Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.146
Filtrar
2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 9, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to improve malaria burden estimates in low transmission settings, more sensitive tools and efficient sampling strategies are required. This study evaluated the use of serological measures from repeated health facility-based cross-sectional surveys to investigate Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission dynamics in an area nearing elimination in Indonesia. METHODS: Quarterly surveys were conducted in eight public health facilities in Kulon Progo District, Indonesia, from May 2017 to April 2018. Demographic data were collected from all clinic patients and their companions, with household coordinates collected using participatory mapping methods. In addition to standard microscopy tests, bead-based serological assays were performed on finger-prick bloodspot samples from 9453 people. Seroconversion rates (SCR, i.e. the proportion of people in the population who are expected to seroconvert per year) were estimated by fitting a simple reversible catalytic model to seroprevalence data. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with malaria exposure, and spatial analysis was performed to identify areas with clustering of high antibody responses. RESULTS: Parasite prevalence by microscopy was extremely low (0.06% (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.14, n = 6) and 0 for P. vivax and P. falciparum, respectively). However, spatial analysis of P. vivax antibody responses identified high-risk areas that were subsequently the site of a P. vivax outbreak in August 2017 (62 cases detected through passive and reactive detection systems). These areas overlapped with P. falciparum high-risk areas and were detected in each survey. General low transmission was confirmed by the SCR estimated from a pool of the four surveys in people aged 15 years old and under (0.020 (95% confidence interval 0.017-0.024) and 0.005 (95% confidence interval 0.003-0.008) for P. vivax and P. falciparum, respectively). The SCR estimates in those over 15 years old were 0.066 (95% confidence interval 0.041-0.105) and 0.032 (95% confidence interval 0.015-0.069) for P. vivax and P. falciparum, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the potential use of health facility-based serological surveillance to better identify and target areas still receptive to malaria in an elimination setting. Further implementation research is needed to enable integration of these methods with existing surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Prevalência , Análise Espacial
3.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 72-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report the integrated observations of high-risk HPV-related oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) at our national referral center for cancer, the Dharmais National Cancer Hospital (DNCH), Jakarta, from 2003 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens obtained from OSCC cases were collected from 2003 to 2013 DNCH archives and were included in this high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) study. Seventy-nine DNA samples from the normal oral mucosa of healthy individuals were obtained from the Oral Biology Laboratory DNA archives from 2001 to 2005. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as a control to ensure the DNA integrity for the subsequent HPV DNA PCR detection. High-risk HPV16/18 DNA amplification was conducted by nested PCR using two pairs of primers that were designed specifically to identify the region of gene L1 HPV16 and the HPV16/18 region. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HPV16/18 was detected in OSCC cases (17.9%). HPV18 occurred more often than HPV16 (86%) among OSCC patients who were HPV positive. This result supports high HPV18 prevalence among Indonesian cervical cancer patients studied in 1995 and 2006. The prevalence of high-risk HPV remains low in the normal Indonesian population (3.8%), but HPV16 is consistently more frequently detected in non-cancer populations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Prevalência
4.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 65-74, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852602

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition (DBM), defined as the simultaneous manifestation of both undernutrition and overweight and obesity, affects most low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). This Series paper describes the dynamics of the DBM in LMICs and how it differs by socioeconomic level. This Series paper shows that the DBM has increased in the poorest LMICs, mainly due to overweight and obesity increases. Indonesia is the largest country with a severe DBM, but many other Asian and sub-Saharan African countries also face this problem. We also discuss that overweight increases are mainly due to very rapid changes in the food system, particularly the availability of cheap ultra-processed food and beverages in LMICs, and major reductions in physical activity at work, transportation, home, and even leisure due to introductions of activity-saving technologies. Understanding that the lowest income LMICs face severe levels of the DBM and that the major direct cause is rapid increases in overweight allows identifying selected crucial drivers and possible options for addressing the DBM at all levels.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 75-88, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852605

RESUMO

Malnutrition has historically been researched and addressed within two distinct silos, focusing either on undernutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies, or on overweight, obesity, and dietary excess. However, through rapid global nutrition transition, an increasing proportion of individuals are exposed to different forms of malnutrition during the life course and have the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) directly. Long-lasting effects of malnutrition in early life can be attributed to interconnected biological pathways, involving imbalance of the gut microbiome, inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, and impaired insulin signalling. Life-course exposure to early undernutrition followed by later overweight increases the risk of non-communicable disease, by imposing a high metabolic load on a depleted capacity for homoeostasis, and in women increases the risk of childbirth complications. These life-course trajectories are shaped both by societal driving factors-ie, rapidly changing diets, norms of eating, and physical activity patterns-and by broader ecological factors such as pathogen burden and extrinsic mortality risk. Mitigation of the DBM will require major societal shifts regarding nutrition and public health, to implement comprehensive change that is sustained over decades, and scaled up into the entire global food system.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Exercício , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Prevalência
6.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105208, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589829

