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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012893, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, and immune response modulation is the main treatment strategy to induce remission in active CD. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is a tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) inhibitor which regulates impaired immune response. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CZP for the induction of remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD group specialized register, trials registers and other sources from inception to 28 January 2019. Moreover, we contacted the pharmaceutical company that manufactures CZP. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials comparing CZP with placebo or no treatment in active CD patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. The main outcomes selected for GRADE analysis were clinical remission at week 8 (Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] ≤150), clinical response at week 8 (CDAI reduction ≥ 100 or clinical remission), and serious adverse events. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method was applied for the statistical analyses. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). MAIN RESULTS: Four studies involving 1485 participants with moderate to severe CD met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analyses. All studies included active CD patients with CDAI ranging from 220 to 450. Most patients were adults over 18 years of age. One study was identified as high risk of bias due to a non-identical placebo while the other studies were judged to be at low risk of bias.CZP (100 mg to 400 mg every 2 to 4 weeks) was shown to be superior to placebo for achieving clinical remission at week 8 (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66; moderate certainty evidence). The raw numbers of participants achieving clinical remission at week 8 were 26.9% (225/835) and 19.8% (129/650) in the CZP and the placebo groups, respectively.CZP was shown to be superior to placebo for achieving clinical response at week 8 (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53; moderate certainty evidence). In raw numbers, clinical response at week 8 was achieved in 40.2% (336/835) and 30.9% (201/650) of participants in the CZP and the placebo groups, respectively.In raw numbers, serious adverse events were observed in 8.7% (73/835) and 6.2% (40/650) of participants in the CZP and the placebo groups, respectively (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.97; moderate certainty evidence). Serious adverse events included worsening Crohn's disease, infections, and malignancy. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence suggests that CZP is effective for induction of clinical remission and clinical response in participants with active CD patients. It is uncertain whether the risk of serious adverse events differs between CZP and placebo as the 95% CI includes the possibility of a small decrease or doubling of events. Future studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of CZP in CD patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Certolizumab Pegol/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão
2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 485-491, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484610

