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1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(11): 484-486, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121570

RESUMO

The pandemic has affected all walks of life and businesses, including education at all levels. Movement controls have forced the schools and universities to migrate the teaching and learning to be fully online. Some universities in large cities in Malyasia had already implemented blended learning and thus, were better prepared to adjust to the current situation. However, the universities, which practiced mainly traditional didactic courses, were struggling to suddenly change the mode of delivery. Many relied on the creativity of the lecturers and students.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia
3.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 193-195, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020329

RESUMO

Since the 1st case officially confirmed on the last March 2020, Indonesia recorded more than 1000 new cases daily. The national trend shows no sign of decrease as 19 September 2020 the report sets a new mark of 4000 new cases in a day. The concept of controlling disease transmission relies on contacts suppression; and on the longer end, relies on vaccinations. As 27 September 2020, no vaccine is approved for use in the general population. Until then, countries should implement early, widespread, and strict disease mitigation strategies. While much remains to be learned on COVID-19, global evidence assert at least three strategies at the population level contributes to flatten the curve: mobility restriction, testing and isolation and rigorous contact-tracing.Indonesia is not on entire absences of actions, but the epidemic calls for more. The central government called for social distancing two weeks after the first case confirmed and regulation on the large scale social distancing (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar/ PSBB) that restrict non-essential population mobility is enacted by April 2020. Recent evidence outlines test, tracing and isolation are effective in suppressing COVID-19 transmission. Minimizing testing and tracing delay, less than four days with coverage of 80% close contacts could prevent and reduce onwards transmission.That we need to more is indisputable. The vaccine is not a magic bullet; it is a long-term control measure and should be a complete series of careful and precise examinations. Indonesia will also likely require high coverage of vaccination to achieve herd immunity. At present, if there is no significant improvement in the coverage of preventive measures in the population and disease surveillance system, our hospital will be overwhelmed, and case fatality will be devastating.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia
4.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 196-198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020330

RESUMO

Since the detection of the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early March 2020, 248,852 cases have been detected in Indonesia by 21 September 2020. At least 100 doctors have died from COVID-19 nationwide. Full large-scale social restriction was a temporary measure, followed by an early transition to the new normal era during the never-ending first wave in the country. Workers in industrial, retail, transport, and tourism fields suffered a significant decrease in work. Many countries are, however, in dilemma of protecting the health of the citizens and prioritising economy. Health should be prioritised because it is an important aspect of our lives for our economy. Poor health is estimated to reduce global gross domestic product (GDP) by 15% annually through premature deaths and potential loss of productivity of the working-age citizens. Pandemics also depress economy through decrease in both supply and demand. Data from flu pandemic a century ago suggested the importance of aggressiveness and speed of intervention. Taiwan's early action led to beneficial effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection rate and economy recovery. The target of enhancement of containment measures, provision of personal protective equipments, and testing and isolation facilities should be achieved earlier and be more than the projected demand.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia
5.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 199-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020331

