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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 76, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471234

RESUMO

Population growth and an increase in communities' economies have led to a worldwide rise in water demand. The development of urban areas will cause excessive groundwater extraction, which will trigger environmental impacts, including a decline in groundwater levels. Changes in rainfall, land use, and the volume of urban wastewater recharge patterns will affect groundwater level fluctuations over a period of time. This study investigates the effects of rainfall, changes in irrigated agricultural land, and urban wastewater volume trends on groundwater level fluctuations in the Yogyakarta-Sleman groundwater basin, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2017. Analysis of the trend of each parameter was performed using the Mann-Kendall test. The results showed that the recharge area had a trend of deeper groundwater levels positively correlated with the decrease of irrigated agricultural land. In contrast, precipitation trends and urban wastewater volume were negatively associated with the groundwater level fluctuation trend. In the transit area, shallow groundwater levels were positively correlated with precipitation and urban wastewater volume. In contrast, there was an opposite trend in the area of irrigated agricultural land. In the discharge area, groundwater levels became deeper, which positively correlates with precipitation and irrigated agricultural land, while the urban wastewater trend was the opposite. Increasing of groundwater level in the transit area was 0.21-0.25 m/year, where recharge and discharge areas had a decreasing 0.10-0.26 m/year. Import water from municipal water networks and urban wastewater recharge significantly contributed to rising groundwater levels in the transit area. It occurs because urban wastewater in the transit is evenly distributed, but in recharge and discharge areas, groundwater recharge from urban wastewater is localized. The urbanization process did not always negatively impact groundwater resources and contribute to groundwater recharge, depending on managing the urban sewage.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indonésia , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111446, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212354

RESUMO

The rapid increase in global production of and demand for palm oil has resulted in large-scale expansion of oil palm monoculture in the world's tropical regions, particularly in Indonesia. This expansion has led to the conversion of carbon-rich land-use types to oil palm plantations with a range of negative environmental impacts, including loss of carbon from aboveground biomass and soil. Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing oil palm plantations is an important strategy to limit carbon losses. The aim of this study was to investigate SOC stocks of oil palm plantations under different management systems. Soil samples were collected from three different management systems (best management practices (BMP), current management practices typical of large plantations (CMP) and smallholder management practices (SHMP)) in north Sumatra, Indonesia. Plantations were divided into four management zones that were sampled separately with four replicate profiles in the weeded circle, frond stack, harvesting path and interrow zones. All the soil samples were collected from five (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50 and 50-70 cm) soil depths. Soil samples were analysed for concentration of SOC, soil texture, soil bulk density and pH. Calculations of SOC stocks in the soils were undertaken according to the fixed-depth and equivalent soil mass approaches. Results showed that SOC stocks of plantations under BMP (68 t ha-1) were 31% and 18% higher than under CMP (57 t ha-1) and SHMP (46 t ha-1) respectively. In the BMP system, soils under the interrow zone that received enriched mulch and frond stack positions stored significantly more SOC than the harvesting path of the BMP system (77, 73 and 57 t ha-1 respectively). BMP also had a 33% higher fresh fruit bunch yield compared to the SHMP system. This study shows that residue incorporation or retention as a part of BMP could be an effective strategy for increasing SOC stocks of oil palm plantations and confirms that these management practices could improve yields from SHMP systems.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Indonésia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142346, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182182

RESUMO

The biological effects of low dose-rate radiation exposures on humans remains unknown. In fact, the Japanese nation still struggles with this issue after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Recently, we have found a unique area in Indonesia where naturally high radiation levels are present, resulting in chronic low dose-rate radiation exposures. We aimed to estimate the comprehensive dose due to internal and external exposures at the particularly high natural radiation area, and to discuss the enhancement mechanism of radon. A car-borne survey was conducted to estimate the external doses from terrestrial radiation. Indoor radon measurements were made in 47 dwellings over three to five months, covering the two typical seasons, to estimate the internal doses. Atmospheric radon gases were simultaneously collected at several heights to evaluate the vertical distribution. The absorbed dose rates in air in the study area vary widely between 50 nGy h-1 and 1109 nGy h-1. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 124 Bq m-3 to 1015 Bq m-3. That is, the indoor radon concentrations measured exceed the reference levels of 100 Bq m-3 recommended by the World Health Organization. Furthermore, the outdoor radon concentrations measured were comparable to the high indoor radon concentrations. The annual effective dose due to external and internal exposures in the study area was estimated to be 27 mSv using the median values. It was found that many residents are receiving radiation exposure from natural radionuclides over the dose limit for occupational exposure to radiation workers. This enhanced outdoor radon concentration might be as a result of the stable atmospheric conditions generated at an exceptionally low altitude. Our findings suggest that this area provides a unique opportunity to conduct an epidemiological study related to health effects due to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Radiação de Fundo , Humanos , Indonésia , Doses de Radiação , Radônio/análise
5.
Zootaxa ; 4861(4): zootaxa.4861.4.4, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311207