RESUMO

To analyze the treatment and prognosis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia(T-ALL)in adults. Method The clinicobiogical and survival data of 68 adult patients with newly diagnosis T-ALL were retrospectively analzyed. Results The median age of these 68 patients was 23 years(14-60 years).T-ALL was more common in men(81%).After the first cycle of treatment,complete remission was achieved in 50 patients(73%).The highest complete remission(CR) rate was in patients with cortex T-ALL(100%),followed by other T-ALL(73%)and early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia(54%),(χ 2=5.712,P=0.058).The CR rate for adults aged >35 years was significantly lower than that of patients aged ≤ 35 years(40% vs. 79%,χ 2=6.364,P=0.012).The overall CR rate after the second treatment course was 93%.For patients treated with chemotherapy,autograft hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(auto-SCT),and allogeneic SCT,the median relapse free survival was 10 months,24 months,and not reached,respectively(P=0.002).The 5-year overall survival rate was 25% for all patients;for patients treated with chemotherapy,auto-SCT and allogeneic SCT,the median overall survival was 24 months,34 months,and 30 months,respectively(P=0.007),and the 5-year overall survival rate was 9%,33%,and 38%(P=0.037).Multivariate analysis showed leukocyte count ≥100×10 9/L was a risk factor for decreased relapse free survival(risk ratio 2.540,95%CI=1.058-6.099,P=0.037). Conclusion Adult T-ALL patients have poor prognosis,which may be improved by SCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1201-1214, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ustekinumab, an antagonist of the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 and interleukin-23, as induction and maintenance therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated ustekinumab as 8-week induction therapy and 44-week maintenance therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. A total of 961 patients were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous induction dose of ustekinumab (either 130 mg [320 patients] or a weight-range-based dose that approximated 6 mg per kilogram of body weight [322]) or placebo (319). Patients who had a response to induction therapy 8 weeks after administration of intravenous ustekinumab were randomly assigned again to receive subcutaneous maintenance injections of 90 mg of ustekinumab (either every 12 weeks [172 patients] or every 8 weeks [176]) or placebo (175). The primary end point in the induction trial (week 8) and the maintenance trial (week 44) was clinical remission (defined as a total score of ≤2 on the Mayo scale [range, 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more severe disease] and no subscore >1 [range, 0 to 3] on any of the four Mayo scale components). RESULTS: The percentage of patients who had clinical remission at week 8 among patients who received intravenous ustekinumab at a dose of 130 mg (15.6%) or 6 mg per kilogram (15.5%) was significantly higher than that among patients who received placebo (5.3%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Among patients who had a response to induction therapy with ustekinumab and underwent a second randomization, the percentage of patients who had clinical remission at week 44 was significantly higher among patients assigned to 90 mg of subcutaneous ustekinumab every 12 weeks (38.4%) or every 8 weeks (43.8%) than among those assigned to placebo (24.0%) (P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events with ustekinumab was similar to that with placebo. Through 52 weeks of exposure, there were two deaths (one each from acute respiratory distress syndrome and hemorrhage from esophageal varices) and seven cases of cancer (one each of prostate, colon, renal papillary, and rectal cancer and three nonmelanoma skin cancers) among 825 patients who received ustekinumab and no deaths and one case of cancer (testicular cancer) among 319 patients who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Ustekinumab was more effective than placebo for inducing and maintaining remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; UNIFI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02407236.).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Ustekinumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Ustekinumab/administração & dosagem , Ustekinumab/efeitos adversos
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1215-1226, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic therapies are widely used in patients with ulcerative colitis. Head-to-head trials of these therapies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are lacking. METHODS: In a phase 3b, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized trial conducted at 245 centers in 34 countries, we compared vedolizumab with adalimumab in adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis to determine whether vedolizumab was superior. Previous exposure to a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor other than adalimumab was allowed in up to 25% of patients. The patients were assigned to receive infusions of 300 mg of vedolizumab on day 1 and at weeks 2, 6, 14, 22, 30, 38, and 46 (plus injections of placebo) or subcutaneous injections of 40 mg of adalimumab, with a total dose of 160 mg at week 1, 80 mg at week 2, and 40 mg every 2 weeks thereafter until week 50 (plus infusions of placebo). Dose escalation was not permitted in either group. The primary outcome was clinical remission at week 52 (defined as a total score of ≤2 on the Mayo scale [range, 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more severe disease] and no subscore >1 [range, 0 to 3] on any of the four Mayo scale components). To control for type I error, efficacy outcomes were analyzed with a hierarchical testing procedure, with the variables in the following order: clinical remission, endoscopic improvement (subscore of 0 to 1 on the Mayo endoscopic component), and corticosteroid-free remission at week 52. RESULTS: A total of 769 patients underwent randomization and received at least one dose of vedolizumab (383 patients) or adalimumab (386 patients). At week 52, clinical remission was observed in a higher percentage of patients in the vedolizumab group than in the adalimumab group (31.3% vs. 22.5%; difference, 8.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 15.0; P = 0.006), as was endoscopic improvement (39.7% vs. 27.7%; difference, 11.9 percentage points; 95% CI, 5.3 to 18.5; P<0.001). Corticosteroid-free clinical remission occurred in 12.6% of the patients in the vedolizumab group and in 21.8% in the adalimumab group (difference, -9.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -18.9 to 0.4). Exposure-adjusted incidence rates of infection were 23.4 and 34.6 events per 100 patient-years with vedolizumab and adalimumab, respectively, and the corresponding rates for serious infection were 1.6 and 2.2 events per 100 patient-years. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis, vedolizumab was superior to adalimumab with respect to achievement of clinical remission and endoscopic improvement, but not corticosteroid-free clinical remission. (Funded by Takeda; VARSITY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02497469; EudraCT number, 2015-000939-33.).


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Indução de Remissão/métodos
5.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(7): 773-778, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391365

RESUMO

A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to pancytopenia and abnormal leukocyte fraction in December 2016. Bone marrow aspiration showed a massive proliferation of blast cells (96%) with rich myeloperoxidase-negative basophilic granules. He was diagnosed with acute basophilic leukemia, and an appropriate treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia was initiated. Blast cells were positive for minor BCR-ABL mutations, and chemotherapy using imatinib was initiated on day 7. The treatment was effective and complete remission was achieved on day 30. The ultrastructural features of blast cells showed typical basophilic granules with high electron density structure on electron microscopy. However, immunohistochemical analysis were positive for CD79a, PAX5, and TdT expression. Rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor genes were detected, prompting the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) with basophilic change. The patient continued to be treated with the imatinib combination regimen, as well as umbilical cord blood transplantation. The patient has currently achieved recurrence-free survival. This case represents a rare divergence between morphology and molecular condition.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão
6.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(4): 1033-1039, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418353