RESUMO

Latar BelakangSebanyak 38.6% kasus kematian pasien COVID-19 di Indonesia terjadi di populasi lansia. Data mengenai profil klinis pasien rawat inap lansia dengan COVID-19 masih tidak ada. Padahal kelompok pasien ini adalah pasien risiko tinggi selama pandemi ini yang memerlukan perhatian lebih.MetodeStudi deskriptif ini menggunakan data lengkap pasien lansia dengan COVID-19 yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo) dari April hingga akhir Agustus 2020. Data termasuk karakteristik klinis, gejala, komorbiditas, multimorbiditas dan luaran mortalitas pasien.HasilDi populasi pasien lansia (n=44), mayoritas berusia di antara 60-69 tahun (68%), berjenis kelamin laki-laki (66%), dan tidak memiliki riwayat kontak erat dengan pasien COVID-19 sebelumnya (86%). Gejala tersering ialah demam, batuk, dan sesak yang merupakan gejala khas COVID-19, sedangkan penyakit kronis tersering adalah diabetes melitus, hipertensi, dan keganasan. Multimorbiditas ditemukan hanya di 14% pasien lansia, dan para pasien tersebut bertahan hidup pasca infeksi virus SARS-CoV-2. Angka kematian pasien lansia rawat inap dengan COVID-19 di studi ini adalah 23%, dan 90% dari kasus kematian berjenis kelamin laki-laki.KesimpulanPasien laki-laki mendominasi kasus terkonfirmasi dan kasus kematian lansia dengan COVID-19. Gejala khas COVID-19 hanya ditemukan di sekitar setengah pasien penelitian. Pasien yang meninggal dunia memiliki persentase gejala khas lebih tinggi. Gejala tidak khas pun mungkin ditemukan di pasien lansia. Immunosenescence dan fungsi imunoregulasi jenis kelamin tertentu dihipotesiskan memiliki peran penting dalam menyebabkan kematian lansia di studi ini.Kata Kunci: Profil Klinis, Lansia, Pasien Geriatri, COVID-19, Indonesia  ABSTRACTBackgroundOlder people contributed to 38.6% of death cases related to COVID-19 in Indonesia. Data regarding clinical profile of hospitalised elderly with COVID-19 in Indonesia were still lacking. Older people are at-risk population in the pandemic, whom we should pay attention to.MethodsThis single centre descriptive study utilised complete data of elderly inpatients with COVID-19 in Indonesia's national general hospital from April to late August 2020. The data consisted of clinical characteristics, symptoms, comorbidities, multimorbidity, and mortality outcome.ResultsAmong elderly patients (n=44), a majority of patients were aged 60-69 years (68%), were male (66%), and had no history of close contact with COVID-19 patient (86%). The most common symptoms were fever, cough and shortness of breath (classic symptoms of COVID-19), whereas the most common chronic diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and malignancy. Multimorbidity was only found in 14% of patients, all of whom remained alive following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The death rate among elderly inpatients with COVID-19 in this study was 23%, and male older adults contributed to 90% of death cases.ConclusionMale patients dominated both confirmed cases and death cases among elderly with COVID-19. Classic symptoms of COVID-19 were only found in about half of the study patients. Non-survivors had higher percentage of the classic symptoms of COVID-19 than survivors. Atypical COVID-19 presentations are possible in older adults. We postulated that immunosenescence and sex-specific immunoregulatory function play an important role in causing death in this study cohort. Keywords: Clinical Profile, Elderly, Geriatric Patient, COVID-19, Indonesia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
6.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 206-213, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is caused by a novel coronavirus. One of the most used strategies that can be used to control the spread of COVID-19 is the 3T (test, trace, and treatment) strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the 3T strategy to control COVID-19 infection in a COVID-19 Referral Hospital in Depok, West Java, Indonesia. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study conducted at the University of Indonesia Hospital. The study was conducted in June 2020 with 742 participants (staff members) using secondary data from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results. We presented data in the descriptive form and performed bivariate analysis using the chi-square/Fischer test for categorical data. RESULTS: the PCR test results were positive in 83 (11.1%) participants, with a case-per-tracing ratio of 1:24 and 1:2 in the first and third phases of tracing, respectively. The COVID-19 case graph for the participants decreased along with the implementation of the 3T strategy. The positivity rate in the first phase of tracing was 20% and decreased to 5% in the third phase of tracing. Staff with confirmed positive test results were advised to isolate themselves (hospital or self-isolation). Hospital isolation was found to be associated with the duration of PCR test conversion (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: the 3T strategy is effective for controlling the spread of COVID-19. The strategy should be implemented simultaneously with other health precautions to reduce the risk of spreading infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , DNA Viral/análise , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 214-226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: autoimmune patients can be more susceptible to infection. Proper knowledge, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 are essential for these patients during pandemic. This study aimed to know their knowledge, perception, and practices regarding COVID-19. METHODS: cross sectional study using online survey was conducted from April to May 2020. Patients with autoimmune disease were asked about demographic characteristics, diagnosis, history of treatment, knowledge, perception, and practice regarding COVID-19. RESULTS: there were 685 respondents. Most of them were female and had systemic lupus erythematosus with median age of 37 years old. Almost all respondents had good knowledge regarding transmission of COVID-19 and did proper prevention practices. Adequacy of information and steroid or mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid (MMF/MPA) use were related to perception of the effect of pandemic to their own health. Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. Work from home was related to perception that when contracting COVID-19, the symptoms would be more severe. Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. CONCLUSION: almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19. Adequacy of information, autoimmune treatment, work from home, educational background, area of living, and health care facilities contributed to perception regarding COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease that is now a pandemic. Indonesia is experiencing a rapid surge of cases but the local data are scarce. METHODS: this is an analysis using data from the ongoing recapitulation of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES) by the Provincial Health Office of Jakarta from March 2nd to April 27th 2020. We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of all confirmed cases in association with death. RESULTS: of the 4,052 patients, 381 (9.4%) patients were deceased. Multivariable analysis showed that death was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.05, per year increase; p<0.001), dyspnea (OR 4.83; 95% CI 3.20, 7.29; p<0.001), pneumonia (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.56, 3.88; p<0.001), and pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.24, 2.78; p=0.003). Death was highest in the week of April 6th 2020 and declined in the subsequent weeks, after a large-scale social restriction commenced. CONCLUSION: older age, dyspnea, pneumonia, and pre-existing hypertension were associated with death. Mortality was high, but may be reduced by lockdown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 299-305, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020342