RESUMO

Nematodes from four families comprising 18 species identified to species level, six to subfamily level as well as larval and adult heligmonellids and juvenile females of an undetermined family were recovered from eight individuals of Paramelomys levipes and 27 individuals of P. mollis (Muridae: Murinae: Uromys Division) from Papua New Guinea and Papua, Indonesia. Originally all the hosts were registered as P. levipes in the Australian and Bishop museum collections, but the probable identity of the host individuals was decided according to the altitude of the collection sites. A capillariid, Capillaria s. l., a putative species of the Nippostrongylinae and a small number of male and female nippostrongylins could not be identified further. The spirurid Protospirura kaindiensis had been previously reported from Sahulan Old Endemic fauna. The oxyurid Syphacia (Syphacia) dewiae n. sp. differed from all its congeners in having an oval laterally extended cephalic plate with a dorso-ventral constriction, cervical and lateral alae, a female tail up to 1400 long and a spicule up to 102 long. The remaining species, all heligmonellids included the brevistriatin Macrostrongylus ingens and 14 nippostrongylin species. Of these Hughjonestrongylus amplicauda, H. mirzai, H. singauwaensis, and Odilia mackerrasae had been reported previously in species of Paramelomys. Species of Flannerystrongylus and Parasabanema, possibly new species, could not be described further. Flannerystrongylus chisholmae n. sp., a smaller worm, differed from its congener F. abulus in having a spicule to body length ratio of 13.2% and only 6 eggs in utero. Helgenema keablei n. gen., n. sp. differed from the 44 nippostrongylin genera known to date in having a synlophe of 11- 15 small ridges and a left cuticular dilatation supported anteriorly by a single large ridge. Paramelomystrongylus dessetae n. gen., n. sp. differed from all other nippostrongylin genera in having a synlophe of 13-16 ridges with a type A carene supported by 2 hypertrophied ridges and the right lateral ridges larger than the dorsal and ventral ridges. Parasabanema sene n. sp. differed from its congener, P. szalayi, in having a synlophe of 30 ridges. Hughjonestrongylus alisoni n. sp., H. arfakiensis n. sp., H. digianiae n. sp. and H. spratti n. sp. were distinguished from all other species of Hughjonestrongylus and each other by a combination of characters including the number of synlophe ridges, 28, 21-26, 20-23, 22-25 respectively, in the mid body, spicule length, proportions of the ovejector and shape of the female posterior end. The combined helminth assemblage was dominated by heligmonellids, as has been reported for other paramelomys, with eight species as well as the oxyurid being unique to P. levipes and P. mollis. Overlapping of host habitat could account for the similarities of the nematode assemblages recorded for those species of paramelomys that have been studied.


Assuntos
Murinae , Nematoides , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Murinae/parasitologia , Papua Nova Guiné
6.
Zootaxa ; 4861(4): zootaxa.4861.4.7, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311210

RESUMO

The genus Celebesia Bolívar, 1917 consists of four species endemic to Sulawesi Island, namely C. acuticerca C. Bolívar, 1917, C. ferruginata (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1898), C. heinrichi Ramme, 1941, and C. linduensis Storozhenko, sp. nov. Distribution of species is clarified and an updated key to the species of Celebesia is given. Male genitalia of this genus is described and illustrated for the first time. The genus Pyrgophistes Key, 1992 is transferred from the tribe Catantopini to Mesambriini and a new synonymy is proposed: Mesambriini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 = Pyrgophistina Key, 1993, syn. nov.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4885(4): zootaxa.4885.4.5, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311260