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was first reported in the province of Bali, Indonesia in 1975. Since this time, sporadic cases have been reported annually. This study reports information on 29 NCC cases (20 males and 9 females) admitted to a referral hospital in Denpasar, Bali from 2014 until 2018. Twenty-four cases were from Bali, 2 were from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, and 3 were from the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Mean patient age was 37.2 years and 69.0% (20/29) were male. Epileptic seizures were the most common clinical manifestation (65.5%, 19/29). Serology (ELISA) was used in 14 cases (48.2%, 14/29), but only 6 cases, including one case with an inactive calcified lesion, were positive (42.9%, 6/14). Two cases underwent surgical resection after their lesions were initially misdiagnosed as brain tumors. These hospital-based findings are discussed along with the present status of NCC in Bali.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/terapia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1049, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diphtheria has been reported as an outbreak in some regions in Indonesia, most especially in East Java Province. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and other antibiotics, single or multiple, has been reported in several studies. This study aims to evaluate the first-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates. METHODS: This descriptive observational study was performed from August to November 2018. C. diphtheriae isolates were collected from diphtheria patients and carriers in East Java from 2012 to 2017 and kept at the Balai Besar Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah Surabaya or the Public Health Laboratory of Surabaya. Sample selection was done by random cluster sampling. The sensitivity test by E-test®of the five antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin) was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M45A (2015) Corynebacterium spp. for penicillin and erythromycin was used as standard. RESULTS: From 114 targeted isolates, 108 were viable and toxigenic. The E-test was performed on the viable isolates. The majority of the hosts were male (58.3%), with median (range) age of 6.5 (1-14) years. Half of the samples were from the 1 to 5-year-old age group. The isolates were acquired much more from patients (78.7%) than carriers (21.3%) and from pharyngeal swab (74.1%). Most of these isolates were from Madura Island (47.2%) and the northern and eastern parts of the province (horseshoe area). Mitis isolates were the major variant (76.9%). The susceptibility pattern of C. diphtheriae to erythromycin was better than that to penicillin. The E-test result for penicillin was 68.52% susceptible, 31.48% intermediate, and 0% resistant (MIC range, < 0.016 to 2 µg/L) and for erythromycin (MIC range, < 0.016 to > 256 µg/L) was 85.2% susceptible, 12% intermediate, and 2.8% resistant The MIC range for oxacillin was 1 to 96 µg/L, while for both azithromycin and clarithromycin were <  0.016 to > 256 µg/L. CONCLUSION: The susceptibility rate of C. diphtheriae to erythromycin is higher than that to penicillin. The regular update of antibiotic selection to the national guidelines is recommended. The MIC reference standard to azithromycin and clarithromycin is also needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Difteria/tratamento farmacológico , Difteria/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 922, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In southern Papua, Indonesia, malaria is highly prevalent in young children and is a significant cause of morbidity and early mortality. The association between malaria and delayed mortality is unknown. METHODS: Routinely-collected hospital surveillance data from southern Papua, Indonesia, were used to assess the risk of recurrent malaria and mortality within 12 months of an initial presentation with malaria in all children younger than 5 years old attending the local hospital. Analysis was primarily by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression methods. RESULTS: In total 15,716 children presenting with malaria between April 2004 and December 2013 were included in the analysis; 6184 (39.3%) with Plasmodium falciparum, 7499 (47.7%) with P. vivax, 203 (1.3%) with P. malariae, 3 with P. ovale and 1827 (11.6%) with mixed infections. Within 1 year, 48.4% (7620/15,716) of children represented a total of 16,957 times with malaria (range 1 to 11 episodes), with the incidence of malaria being greater in patients initially presenting with P. vivax infection (1334 [95%CI 1307-1361] per 1000 patient years) compared to those with P. falciparum infection (920 [896-944]). In total 266 (1.7%) children died within 1 year of their initial presentation, 129 (48.5%) within 30 days and 137 (51.5%) between 31 and 365 days. There was no significant difference in the mortality risk in patients infected with P. vivax versus P. falciparum either before 30 days (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.02 [0.69,1.49]) or between 31 and 365 days (HR = 1.30 [0.90,1.88]). Children who died had a greater incidence of malaria, 2280 [95%CI 1946-2671] per 1000 patient years preceding their death, compared to 1141 [95%CI 1124-1158] per 1000 patient years in those surviving. CONCLUSIONS: Children under-5 years old with P. vivax malaria, are at significant risk of multiple representations with malaria and of dying within 1 year of their initial presentation. Preventing recurrent malaria must be a public health priority in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Malária/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/mortalidade , Masculino , Morbidade , Prevalência