RESUMO

AbstrakCOVID-19 telah menjadi pandemik di Indonesia sejak ditemukannya kasus pertama pada tanggal 2 Maret 2020 di Depok. Peningkatan kasus perhari semakin tinggi sejak akhir Agustus 2020 yang mencapai lebih dari 2000 kasus per hari. Sistem kesehatan di Indonesia perlu ditingkatkan dalam hal kapasitas, termasuk rehabilitasi medik yang harus dilibatkan dari fase akut hingga jangka panjang dalam penanganan pasien COVID-19. Rehabilitasi medik juga diperlukan untuk pasien lain yang bukan COVID-19. Pentingnya keterlibatan, pelayanan rehabilitasi medik dan implementasinya dimasa pandemic COVID-19 memerlukan strategi tersendiri yang harus dilakukan baik oleh pekerja kesehatannya, rumah sakit dan kebijakan pemerintah. Hal ini diperlukan untuk percepatan peningkatan kesehatan pasien, percepatan pemulangan dan menghindari readmisi pasien, dan juga pengoptimalan program kembali bekerja untuk pasien yang sembuh dari COVID-19.AbstractCOVID-19 has become a pandemic in Indonesia since the first cases have been positively diagnosed on 2 March 2020 in Depok. The cases have been increased gradually since the end of August 2020 that has reached 1000 cases per day. The health system in Indonesia needs to be improved in terms of capacity, including rehabilitation medicine that should be involved in all health phases (from acute to long-term) in managing patients with COVID-19. Rehabilitation is also still needed for other non-COVID-19 patients. The importance of involvement and implementation of rehabilitation services during the COVID-19 pandemic will need special strategies that should be done by rehabilitation professionals, hospitals, and government. These are necessary to accelerate the improvement of patients' health, discharge, and avoid re-admission, as well as optimize return-to-work for patients who are recovered from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Reabilitação/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967082

RESUMO

Prevalence studies on Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) need stringent reporting on outcomes following existing guidelines. Only by doing so, the much-needed comparisons between occupations, regions and climates for the elucidation of the etiology/etiologies of CKDu, and subsequently for its prevention, are possible. We, here, comment on methodological issues in a recently published study on rice farmers from West Java, Indonesia.