RESUMO

Taxonomy of eusocial wasps (Polistinae and Vespinae) occurring in Sulawesi Island, the central island of Wallacea, is reviewed. Sixteen (12 polistine and four vespine) species are recognized. Polistes (Polistella) stigma, known to be widely distributed in southern Asia and Australasia, is newly recorded for Sulawesi Island. A key to the Sulawesian eusocial wasp species is provided. Their biogeographical characteristics are discussed to show that the Sulawesian eusocial wasp fauna is composed of Oriental elements.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243703, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the first cases reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. In Indonesia, the first case was reported in early March 2020, and the numbers of confirmed infections have been increasing until now. Efforts to contain the virus globally and in Indonesia are ongoing. This is the very first manuscript using a spatial-temporal model to describe the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Indonesia, as well as providing a patient profile for all confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHOD: Data was collected from the official website of the Indonesia National Task Force for the Acceleration of COVID-19, from the period of 02 March 2020-02 August 2020. The data from RT-PCR confirmed, SARS-CoV-2 positive patients was categorized according to demographics, symptoms and comorbidities based on case categorization (confirmed, recovered, dead). The data collected provides granular and thorough information on time and geographical location for all 34 Provinces across Indonesia. RESULTS: A cumulative total of 111,450 confirmed cases of were reported in Indonesia during the study period. Of those confirmed cases 67.79% (75,551/111,450) were shown as recovered and 4.83% (5,382/111,450) of them as died. Patients were mostly male (50.52%; 56,300/111,450) and adults aged 31 to 45 years old (29.73%; 33,132/111,450). Overall patient presentation symptoms of cough and fever, as well as chronic disease comorbidities were in line with previously published data from elsewhere in South-East Asia. The data reported here, shows that from the detection of the first confirmed case and within a short time period of 40 days, all the provinces of Indonesia were affected by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide detailed characteristics of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients in Indonesia, including their demographic profile and COVID-19 presentation history. It used a spatial-temporal analysis to present the epidemic spread from the very beginning of the outbreak throughout all provinces in the country. The increase of new confirmed cases has been consistent during this time period for all provinces, with some demonstrating a sharp increase, in part due to the surge in national diagnostic capacity. This information delivers a ready resource that can be used for prediction modelling, and is utilized continuously by the current Indonesian Task Force in order to advise on potential implementation or removal of public distancing measures, and on potential availability of healthcare capacity in their efforts to ultimately manage the outbreak.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , /patogenicidade , /diagnóstico , /virologia , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22386, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372191

RESUMO

This paper presents a study of early epidemiological assessment of COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Indonesia. The aim is to quantify heterogeneity in the numbers of secondary infections. To this end, we estimate the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the overdispersion parameter [Formula: see text] at two regions in Indonesia: Jakarta-Depok and Batam. The method to estimate [Formula: see text] is based on a sequential Bayesian method, while the parameter [Formula: see text] is estimated by fitting the secondary case data with a negative binomial distribution. Based on the first 1288 confirmed cases collected from both regions, we find a high degree of individual-level variation in the transmission. The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is estimated at 6.79 and 2.47, while the overdispersion parameter [Formula: see text] of a negative-binomial distribution is estimated at 0.06 and 0.2 for Jakarta-Depok and Batam, respectively. This suggests that superspreading events played a key role in the early stage of the outbreak, i.e., a small number of infected individuals are responsible for large numbers of COVID-19 transmission. This finding can be used to determine effective public measures, such as rapid isolation and identification, which are critical since delay of diagnosis is the most common cause of superspreading events.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , /transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , /crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(4): 388-412, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377885

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has inflicted catastrophic damages in public health, economic and social stability-putting life globally on hold in 2020 and presumably a year more. Indonesia bears a heavy burden of the pandemic, counting the highest case prevalence and fatality rate in all of Southeast Asia. One hope remains in the groundbreaking universal effort in search of a vaccine against the causative virus SARS-CoV-2, which has shown success unparalleled in human vaccine development thus far. An array of modalities including novel techniques are being utilized as vaccine platforms, with the closest to phase III clinical trial completion being mRNA (manufactured by Moderna and BioNTech/Pfizer), inactivated virus (Sinovac, Sinopharm), viral vector (Oxford/AstraZeneca, Gamaleya, Janssen/Johnson&Johnson, CanSino), and protein subunit (Novavax). The vaccine produced by BioNTech/Pfizer has been deployed to the public as the first ever licensed COVID-19 vaccine. In this review, we will review all of these modalities on their safety and immunogenicity, phase II/III trial results of the nine vaccine candidates and current situation as of 29 December 2020, as well as the implication for use and distribution in Indonesia. COVID-19 vaccine progress, however, is moving exceedingly fast and new advances are unfolding on a daily basis, to which we hope an update to this review can be published in early 2021.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , /imunologia , /provisão & distribução , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Indonésia , Seleção de Pacientes , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , /imunologia , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas Sintéticas
11.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(4): 423-430, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377888

