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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927061, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The efficacy of telemedicine in reducing delay times and short-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unclear. This study compared outcomes in patients with STEMI who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the use of a telemedicine app from August 2019 to March 2020 at a single center in Beijing, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 243 patients with STEMI who underwent PCI were consecutively enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to the date, before or after the pandemic. The 2 groups were further divided into patients who used the app for consulting and those who did not. RESULTS The time from symptom onset to calling an ambulance (SCT), door to balloon time (DTB), and total ischemia time (TIT) were significantly prolonged in patients after the pandemic. Patients who used the app had shorter SCT, DTB, and TIT before and after the pandemic compared to those who did not. Adverse clinical outcomes were significantly higher after compared with before the pandemic, despite the incidence rate of stroke, any revascularization, and stent thrombosis. However, there was no significant difference in short-term adverse clinical outcomes between patients who used the app and those who did not before and after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS Telemedicine reduced the delay time of STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The difference in short-term adverse clinical outcomes was not statistically significant between patients who used the app and those who did not.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Telemedicina , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): e009622, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883106

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in additional challenges for systems designed to perform expeditious primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. There are 2 important considerations: the guideline-recommended time goals were difficult to achieve for many patients in high-income countries even before the pandemic, and there is a steep increase in mortality when primary percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be delivered in a timely fashion. Although the use of fibrinolytic therapy has progressively decreased over the last several decades in high-income countries, in circumstances when delays in timely delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention are expected, a modern fibrinolytic-based pharmacoinvasive strategy may need to be considered. The purpose of this review is to systematically discuss the contemporary role of an evidence-based fibrinolytic reperfusion strategy as part of a pharmacoinvasive approach, in the context of the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(6): 472-476, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842256

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrinolysis strategy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide reference value for optimization of fibrinolytic process on the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff. Methods: The efficacy and safety of fibrinolysis were retrospectively analyzed in 7 patients with acute STEM, who hospitalized from February 29, 2020 to April 3, 2020 in the Department of Cardiology, Wuhan Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. To optimize the fibrinolytic process on the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff, a full-time medical team in charge of fibrinolysis under third-grade protection was established. The acute STEMI patients were treated immediately in a fixed and isolated area in emergency department before receiving green channel fibrinolysis. Blood samples for complete blood count, COVID-19 antibody test and nasopharyngeal swab samples for COVID-19 nucleic acid test were made before fibrinolysis, while the chest CT examination was accomplished after fibrinolysis. By comparing differences of time from the first electrocardiogram (ECG) to fibrinolysis before and after the improvement of fibrinolytic process, the effect of optimization of the fibrinolytic process was evaluated. Results: In the present study, seven patients with acute STEMI received fibrinolysis therapy, 6 of them achieved reperfusion and no bleeding was observed in all of the patients. Five out of the 7 patients were hospitalized after fibrinolysis, and the hospitalization days were 19.6 days on average. By following up to April 14, 2020, none of the 7 patients died. The first 2 patients were treated according to the routine medical procedure and the time from the first ECG to fibrinolysis were 201 and 106 minutes, respectively. After the optimization of the fibrinolytic process, the time from the first ECG to fibrinolysis of the last 5 patients were 42, 46, 51, 43 and 54 minutes, respectively,which was significantly shorter than that before optimization. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 epidemic, fibrinolysis in patients with acute STEMI is safe, effective and easy to implement. Therefore, it is recommended as the top priority for the patients with acute STEMI with indications for fibrinolysis. On the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff, the duration of myocardial ischemia can be shortened by optimization of the fibrinolytic process.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am Heart J ; 227: 19-30, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, whether anticoagulation should be continued after pPCI has not been well investigated. METHODS/DESIGN: The RIGHT trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in STEMI patients treated with pPCI evaluating the prolongation of anticoagulation after the procedure. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive either prolonged anticoagulant or matching placebo (no anticoagulation) for at least 48 hours after the procedure. When randomized to anticoagulation prolongation, the patient is assigned to intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) or subcutaneous enoxaparin or intravenous bivalirudin (same drug and same regimen at each center). The primary efficacy endpoint is the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, stent thrombosis (definite) or urgent revascularization (any vessel) at 30 days. The primary safety endpoint is major bleeding (BARC 3-5) at 30 days. Based on a superiority design and assuming a 35% relative risk reduction (from 7% to 4.5%), 2856 patients will be enrolled, accounting for a 5% drop-out rate (α = 0.05 and power = 80%). CONCLUSION: The RIGHT trial tests the hypothesis that post-procedural anticoagulation is superior to no anticoagulation in reducing ischemic events in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hirudinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 327-331, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the main contributors to morbidity and mortality in South Africa (SA). Timeous intervention by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or fibrinolysis can significantly improve the outcome of STEMI. OBJECTIVES: To determine the median time interval between diagnosis and fibrinolysis in patients presenting to centres within the drainage area of Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, SA, and compare it with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendation of 10 minutes. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of patients presenting to the abovementioned centres between 1 March 2017 and 28 February 2018 was performed. The primary presenting centre, time between diagnosis and fibrinolysis and discharge medication were recorded, in addition to other relevant demographic information. RESULTS: A total of 492 patients were identified, of whom 447 were included in the study. Three hundred and eighteen patients received fibrinolysis, of whom 18 (5.7%) were treated within 10 minutes of diagnosis. The median time interval between diagnosis and fibrinolysis was 67 (interquartile range (IQR) 32.5 -122.5) minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients received fibrinolysis >10 minutes after diagnosis, which indicates suboptimal therapy when compared with the ESC guidelines. Future studies should investigate the factors prolonging this therapeutic delay.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Hospitais de Distrito , Hospitais Privados , Transferência de Pacientes , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , África do Sul
6.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(4): 437-439, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675154