Assuntos
Oryza , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867016

RESUMO

Stunting is highly prevalent in Indonesian children. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of stunting with morbidity, parental education and socioeconomic status (SES) in Indonesian children. The study population was part of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). A total of 2236 Indonesian children aged 0.5 to 12 years, who had participated in the SEANUTS, were included in this study. Stunting was defined as height for age Z-score (HAZ) ≤ -2 using WHO criteria and severe stunting as HAZ ≤ -3. Information on morbidity, parental education and family SES were collected by structured questionnaires. ANOVA was used for evaluating differences across groups, with or without correction for confounders. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting was 31.4%. HAZ in stunted children was associated with disease incidence, including frequency, parental education and family income. There were no significant differences in HAZ values in stunted children with one or more bouts of infectious, digestive tract or respiratory tract illnesses compared to stunted children with no reported illness. The prevalence of stunting in Indonesian children was high and was strongly associated with child morbidity, parental education and SES.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Relações Pais-Filho , Classe Social , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Morbidade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 231-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879187

RESUMO

To reach the target of ending the dengue epidemic by 2030, all effort shall be made to minimize the dengue transmission across the country through effective, efficient, low-cost and sustainable programs. In Indonesia, the evidence of community empowerment on dengue prevention is insufficient. The objective of this study is to explore the opinion of community and larva monitoring workers (Jumantik cadre) on dengue prevention. A structured free listing interview was conducted in April-May 2019 by targeting two groups: the community and larva workers in one village of Sleman, Yogyakarta. Door to door interviews were done until the quota and saturation were reached. Each group was asked four free listing questions. The analysis was performed in these stages: transcribing, coding, combining by the question, and calculating the salience score. The most salient score about vector control in the larva cadre was not hanging up dirty clothes; in the community it was cleaning the bathtub. Both groups cited themself as the salient motivator in joining the vector control. Protecting the environment and keeping healthy were the reasons for participating in the vector control. The larva cadre stated community refusal as the main challenge. The community cited the importance of larva cadre: to monitor the presence of larva. Community empowerment on dengue vector control has not been effortlessly executed at the bottom level.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 9(2): 134-140, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978346

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put a great burden on countries as a result of the demand for laboratory diagnostic testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This paper reports our experiences in rapidly assessing Indonesia's COVID-19 laboratory testing capacity in the early phase of the pandemic response. Through a questionnaire-based survey carried out between 23 March and 2 April, we estimated the daily tests that could be done by the 44 facilities, excluding the national referral laboratory, first assigned to be COVID-19 diagnostic laboratories. The capacity constraints were lack of reagents and equipment, and limited human resources; because of these constraints, most of the laboratories were not yet operational. A major hindrance was reliance on imported supplies and the associated procurement time. Expanding real-time polymerase chain reaction testing capacity, through increased numbers of laboratories and optimization of existing facilities, was clearly the main priority. We also assessed the potential yield from using rapid molecular testing machines in the country's referral hospitals. Even assuming this potential could be tapped, several provinces would still be poorly served by diagnostic services in the event of a surge in cases. Since this rapid assessment, the number of designated COVID-19 laboratories has increased and, by 1 July 2020, was 163. On 29 July 2020, for the first time, the number of specimens examined in a day reached more than 30 000, achieving the WHO testing capacity target of 1 in 1000 inhabitants per week.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938338