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 773, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Indonesia has continued to increase over the last 6 years. Four previous studies in U.S have found that higher DD scores were associated with worse psychological outcomes, lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of T2DM complications. In this study, we aimed to firstly compare DD scores in Indonesian T2DM outpatients treated in primary care versus those in tertiary care. Subsequently, we investigated whether socio-demographic characteristics and clinical conditions explain potential differences in DD score across healthcare settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on Java island in three primary care (n = 108) and four tertiary care (n = 524) facilities. The participants completed the Bahasa Indonesia version of the Diabetes Distress Scale questionnaire (DDS17 Bahasa Indonesia). Ordinal regression analysis was conducted with the quartile of the summation of the DD score as the dependent variable to investigate how the association between the level of healthcare facilities and DD altered when adding different variables in the model. RESULTS: The final adjusted model showed that the level of healthcare facilities was strongly associated with DD (p < .001), with participants in primary care having a 3.68 times (95% CI 2.46-5.55) higher likelihood of being more distressed than the participants in tertiary care. This association was detected after including the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical conditions as model confounders. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Indonesia to compare DD scores within different healthcare facilities. We recommend a regular DD assessment, possibly closely aligned with health-literacy partner programs, especially for T2DM patients in primary care settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007785, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major cause of acute febrile illness in Indonesia. Diagnostic inaccuracy may occur due to its varied and non-specific presentation. Characterization of DENV epidemiology, clinical presentation, and virology will facilitate appropriate clinical management and public health policy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multicenter observational cohort study was conducted in Indonesia to assess causes of acute fever requiring hospitalization. Clinical information and specimens were collected at enrollment, 14-28 days, and 3 months from 1,486 children and adults. Total of 468 (31.9%) cases of DENV infection were confirmed by reference laboratory assays. Of these, 414 (88.5%) were accurately diagnosed and 54 had been misdiagnosed as another infection by sites. One hundred initially suspected dengue cases were finally classified as 'non-dengue'; other pathogens were identified in 58 of those cases. Mortality of DENV infection was low (0.6%). Prior DENV exposure was found in 92.3% of subjects >12 years. DENV circulated year-round in all cities, with higher incidence from January to March. DENV-3 and DENV-1 were the predominant serotypes. This study identified DENV-1 with TS119(C→T) substitution in the serotyping primer annealing site, leading to failure of serotype determination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DENV is a common etiology of acute febrile illness requiring hospitalization in Indonesia. Diagnostic accuracy at clinical sites merits optimization since misdiagnosis of DENV infection and over-estimation of dengue can negatively impact management and outcomes. Mutation at the annealing site of the serotyping primer may confound diagnosis. Clinicians should consider following diagnostic algorithms that include DENV confirmatory testing. Policy-makers should prioritize development of laboratory capacity for diagnosis of DENV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Feminino , Febre , Genótipo , Mapeamento Geográfico , Política de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 159-173, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers. METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers. RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides. CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Óleo de Palmeira , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Indústria Alimentícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Palmeira/efeitos adversos , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1371, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of depression in Indonesia is estimated at about 3.7% of the total population, although the actual may be higher. Studies worldwide have linked the environment where people live to their mental health status. However, little research is found in Indonesia regarding this link. We examined the association between individuals' perception towards their neighborhood and their depression symptoms. METHODS: Social trust was measured at the individual (level 1) and community (level 2) levels based on the Indonesian Family Life Survey 5 (IFLS5) in 2014. Depression was measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R-10) and the scores were transformed into logit form using the Rasch model. Multilevel regression was used to determine correlations. RESULTS: Of the total sample of 14,227 respondents in this study, about 19.4% had experienced severe depression symptoms in the past week. Social trust was found to be significantly associated with severe depression symptoms. The weaker the individuals' social trust towards their neighbourhood, the higher the probability of experiencing severe depression symptoms would be. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that social trust is associated with the severity of depression symptoms: the higher the social trust, the lower the probability of having severe depression symptoms is. Depression symptoms may also be attributed to significant differences between communities.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Social , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1233-1241, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate socioeconomic inequalities in hypertension and asthma prevalence in Indonesia, to compare estimates based on self-report (SR) to those based on objective assessment (OA), and to assess the role of sensitivity and specificity of SR. METHODS: We used data from the 2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey (n = 34,257). We measured inequalities in hypertension and asthma prevalence in relation to educational level and income, using standardised prevalence rate and the relative index of inequality (RII). Using OA as standard, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of SR. RESULTS: For hypertension, reversed inequalities were found when estimated by SR instead of OA (RII for education 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99 vs. RII 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.44). For asthma, a similar but even larger reversal of inequalities was found. The sensitivity of SR was low overall, and especially for the lowest education or income group. CONCLUSIONS: Results imply that the use of SR may lead to underestimation of socioeconomic inequalities in disease prevalence in a low-income country such as Indonesia. The use of OA is recommended for monitoring inequalities in non-communicable disease prevalence.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Prevalência
14.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 329-339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533400