RESUMO

]Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of induction regimens containing arsenite, allo-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracyclines of different doses as induction chemotherapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). METHODS: The clinical data of 129 consecutive hospitalized newly diagnosed APL patients from January 2011 to December 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-six patients received arsenite, ATRA and anthracyclines of low doses (low dose group), while other 63 patients received arsenite, ATRA and anthracyclines of standard doses (standard dose group), the efficacy and safety were compared and analyzed in 2 groups. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex, routine blood indexes,LDH level, bone marrow promyelocyte count,prognostic stratification between patients in two groups (P>0.05). During the treatment, WBC count peak and its time point were not significantly different between two groups (P>0.05). Both induction regimens showed good efficacy, the PML-RARα gene conversion rate from positive into negative, the 2-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate in the low-dose group were similar to those in the standard dose group(P>0.05). The recovery time of neutrophils and platelets in the low-dose group was 0 d and 11 d, respectively, which were statistically  significantly shorter than those in the standard dose group (3 d,15 d) (both P=0.000). The median value of platelet and erythrocyte transfusion in the low-dose group was 6.9 U and 4.2 U, respectively, which were statistically significantly lower than that in the standard dose group (8.4 U,6.8 U) (P=0.037,0.000). And the inpatient time in the low and the standard dose groups were 30.98 and 30.71 days, respectively (P=0.770). CONCLUSION: For newly diagnosed patients with APL, the efficacy was similar between induction therapy containing arsenite,ATRA and low dose anthracyclines and the induction therapy containing arsenite, ATRA and standard dose anthracyclines, however, the former appears even safer.


Assuntos
Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Antraciclinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tretinoína
7.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 475-481, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447345

RESUMO

The oligometastatic paradigm refers to an intermediate biologic state of cancer with restricted metastatic capacity. Its phenotype is characterized by a limited number of metastases and a slow tumor growth. Various clinical and pre-clinical studies associated this state to alterations of the biological mechanisms involved in metastatic diffusion. Eventually, this transitional state leads to a wide metastatic dissemination. However, there is a period during which the patient could benefit from local ablative treatment. Depending on several prognostic factors and the treatment provided, long survival or even healing can sometimes be achieved. The selection of patients eligible for such a curative strategy may be adapted following clinical, radiological or biological markers. Recent improvement of therapeutic and imaging are changing the clinical definition of oligometastatic cancer, which should be adapted to evidence from recent clinical and preclinical data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinogênese/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/genética , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010233, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition and maintenance of remission is a major issue as many patients fail to achieve remission with medical management and require surgical interventions. Purine analogues such as azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) have been used to maintain surgically-induced remission in CD, but the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of these agents remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of purine analogues (AZA and 6-MP) for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register from inception to 26 July 2018 (and from inception to 31 July 2019). In addition, we searched reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews, conference proceedings and trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of at least three months that enrolled adults and children with surgically-induced remission of CD and compared AZA or 6-MP to no treatment, placebo or any other active intervention were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The primary outcome was clinical relapse. Secondary outcomes included endoscopic relapse, radiologic and surgical relapse, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), withdrawal due to AEs and health-related quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: Ten RCTs with a total of 928 participants were included. Study participants were adults recruited from university clinics and gastroenterology hospitals who received interventions post-surgery for a duration between 12 to 36 months. Most study participants were recruited less than three months after surgery in all except one study where participants were recruited between 6 to 24 months post-surgery. One study was rated as low risk of bias, six studies were rated high risk of bias and three were rated unclear risk of bias.There was moderate certainty evidence that purine analogues are more efficient for preventing clinical relapse than placebo. At 12 to 36 months, 51% (109/215) of AZA/6-MP participants relapsed compared to 64% (124/193) of placebo participants (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.92; 408 participants; 3 studies; I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence regarding the efficacy of AZA or 6-MP for maintaining postoperative clinical remission compared to 5-ASA compounds was low. At 12 to 24 months , 64% (113/177) of purine analogue participants relapsed compared to 59% (101/170) of 5-ASA participants (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.24; 347 participants; 4 studies; I² = 8%; low certainty evidence). The certainty of evidence that purine analogues are inferior for preventing postsurgical clinical relapse compared to tumour necrosis factor alpha agents (anti-TNF-α) was very low. At 12 to 24 months, 43% (29/67) of AZA participants relapsed compared to 14% (10/72) of anti-TNF-α participants (RR 2.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 5.57; 139 participants; 3 studies; I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence).The effect of purine analogues compounds on AEs compared to placebo or any active treatment was uncertain, as the quality of evidence ranged from very low to low. After 12 to 24 months, 14% (12/87) of purine analogue participants experienced an AE compared to 10% (8/81) of placebo participants (RR 1.36; 95% CI 0.57 to 3.27; 168 participants; 2 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). The effect of purine analogues on AEs compared to 5-ASA agents was uncertain. After 12 to 24 months, 41% (73/176) of purine analogue participants had an AE compared to 47% (81/171) of 5-ASA participants (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.07; 346 participants; 4 studies; I² = 15%; low certainty evidence). The effect of purine analogues on AEs in comparison to anti TNF-α agents was uncertain. At 12 to 24 months, 57% (32/56) of AZA participants had an AE compared to 51% (31/61) of anti-TNF-α participants (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.53; 117 participants; 2 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). Purine analogue participants were more like than 5-ASA participants to have a SAE (RR 3.39, 95% CI 1.26 to 9.13, 311 participants; 3 studies; I² = 9%; very low certainty evidence), or to withdraw due to an AE (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.81; 425 participants; 5 studies; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). Commonly reported AEs across all studies included leucopenia, arthralgia, abdominal pain or severe epigastric intolerance, elevated liver enzymes, nausea and vomiting, pancreatitis, anaemia, nasopharyngitis and flatulence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence suggests that AZA and 6-MP may be superior to placebo for maintenance of surgically-induced remission in participants with CD. There was no clear difference in the number of clinical relapses when purine analogues were compared with 5-ASA agents, however this is based on low certainty evidence. There was very low certainty evidence that AZA and 6-MP are more likely to result in more serious adverse events (SAEs) and withdrawals due to an AE (low certainty) when compared to 5-ASA agents. Very low certainty evidence suggests that purine analogues may be inferior to anti-TNF-α agents, however, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Further research investigating the efficacy and safety of AZA and 6-MP in comparison to other active medications in surgically-induced remission of CD is warranted.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Mercaptopurina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Prevenção Secundária
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448016

RESUMO

Thymic carcinomas are extremely infrequent neoplasms (15% of all thymic epithelial tumors). Basaloid carcinoma is a peculiar tumor that represents no more than 2% of those infrequent thymic carcinomas. Surgical excision is the recommended treatment. As it's extremely rare, there is no evidence of the impact of different modalities of treatment. There are no reported cases that did not include surgery as part of their management. We herein present a case of an unresectable thymic basaloid carcinoma treated only with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy that obtained a complete remission and free of disease after 2 years.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Timoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Timoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Timo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16830, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464908

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Amyloidosis accounts for 2% of head and neck tumors. Amyloidosis that develops in the head and neck region is localized amyloidosis. Multifocal amyloidosis in the head and neck region is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented to the clinic of otolaryngology with nasal obstruction, anosmia and left neck mass for several months. DIAGNOSIS: A left nasopharynx tumor was revealed under nasopharyngeal scope. Eosinophilic, proteinaceous material was revealed under a pathology scope in the nasopharynx tissue and neck tumor. Congo red staining demonstrated pale congophilic amorphous material with apple-green birefringence under cross-polarized light, and multifocal amyloidosis was diagnosed. Amyloidosis secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was confirmed after a series of investigations. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent local excision for multifocal amyloidosis without following management. To control underlying SLE, the patient accepted steroid pulse therapy and immunosuppressants. The patient eventually achieved disease remission. OUTCOMES: During the 6 months of follow-up in the outpatient department of otolaryngology and rheumatology, complications, recurrence of nasopharyngeal amyloidosis, and SLE flare-up were not observed. LESSONS: Head and neck amyloidosis involving the nasopharynx is a rare presentation of this disease. Head and neck multifocal amyloidosis should be taken as a hint of systemic disease. In head and neck amyloidosis, a comprehensive survey should be performed to clarify the underlying disease predisposing to amyloidosis and organ involvement.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Amiloidose/cirurgia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/cirurgia , Indução de Remissão , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16750, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393390

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Crohn disease includes 3 phenotypes, inflammatory, stricturing, and penetrating. In cases where corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are not suitable treatment options, enteral nutrition (EN) can be used to reduce disease severity and enhance barrier defense with fewer potential adverse effects. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old man with abdominal pain and diarrhea presented at our hospital in 2014. The frequency of defecation was 3 or 4 times a day without mucus or blood in the stool. His body mass index was 15.8, and in laboratory tests the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 42.4 mm/h, serum C reactive protein was 65.2 mg/L, the leukocyte count was 11.64 × 109/L, and hemoglobin was 111 g/L. DIAGNOSIS: In computed tomography (CT) enterography the ascending colon was thickened, and there was effusion and enlarged lymph nodes around the colon. Colonoscopy revealed ulcer, polypoid proliferation, and bowel stenosis in many segments. Chronic inflammation was evident in multiple biopsies. Crohn disease was diagnosed based on the above observations. INTERVENTIONS: Mesalazine was administered at a dose of 4 g daily for 2 years. The patient was hospitalized again due to severe abdominal pain and ongoing fever. Intestinal perforation was detected via CT. Percutaneous drainage was performed followed by administration of intravenous metronidazole (0.5 g) and ciprofloxacin (0.2 g) twice a day. Peptison liquid was used as exclusive EN. After 2 weeks the antibiotics regimen was changed to metronidazole 0.4 g twice a day and ciprofloxacin 0.25 g 3 times a day, both administered orally. OUTCOMES: CT revealed that the infection was eliminated and the fistula was healed after 10 weeks, at which point antibiotics and exclusive EN was discontinued. Azathioprine was prescribed at a dose of 2 mg/kg daily to maintain clinical remission. The patient did not report any pain or diarrhea at a 1-year follow-up visit. LESSONS: The present case suggests that exclusive EN combined with antibiotics is useful in inducing remission in Crohn disease patients with active disease and penetrating complications.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16045, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277098

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare auto-inflammatory disease with no standardized treatment. Systemic corticosteroids are only transiently effective, but long-term use would bring complications and would not bring long-term remission. Bone scintigraphy is a first-line method for systematic evaluation of osteoarticular lesions but seems to show an "imprinting" pattern. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old female patient presented significant palmoplantar pustulosis and nail lesion as well as typical tracer accumulation feature on bone scintigraphy with normal hypersensitivity C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but an elevated serum immunoglobulin E level. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis was made by dermatological manifestations and classical sign in bone scintigraphy in accordance with the diagnostic criteria proposed in 1988. INTERVENTIONS: Methylprednisolone was given with a primary dose of 40 mg/day for 1 week followed with a subsequent 20 mg/day oral prednisone for another 1 week and then reduced in a rate of 5 mg/week until the eventual cessation. OUTCOMES: Long-term remarkable remission on clinical manifestations, MRI performance, and quantitative analysis of bone scintigraphy was achieved. LESSONS: Identification of specific subtype of SAPHO patient according to skin and nail manifestations as well as immunoglobulin E level may guide the selection of short-term systemic corticosteroids strategy, leading to remarkable long-term remission. Besides, the lesions on bone scintigraphy can hardly disappear in SAPHO patients, and instead, the quantitative analysis of bone scintigraphy and MRI performances may better reflect the change of disease condition and serve as indicator for treatment efficiency.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hiperostose Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Unhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cintilografia , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 36-46, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-cell anomalies play a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. B-cell depletion with rituximab may therefore be noninferior to treatment with cyclosporine for inducing and maintaining a complete or partial remission of proteinuria in patients with this condition. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients who had membranous nephropathy, proteinuria of at least 5 g per 24 hours, and a quantified creatinine clearance of at least 40 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and had been receiving angiotensin-system blockade for at least 3 months to receive intravenous rituximab (two infusions, 1000 mg each, administered 14 days apart; repeated at 6 months in case of partial response) or oral cyclosporine (starting at a dose of 3.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for 12 months). Patients were followed for 24 months. The primary outcome was a composite of complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 24 months. Laboratory variables and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients underwent randomization. At 12 months, 39 of 65 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 34 of 65 (52%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9 to 25; P = 0.004 for noninferiority). At 24 months, 39 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 13 (20%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 40 percentage points; 95% CI, 25 to 55; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority). Among patients in remission who tested positive for anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies, the decline in autoantibodies to anti-PLA2R was faster and of greater magnitude and duration in the rituximab group than in the cyclosporine group. Serious adverse events occurred in 11 patients (17%) in the rituximab group and in 20 (31%) in the cyclosporine group (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab was noninferior to cyclosporine in inducing complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 12 months and was superior in maintaining proteinuria remission up to 24 months. (Funded by Genentech and the Fulk Family Foundation; MENTOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01180036.).


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA ; 322(4): 315-325, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334793

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapy need treatment options. Objective: To evaluate the effects of filgotinib vs placebo on the signs and symptoms of RA in a treatment-refractory population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 24-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial conducted from July 2016 to June 2018 at 114 sites internationally, randomizing 449 adult patients (and treating 448) with moderately to severely active RA and inadequate response/intolerance to 1 or more prior bDMARDs. Interventions: Filgotinib, 200 mg (n = 148); filgotinib, 100 mg (n = 153); or placebo (n = 148) once daily; patients continued concomitant stable conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 12. Secondary outcomes included week 12 assessments of low disease activity (disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein [DAS28-CRP] ≤3.2) and change in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Physical Component, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scores, as well as week 24 assessment of remission (DAS28-CRP <2.6) and adverse events. Results: Among 448 patients who were treated (mean [SD] age, 56 [12] years; 360 women [80.4%]; mean [SD] DAS28-CRP score, 5.9 [0.96]; 105 [23.4%] with ≥3 prior bDMARDs), 381 (85%) completed the study. At week 12, more patients receiving filgotinib, 200 mg (66.0%) or 100 mg (57.5%), achieved ACR20 response (placebo, 31.1%; difference vs placebo: 34.9% [95% CI, 23.5%-46.3%] and 26.4% [95% CI, 15.0%-37.9%], respectively; both P < .001), including among patients with prior exposure to 3 or more bDMARDs (70.3%, 58.8%, and 17.6%, respectively; difference vs placebo: 52.6% [95% CI, 30.3%-75.0%] for filgotinib, 200 mg, and 41.2% [95% CI, 17.3%-65.0%] for filgotinib, 100 mg; both P < .001). The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (10.2%) for filgotinib, 200 mg; headache, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory infection (5.9% each) for filgotinib, 100 mg; and RA (6.1%) for placebo. Four uncomplicated herpes zoster cases and 1 retinal vein occlusion were reported with filgotinib; there were no opportunistic infections, active tuberculosis, malignancies, gastrointestinal perforations, or deaths. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with active RA who had an inadequate response or intolerance to 1 or more bDMARDs, filgotinib, 100 mg daily or 200 mg daily, compared with placebo resulted in a significantly greater proportion achieving a clinical response at week 12. However, further research is needed to assess longer-term efficacy and safety. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02873936.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Infecção/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/efeitos adversos
18.
Z Rheumatol ; 78(6): 529-539, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297605

RESUMO

Every patient suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis should be treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) but methotrexate initially remains the first choice treatment. Treatment should comply with the treat-to-target principle. The therapeutic aim is remission if attainable or at least a low disease activity. Remission is defined as a simplified disease activity score index (SDAI) of ≤3.3 or as fulfilling the so-called Boolean criteria. A first evaluation of the response is due after 12 weeks. At this time there should be a measurable response defined as an improvement of at least 50% of the composite score, e.g. the DAS28. If no improvement has been achieved, treatment should be continued with either a second DMARD strategy conventionally with synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) or an alternative with biological (bDMARD) or targeted synthetic (tsDMARDs) DMARD, depending on whether there are risk factors for a severe disease progression. A change within bDMARDs and tsDMARDs as well as therapeutic de-escalation are both possible measures in the further course of treatment.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Algoritmos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD001911, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2017. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for focal onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment, due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, but the drug is still commonly used in low- to middle-income countries because of its low cost. No consistent differences in efficacy have been found between carbamazepine and phenytoin in individual trials; however, the confidence intervals generated by these trials are wide, and therefore, synthesising the data of the individual trials may show differences in efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with carbamazepine compared with phenytoin when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset seizures (simple or complex focal and secondarily generalised), or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update, we searched the following databases on 13 August 2018: the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy's Specialised Register and CENTRAL; MEDLINE; the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov); and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We handsearched relevant journals and contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators, and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing monotherapy with either carbamazepine or phenytoin in children or adults with focal onset seizures or generalised onset (tonic-clonic) seizures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Our primary outcome was time to treatment failure. Our secondary outcomes were time to first seizure post-randomisation, time to six-month remission, time to 12-month remission, and incidence of adverse events. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain trial-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. MAIN RESULTS: IPD were available for 595 participants out of 1102 eligible individuals, from four out of 11 trials (i.e. 54% of the potential data). For remission outcomes, a HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for phenytoin; and for first seizure and withdrawal outcomes, a HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for carbamazepine. Most participants included in analysis (78%) were classified as experiencing focal onset seizures at baseline and only 22% were classified as experiencing generalised onset seizures; the results of this review are therefore mainly applicable to individuals with focal onset seizures.Results for the primary outcome of the review were: time to treatment failure for any reason related to treatment (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 0.94, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.26, moderate-certainty evidence); time to treatment failure due to lack of efficacy (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.41, moderate-certainty evidence); both showing no clear difference between the drugs and time to treatment failure due to adverse events (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 1.27, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.86, moderate-certainty evidence), showing that treatment failure due to adverse events may occur earlier on carbamazepine than phenytoin, but we cannot rule out a slight advantage to carbamazepine or no difference between the drugs.For our secondary outcomes (pooled HRs adjusted for seizure type), we did not find any clear differences between carbamazepine and phenytoin: time to first seizure post-randomisation (582 participants): 1.15, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.40, moderate-certainty evidence); time to 12-month remission (551 participants): 1.00, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.26, moderate-certainty evidence); and time to six-month remission (551 participants): 0.90, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.12, moderate-certainty evidence).For all outcomes, results for individuals with focal onset seizures were similar to overall results (moderate-certainty evidence), and results for the small subgroup of individuals with generalised onset seizures were imprecise, so we cannot rule out an advantage to either drug, or no difference between drugs (low-certainty evidence). There was also evidence that misclassification of seizure type may have confounded the results of this review, particularly for the outcome 'time to treatment failure'. Heterogeneity was present in analysis of 'time to first seizure' for individuals with generalised onset seizures, which could not be explained by subgroup analysis or sensitivity analyses.Limited information was available about adverse events in the trials and we could not compare the rates of adverse events between carbamazepine and phenytoin. Some adverse events reported on both drugs were abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, drowsiness, motor and cognitive disturbances, dysmorphic side effects (such as rash). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence provided by this systematic review does not show any differences between carbamazepine and phenytoin in terms of effectiveness (retention) or efficacy (seizure recurrence and seizure remission) for individuals with focal onset or generalised onset seizures.However, some of the trials contributing to the analyses had methodological inadequacies and inconsistencies, which may have had an impact on the results of this review. We therefore do not suggest that results of this review alone should form the basis of a treatment choice for a person with newly-onset seizures. We did not find any evidence to support or refute current treatment policies. We implore that future trials be designed to the highest quality possible, with consideration of masking, choice of population, classification of seizure type, duration of follow-up, choice of outcomes and analysis, and presentation of results.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16243, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261587

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and pathological findings. EoE is treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), topical steroids, and elimination diet-reintroduction therapy. After remission is achieved with the elimination diet, foods can be reintroduced sequentially to identify specific food triggers; however, this reintroduction method was not previously standardized. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 12-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a 3-year history of epigastric pain. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linear furrows, esophageal rings, white exudates, and pallor throughout the esophagus. Histopathological findings revealed eosinophilic infiltration >15 eos/hpf on esophageal biopsy. There were no obvious abnormal findings in the stomach and duodenum. DIAGNOSES: EoE INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES:: Because PPI was ineffective, we proposed a 6-food-group elimination diet (SFGED) and reintroduction therapy for EoE, which was initially planned out over a 6-week interval. However, a 5-day interval of SFGED and reintroduction therapy was performed instead. The treatment was effective and causative food antigens (egg and nuts) were identified. Since her symptoms recovered following short-term treatment, the nutritional impact was minimized, as was the duration of her hospitalization. Consequently, the patient's quality of life was well-preserved. LESSONS: SFGED and reintroduction therapy for EoE may be effective even for short-term treatments involving 5-day intervals.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica/dietoterapia , Alimentos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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