RESUMO

Background: Large gatherings are associated with the spread of coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19); however, transmission dynamics are not well understood. We investigated a cluster of COVID-19 cases in returning Australian residents who attended wedding events in Bali, Indonesia, during 15- 21 March 2020. Attendees participated in various social events and were in close proximity, providing multiple opportunities for transmission. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the 41 attendees, of whom 17 participated in a structured interview that included history of illness, risk exposures and event attendance. We obtained data for the remaining 24 participants through corroborative histories and public health unit case investigations. Results: COVID-19 was identified in 56% of attendees (23/41), with illness onset between 21 March and 2 April 2020. One secondary case was identified in a household contact of an attendee. The median age of cases was 31 years (range 3-64). One case was hospitalised and did not require critical care. There were no deaths. No cases occurred among six attendees who left prior to the actual wedding day. Guests attended multiple events and participated in high-risk transmission behaviours such as shaking hands, kissing, dancing, sharing drinks and sharing shisha (water pipes). Attack rates ranged from 64% to 87% for different exposures. We could not identify a single risk exposure that accounted for all cases; it is therefore likely there were multiple episodes of transmission. Conclusion: Our investigation identified a high attack rate of COVID-19 among a cohort of wedding event attendees. Attendees engaged in close physical contact, shared drinks and shisha, and were in close proximity during the wedding events, which may have contributed to the high attack rate. This outbreak highlights the significant role social events can play in transmission of COVID-19 and underscores why it is important to limit gatherings and close physical contact to control the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, the Indonesian government launched the strategic use of antiretroviral therapy (SUFA) initiative with an aim to move closer to achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target. This study assessed the impact of SUFA on the cascade of HIV care. METHODS: We performed a two-year retrospective population-based cohort study of all HIV positive individuals aged ≥ 18 years residing in two cities where SUFA was operational using data from HIV clinics. We analysed data for one-year pre- and one-year post-SUFA implementation. We assessed the rates of enrolment in care, assessment for eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), treatment initiation, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality. Multivariate Cox regression was used to determine the pre-to-post-SUFA hazard ratio. RESULTS: A total of 2,292 HIV positive individuals (1,085 and 1,207 pre and post-SUFA respectively) were followed through their cascade of care. In the pre-SUFA period, 811 (74.6%) were enrolled in care, 702 (86.6%) were found eligible for ART, 485 (69.1%) initiated treatment, 102 (21%) were LTFU and 117 (10.8%) died. In the post-SUFA period, 930 (77%) were enrolled in care, 896 (96.3%) were found eligible for ART, 627 (70%) initiated treatment, 100 (16%) were LTFU and 148 (12.3%) dead. There was an 11% increase in the rate of HIV linkage to care (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.001, 1.22 p<0.05), a 13% increase in the rate of eligibility for ART (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02,1.25, p<0.01) and a 27% reduction in LTFU (HR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.55, 0.97, p<0.05). Rates of ART initiation and mortality did not change. CONCLUSION: SUFA was effective in improving HIV care in relation to linkage to care, eligibility and ART retention. Therefore, the scale up across the whole of Indonesia of the SUFA currently in the form of a test and treat policy, with improvement in testing and treatment strategies is justified.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(2): 99-101, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778622

RESUMO

The year of 2020 teaches us to prevent is always better than to cure. It is an old phrase that is being used for decades, but it is never been implemented cordially by our society nowadays. Covid-19 is a good lesson that reminds us to carefully prevent the spread of coronavirus which is now a pandemic worldwide. People now wash their hands more often and clean, wear a mask everywhere - everytime, do physical distancing, do healthy lifestyle such as physical activity, healthy diet, and consume multivitamins. They obey the cough and sneeze etiquette. Prevention awareness is never been such popular like todays.For internal medicine specialist, the role for prevention is very broad. Besides we still have a role in primary prevention, we can take our part in both secondary and (of course) tertiary prevention. Primary prevention can be defined as an action not allow a disease to occur, for examples vaccination (for internal medicine specialist more specific as adult vaccination), smoking cessation, physical activity (exercise) and healthy diet. Health promotion and prevention is the core of primary prevention. Secondary prevention aims to detect the disease as early as possible, in at risk population, such as mammography for breast cancer, swab test for Covid-19, colonoscopy for colon cancer in high risk patients. Last, tertiary prevention propose to hamper the progress of clinical disease and prevent more severe complications of the disease, for examples cardiac rehabilitation, or medications for prevent chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes or hypertension. It is overlapping the curative or treatment strategies as it is states "to cure is to prevent". In 2020, in which each underlying conditions require effective treatment and each disease should be prevented. We are now facing the era of preventive medicine. As an internal medicine specialist, we need to put in mind a philosophy of prevention in every of our action towards patient's care and services.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/tendências
17.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(2): 155-162, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778630