RESUMO

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2619-2624, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554355

RESUMO

Background: Hyperglycaemia is a common side effect of steroid and L-asparaginase combinations, occurring most often during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction phase. To date in Indonesia, it has not been obtained data on the incidence of hyperglycemia in children with ALL in the induction phase and how the role of combinations of L-asparaginase and different type of steroid used. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of hyperglycemia in children ALL induction phase, knowing the difference between prednisone and dexamethasone (in combination with L-asparaginase) in causing hyperglycemia in children with ALL and determine the relationship of other factors related to hyperglycaemia. Methods: This was a prospective analytic study with a pre- and post-test design, conducted in three hospitals (Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, and Gatot Soebroto Hospital). Patient's blood glucose levels (BGL) were checked at the 3rd (pretest), 4th, 5th and 6th week of protocol (post-test). Result: Of the 57 patients, 5.2% had hyperglycemia. The patients' age ranged from 1.4 years old to 15.8 years old (6.7 years old). There was no relationship between age, central nervous system (CNS) infiltration, leukocytosis, Down syndrome, nutritional status, family history of diabetes, infections and ALL stratification with hyperglycemia (p>0.05). Dexamethasone has more chance of obtaining higher mean rate of change in BGL compared to prednisone. (p < 0.05; RR 10.68; CI 95% 1.52-74.73). Conclusion: The incidence of hyperglycemia in this study is 5.2%. Dexamethasone, in combination with L-asparaginase, despite having no difference in causing hyperglycemia, has an increased risk of changing BGL compared to prednisone.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 172, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes reduce dengue virus transmission, and city-wide releases in Yogyakarta city, Indonesia, are showing promising entomological results. Accurate estimates of the burden of dengue, its spatial distribution and the potential impact of Wolbachia are critical in guiding funder and government decisions on its future wider use. METHODS: Here, we combine multiple modelling methods for burden estimation to predict national case burden disaggregated by severity and map the distribution of burden across the country using three separate data sources. An ensemble of transmission models then predicts the estimated reduction in dengue transmission following a nationwide roll-out of wMel Wolbachia. RESULTS: We estimate that 7.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.8-17.7 million) symptomatic dengue cases occurred in Indonesia in 2015 and were associated with 332,865 (UI 94,175-754,203) lost disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The majority of dengue's burden was due to non-severe cases that did not seek treatment or were challenging to diagnose in outpatient settings leading to substantial underreporting. Estimated burden was highly concentrated in a small number of large cities with 90% of dengue cases occurring in 15.3% of land area. Implementing a nationwide Wolbachia population replacement programme was estimated to avert 86.2% (UI 36.2-99.9%) of cases over a long-term average. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest interventions targeted to the highest burden cities can have a disproportionate impact on dengue burden. Area-wide interventions, such as Wolbachia, that are deployed based on the area covered could protect people more efficiently than individual-based interventions, such as vaccines, in such dense environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia
17.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(9): 597-604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474772