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption in all aspects of life, and countries around the world have been combating this pandemic using multiple approaches. Success in one country does not guarantee a transferable approach to other countries with different contexts. This review describes the challenges of COVID-19 management in Indonesia as a populous, socially and culturally diverse, and archipelagic country. It aims to provide multidisciplinary perspectives for a safe, evidence-based, and productive new normal as well as a comprehensive and integrated actionable policy for COVID-19 control.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Indonésia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Política Organizacional , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(4): 431-435, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377889

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 as global pandemic since there are tremendous growing numbers of confirmed cases for SARS-C0V-2 infection, the number of affected countries and high mortality rate. The global COVID-19 pandemic also will affect various aspects of health care including endoscopic service. The Indonesian Society for Digestive Endoscopy (ISDE), which provides a scope for doctors who perform endoscopic procedures, has developed a clinical and procedural guideline that may serve as a reference for doctors performing gastrointestinal endoscopy in Indonesia.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/normas , Controle de Infecções/métodos , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
14.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(6): 6355-6389, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378859

RESUMO

A total of more than 27 million confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus outbreak, also known as COVID-19, have been reported as of September 7, 2020. To reduce its transmission, a number of strategies have been proposed. In this study, mathematical models with nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions were formulated and analyzed. The first model was formulated without the inclusion of community awareness. The analysis focused on investigating the mathematical behavior of the model, which can explain how medical masks, medical treatment, and rapid testing can be used to suppress the spread of COVID-19. In the second model, community awareness was taken into account, and all the interventions considered were represented as time-dependent parameters. Using the center-manifold theorem, we showed that both models exhibit forward bifurcation. The infection parameters were obtained by fitting the model to COVID-19 incidence data from three provinces in Indonesia, namely, Jakarta, West Java, and East Java. Furthermore, a global sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential parameters on the number of new infections and the basic reproduction number. We found that the use of medical masks has the greatest effect in determining the number of new infections. The optimal control problem from the second model was characterized using the well-known Pontryagin's maximum principle and solved numerically. The results of a cost-effectiveness analysis showed that community awareness plays a crucial role in determining the success of COVID-19 eradication programs.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Algoritmos , Número Básico de Reprodução , Análise Custo-Benefício , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Informática em Saúde Pública
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13485, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222357

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine mtDNA sequences of the 481 bp HV1 region from two Indonesian native goat breeds, Kacang and Marica, to confirm the phylogeographic distribution of caprine haplogroup B in Southeast Asia. Based on these sequences, 12 haplotypes were observed and categorized into the predominant haplogroup B and minority haplogroup A, indicating that Indonesian native goats present the highest frequency (0.950) of the haplogroup B in the world. These results strongly emphasize previous observations of the haplogroup B frequencies tending to increase southeastward in Southeast Asia. Additionally, this suggests that goats primary bred into Southeast Asia might predominantly carry haplogroup B. This could essentially contribute to the understanding of the origin, propagation route and/or introgression history of Southeast Asian goats.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Introgressão Genética/genética , Cabras/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Cruzamento , Indonésia , Filogenia
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181914

RESUMO

Climate Change solutions include CO2 extraction from atmosphere and water with burial by living habitats in sediment/soil. Nowhere on the planet are blue carbon plants which carry out massive carbon extraction and permanent burial more intensely concentrated than in SE Asia. For the first time we make a national and total inventory of data to date for "blue carbon" buried from mangroves and seagrass and delineate the constraints. For an area across Southeast Asia of approximately 12,000,000 km2, supporting mangrove forests (5,116,032 ha) and seagrass meadows (6,744,529 ha), we analyzed the region's current blue carbon stocks. This estimate was achieved by integrating the sum of estuarine in situ carbon stock measurements with the extent of mangroves and seagrass across each nation, then summed for the region. We found that mangroves ecosystems regionally supported the greater amount of organic carbon (3095.19Tg Corg in 1st meter) over that of seagrass (1683.97 Tg Corg in 1st meter), with corresponding stock densities ranging from 15 to 2205 Mg ha-1 and 31.3 to 2450 Mg ha-1 respectively, a likely underestimate for entire carbon including sediment depths. The largest carbon stocks are found within Indonesia, followed by the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Tropical China, Viet-Nam, and Cambodia. Compared to the blue carbon hotspot of tropical/subtropical Gulf of Mexico's total carbon stock (480.48 Tg Corg), Southeast Asia's greater mangrove-seagrass stock density appears a more intense Blue Carbon hotspot (4778.66 Tg Corg). All regional Southeast Asian nation states should assist in superior preservation and habitat restoration plus similar measures in the USA & Mexico for the Gulf of Mexico, as apparently these form two of the largest tropical carbon sinks within coastal waters. We hypothesize it is SE Asia's regionally unique oceanic-geologic conditions, placed squarely within the tropics, which are largely responsible for this blue carbon hotspot, that is, consistently high ambient light levels and year-long warm temperatures, together with consistently strong inflow of dissolved carbon dioxide and upwelling of nutrients across the shallow geological plates.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Ecossistema , Ásia Sudeste , China , Golfo do México , Indonésia , Malásia , Papua Nova Guiné , Filipinas , Tailândia , Vietnã , Áreas Alagadas
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1053, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has rapidly spread, causing million confirmed cases, thousands of deaths, and economic losses. The number of cases of COVID-19 in Jakarta is the largest in Indonesia. Furthermore, Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia which has the densest population in the country. There is need for geospatial analysis to evaluate the demand in contrast to the capacity of Referral Hospitals and to model the spreading case of Covid-19 in order to support and organize an effective health service. METHODS: We used the data from local government publicity for COVID-19 as trusted available sources. By using the verifiable data by observation from the local government, we estimated the spatial pattern of distribution of cases to estimate the growing cases. We performed service area and Origin-Destination (OD) Cost Matrix in support to existing referral hospital, and to create Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) model to determine the spatial distribution of COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified more than 12.4 million people (86.7%) based on distance-based service area, live in the well served area of the referral hospital. A total 2637 positive-infected cases were identified and highly concentrated in West Jakarta (1096 cases). The results of OD cost matrix in a range of 10 km show a total 908 unassigned cases from 24 patient's centroid which was highly concentrated in West Jakarta. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the needs for additional referral hospitals specializing in the treatment of COVID-19 and spatial illustration map of the growth of COVID-19' case in support to the implementation of social distancing in Jakarta.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(11): 484-486, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121570

RESUMO

The pandemic has affected all walks of life and businesses, including education at all levels. Movement controls have forced the schools and universities to migrate the teaching and learning to be fully online. Some universities in large cities in Malyasia had already implemented blended learning and thus, were better prepared to adjust to the current situation. However, the universities, which practiced mainly traditional didactic courses, were struggling to suddenly change the mode of delivery. Many relied on the creativity of the lecturers and students.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4819(1): zootaxa.4819.1.9, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055676

RESUMO

A new species of Macrognathus of the M. aculeatus species group is described from the Kahayan River drainage in southern Borneo, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Macrognathus kris, new species, is distinguished from all Asian congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: rim of anterior nostril with two fimbriae and two fimbrules; 43-45 rostral tooth plates; 24-25 dorsal spines; 46-55 dorsal-fin rays; 51-59 anal-fin rays; 20-23 principal caudal-fin rays; 76-78 total vertebrae; body depth at anus 11.8-15.9% SL; color pattern consisting of light brown stripe on dorsum and 11-14 irregular pentagonal dark brown blotches on sides of body.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Bornéu , Enguias , Indonésia , Rios
20.
Zootaxa ; 4830(1): zootaxa.4830.1.8, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056257

RESUMO

The bent-toed geckos of the genus Cyrtodactylus are the most speciose land vertebrates of Southeast Asia (about 300 species so far) and new species continue to be recognized at a rapid rate. Within the last decade three new species were described from Java, Indonesia, C. semiadii, C. petani, and C. klakahensis. The latter two are very similar, except for differences in the precloacal depression in adult males. These two species have relatively close type localities, separated from each other by only about 50 km, and with similar habitat type and elevation. Our study aimed to evaluate the taxonomic status of C. klakahensis and C. petani using both morphological and genetic evidence. These two species are genetically similar, with a genetic divergence of only 1.5 to 1.6%. This divergence is well below the level of typically characterizes sister species of Cyrtodactylus (approximately 4% in the mitochondrial ND2 gene), and is more in line with population variation due to geographic distance. Further examination of specimens, from both type localities, showed no diagnostic morphological characters between the two species. Thus, we conclude that C. klakahensis and C. petani are conspecific, and following article 23 of the ICZN, C. klakahensis is herein considered a junior synonym of C. petani.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cor , Ecossistema , Deriva Genética , Indonésia , Masculino
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