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had been declared as a global pandemic by WHO. During the pandemic, a suspicion of COVID-19 infection could be found on patients presented with clinical symptoms of COVID-19. However, several new clinical symptoms of COVID-19 had also been reported recently. This caused difficulties to identify COVID-19 based on the clinical symptoms only. Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was absolutely needed to determine the correct diagnosis. We report a family cluster of COVID-19 with different clinical manifestations to show a potential COVID-19 transmission in person who has no symptoms initially but may develop symptoms later as the incubation period varies from 5-14 days. This asymptomatic person remains potential to transmit the virus. This report describes the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, laboratory findings, and different clinical manifestation of a family cluster of COVID-19 case in Indonesia. COVID-19 was transmitted from asymptomatic person in the incubation period.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde da Família , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos
18.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 16(9): 1002-1010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the tendency of the effects of anxiety and depression that occur in type 2 diabetes patients, especially poor patients who live in the urban areas with poor economic conditions, who do not have health access from the government, and live away from the hospitals. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine the number of patients who experienced anxiety and depression problems due to the declining health conditions caused by diabetes. A sample size of 98 diabetics experiencing anxiety and depression when the treatment was carried out was included. The study design included a qualitative study with in-depth interviews with respondents who were at risk of diabetes, as well as to determine the level of anxiety and depression that occurred when medical care was provided and the feelings experienced by the respondents after the completion of treatment. RESULTS: Diabetic patients are generally unaware that their illness is a chronic disease that takes a long time to treat. When the patients are sick, most of them do not immediately go to the hospital or a specialist to get their health examination and treatment, because the hospital is far from the patients' residence. Furthermore, some patients still use traditional medicine and non-medical treatment, so when the patients with critical conditions are taken to the hospital, they already have chronic diabetes. CONCLUSION: The lack of access to health for chronic patients with poor economic conditions who live far from the hospitals and the scarcity of medical staff to carry out treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes for poor patients in urban areas certainly have an impact on increasing the number of patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, the government is expected to be able to provide easy health policies to remote rural communities in order to achieve optimal community welfare and health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Oral Dis ; 26 Suppl 1: 28-33, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862533

RESUMO

HIV incidence is still increasing in parts of Indonesia and in several Asian Countries. New cases of HIV in Indonesia have risen from 7,000 per year in 2006 to 48,000 per year in 2017. In spite of this increase, the number of newly diagnosed cases of AIDS has decreased from a peak of over 12,000 in 2013 to a little over 9,000 in 2017. The mean prevalence of HIV in Indonesia is 0.41% but there is a ten-fold difference in the prevalence in different regions with the highest in Papua (5%). Women represent over 35% of new infections per year and of the total (640,000) in Indonesia. Over 50% of HIV diagnoses are made when patients already have AIDS. Stigma and discrimination are still strong barriers in prevention and treatment but also there are considerable challenges in access to appropriate anti-retroviral therapy. There is a need for further investment in HIV Programs in Indonesia so that prevention can be enhanced, and diagnosis made at an earlier stage. Health Professionals including dentists should be readily willing to provide joint prevention efforts and care to people at risk and with HIV and other infectious diseases to help meet the WHO aims of 2030. Public health programmes are needed to make certain that the general public is aware of HIV testing and the role of dental healthcare workers in facilitating this, thereby further normalising attitudes to people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mudança Social , Estigma Social , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino
20.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 75-80, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768308

RESUMO

The widely diverse impacts of SAR-CoV-2 infection resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be held in more stark relief when contrasting the devastating impact upon China, Italy, Great Britain, America and Brazil with the considerably milder course in the geographically isolated countries of Australia and New Zealand and the densely populated Vietnam. Children in the Asia-Pacific region, as with children all over the world to date, have fared better than older adults. Other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia and India have struggled to deal with the pandemic because of a lack of health infrastructure, inability to provide sufficient testing and isolation and widespread poverty. This article will provide a snapshot of the impact of COVID-19 upon countries in the Asia-Pacific region in the six months since the first case of the novel zoonotic coronavirus infection appeared in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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