RESUMO

Objective: To improve the low coverage and performance of a programme on community-based management of acute malnutrition, implemented between October 2015 and April 2018 in Kupang district in rural Indonesia. Methods: To investigate why the coverage and performance were low in the first year of the programme, we conducted a semiquantitative evaluation between August and September 2016. We used the results from the evaluation to inform programme improvement, by developing and modifying community mobilization strategies. We employed a multipronged approach to improve community awareness on acute malnutrition and on community-based services for such condition. This approach involved workshops, focus discussion groups in the community and sensitization events at health posts that had issues with community engagement. Community health workers increased their efforts in active case finding by visiting households with children who had missed the community health post sessions. We measured the performance using three Sphere minimum standard performance indicators: proportion of children recovering (> 75%); defaulting (< 15%); and dying (<10%). Results: The community mobilization efforts increased the screening rate from 17% (564/3278) in October 2015 to 66% (6793/10 251) in March 2018. In 2017, the programme met the three performance indicators: 79% (256/326) of children recovered; 10% (34/326) defaulted; and less than 1% (2/326) died. Conclusion: In Indonesia, community mobilization is central for addressing severe acute malnutrition in children younger than five years. This strategy includes securing political leadership and effective messaging alongside locally tailored strategies and continuous ground-level support.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Pesquisa , População Rural
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31315-31327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471850

RESUMO

The conversion of Indonesian tropical peatlands has been associated with the recurring problems of peatland fires and smoke affecting humans and the environment. Yet, the local government and public in the affected areas have paid little attention to the impacts and costs of the poor air quality on human health. This study aims to analyse the long-term health impacts of the peat smoke exposure to the local populations. We applied the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the smoke dispersion and the associated PM2.5 concentrations of the resulted plumes from the fire hotspots in the deep and shallow peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, that occurred during a 5-year period (2011-2015). We subsequently quantified the long-term health impacts of PM2.5 on the local people down to the village level based on the human health risk assessment approach. Our study shows that the average increase in the annual mean PM2.5 concentration due to peatland fires in Central Kalimantan was 26 µg/m3 which is more than twice the recommended value of the World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. This increase in PM2.5 leads to increased occurrence of a range of air pollution-related diseases and premature mortality. The number of premature mortality cases can be estimated at 648 cases per year (26 mortality cases per 100,000 population) among others due to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular and lung cancer. Our results shed further light on the long-term health impacts of peatland fires in Indonesia and the importance of sustainable peatland management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise , Solo
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infection (STH) is one of the neglected tropical disease that affects approximately 2 billion people globally. School children represent the age group that is most commonly infected with STHs, resulting in poor school performance, impaired cognitive function, and many other detrimental effects. The transmission of STH is determined by many factors, such as hygiene and sanitation. Understanding the factors that influence disease transmission in a particular area is key to effective STH control. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STH in North Sumatera and to identify the associated risk factors among school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among primary school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict. Stool samples were processed using a single Kato-Katz method. The potential risk factors analyzed were parent education and occupation, hand washing habits, latrine usage, footwear usage and contact with soil. The Chi-square test was performed to identify an association between risk factors and parasitological results. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the strength of association. RESULTS: We enrolled 468 school children between 6 and 12 years of age. Among those children, 268 children (57.24%) were positive for one or more STH infections. Approximately 62.39% of children played with soil/dirt every day, and only 50% regularly washed their hands after activities. Most of the children wore shoes/slippers when going outside (87.82%) and used a latrine for defecation (85.04%). Playing with soil/dirt have been shown to increase the risk of STH infections 7.53 times, while hand washing habits and latrine usage decreased the risk of STH infections 0.16 times each. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of STH infection in school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict is still high. Playing with soil/dirt increased the risk of infection, while hand washing habits and latrine usage decreased the risk of infection. The combined strategies of improving the personal hygiene of children and biannual deworming can reduce the risk of STH infection in school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105117, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369727

RESUMO

The Snakes and Ladders board game was modified so that it contained information on taeniasis. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate if elementary school children were able to answer correctly more questions about Taenia saginata and Taenia solium transmission and control after playing the game compared to before playing the game. In total, 78 children (9-12 years of age) from Dukuh elementary school in Karangasem District, Bali, Indonesia, were evaluated. The children were asked to complete a pre- and post-test assessment before and after playing the game a single time. Overall proportion of correct answers was 40.3% before playing the game and 58.8% after playing the game. There was a greater proportion of correct answers for questions pertaining to the transmission route for T. saginata (p < 0.001) and T. solium (p < 0.001), human infection type with T. solium (p = 0.035) and T. saginata (p < 0.001), and animal infection type with T. solium or T. saginata (p < 0.001) after playing the game compared to before playing the game. However, there was no significant difference for any question for the youngest grade level. Use of this popular board game appears to be a promising tool for teaching older (10 years of age and above) children about taeniasis in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos , Conhecimento , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Teníase , Animais , Criança , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Registros , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/transmissão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA