols and flavonoids, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, benzoic acid, ferulic acid and coumaric acid. In vivo experiments revealed significant P < 0.05) dose-dependent inhibition in hot plate, tail immersion and capsaicin-induced pain test. IaCr showed significant inhibition of pain latency against both phases in formalin test and considerably decreased the number of writhes caused by acetic acid at the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. In the in vitro anti-inflammatory (HRBC) assay, IaCr showed good membrane stability with maximum percentage hemolysis inhibition of 49.29% while in carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats the IaCr showed significant anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent fashion. Statistical significant reduction in rectal temperature was observed at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg in yeast-induced pyrexia test in rats. CONCLUSION: The results of the experimental studies proved the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Indigofera argentea and supported the traditional use of this plant.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Febre/prevenção & controle , Indigofera , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Dor/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/toxicidade , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Feminino , Febre/microbiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Indigofera/química , Indigofera/toxicidade , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Solventes/química
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 491-496, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237505

RESUMO

Natural indigo, as one of the oldest dyes, is also a pivotal dye utilized in cotton fabrics today. A diversity of plants rich in indigo compounds belong to traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Indigo compounds have a variety of biological and pharmacological activities, including anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. A substantial progress in indigo biosynthesis has been made lately. This paper summarizes the value of indigo from the aspects of cultural history, biosynthetic pathways and the medicinal activities of its related derivatives involved in the pathways. In addition, the latest research advancements in indigo biosynthetic pathways is demonstrated in this paper, which would lay the theoretical foundation for the exploration and utilization of natural indigo.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim/metabolismo , Indigofera/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Corantes
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 253: 112608, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004627

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indigofera is the third-largest genus in the family of Fabaceae, with approximately 750 species. It is distributed across all tropical regions. Indigofera species are widely employed in traditional medicine all around the world, against many ailments. Thus, based on these medicinal properties, various investigations have been undertaken in order to appraise the pharmacological activities and the chemical composition of these species. A recent paper provides a summary of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Indigofera. Consequently, this review is a continuation of this previous study by updating some data and adding information about the phylogeny and traditional uses of the genus. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide an overview of the phylogeny, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of the genus Indigofera, and to identify the remaining gaps and thus supply a basis for further investigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by consulting scientific databases such as 'ScienceDirect', 'PubMed', 'Google Scholar' and 'SpringerLink' and using the keyword Indigofera. RESULTS: Over 60 Indigofera species are reported in traditional medicine. The uses depend on the country and the species, but similarities have been noticed. Indeed, treatments of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory conditions and pain, skin ailments, and respiratory and infectious diseases are recurring. Phytochemical studies have led to the identification of more than 200 compounds, notably flavonoids and terpenoids. Many pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, particularly antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities, and thus allowed to assert most of the traditional uses of the genus. Some active compounds have been isolated and have shown remarkable therapeutic potential, like the alkaloid indirubin, which is currently being clinically trialed. CONCLUSIONS: The data on the genus Indigofera are extensive, but gaps still remain. Indeed, some promising species have not been assessed for their phytochemistry and/or pharmacology and thus remain unexplored. Moreover, relatively few active compounds have been isolated and tested for their biological activity, and studies to explain their mechanism of action are nearly inexistent. Furthermore, some pharmacological studies have inappropriate methodologies that make the results difficult to interpret. Consequently, further in-depth and relevant research is required to supplement the knowledge on this wide-ranging genus and to confirm its reported therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Indigofera/química , Medicina Tradicional , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122721, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986372

RESUMO

The main aim of this work is focused towards possible reuse of both solid and liquid waste generated from the natural indigo dye production process. The solid waste (C/N:15.01) was utilized to produce stable compost with possible re-use in Indigofera cultivation. Among seven compost combinations (C1-C7) using jeevamrutha (JA) and cow-dung (CD) as inoculum, C4 with 8% JA showed higher biomass degradation (51%) and plant growth potential (GI > 125%). Whereas the undiluted liquid waste was treated using algal consortia, bacteria, and indigenous microbial population, achieved a maximum removal of 90% ammonia, 82% nitrate, and 88% phosphorus for its re-use in the dye production process. Hence, incorporation of suitable waste management strategies in natural indigo dye production could help to achieve a zero waste sustainable process.


Assuntos
Indigofera , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Corantes , Feminino , Índigo Carmim , Resíduos Sólidos
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 558-562, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388891

RESUMO

Methanol extract of Indigofera hirsuta, was evaluated for its antiradical potential and capacity in inhibiting lipoxygenase and aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes. The ethyl acetate fraction derived from the methanol extract partition, showed the greatest antioxidant capacity, while the butanol was the strongest inhibitor of lipoxygenase enzyme. All fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and the aqueous residue) exhibited strong inhibition capacity of both aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes, which comes in agreement with the ethnomedicinal plant utilization as an antidiabetic agent. LC-DAD-MS(ESI+) fraction analysis verified the findings above, leading to a conclusion regarding the biological activities attributed to the main compounds. Phytochemical analysis led to the identification of an indolic dimer, cinnamic acids, phenolics, flavonoid glycosides, a cyclic polyol, the rare sugar 1-methyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside and glycerol. Many of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Indigofera species while the indolic dimer was isolated for the first time in the Fabaceae family.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Indigofera/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
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