RESUMO

We describe a case of an 82-year-old man who developed an anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and left ventricular thrombus while an inpatient following a diagnosis of severe COVID-19 infection (SARS-CoV-2). His D-dimer was significantly elevated at 12,525 ng/mL (normal range <243). He unfortunately died despite management with thrombolysis, warfarin and non-invasive ventilation. This case provides an example of a likely arterial thrombotic complication of severe COVID-19 infection. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility in such patients, with a severely prothrombotic state as a possible underlying aetiology. Further research is required to establish any causative link, pathophysiological mechanisms and whether modification to existing venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies may also reduce arterial thrombotic complications of severe COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/virologia , Trombose/virologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Kardiologiia ; 60(6): 867, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720622

RESUMO

Aim      To compare hemorrhagic safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (STEACS) after thrombolytic therapy (TLT).Material and methods  This nonrandomized study included 183 patients followed up for 30 days. Hemorrhagic safety was compared in a group of patients with STEACS (n=71) after a thrombolytic treatment with alteplase and early ticagrelor treatment (180 mg followed by switching to 90 mg twice daily) and in a group of patients (n=112) with STEACS receiving TLT with alteplase and clopidogrel (loading dose, 600 mg followed by switching to 75 mg daily). Primary endpoint was hemorrhage associated with TLT; patients were followed up for 30 days.Results During the follow-up period, TLT-associated hemorrhages were observed in 11.3% of patients in the ticagrelor treatment group and in 10.7% of patients in the clopidogrel treatment group (p=0.9; odds ratio, 1.06 at 95 % confidence interval, from 0.41 to 2.73). Intracranial hemorrhages and fatal hemorrhages were absent in both groups.Conclusion      There were no significant differences in hemorrhagic safety between patients with STEACS after the TLT treatment with alteplase and early treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21177, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702876

RESUMO

Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has been shown to improve index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), the importance of the early DAPT administration on IMR and left ventricular function has not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to assess whether early DAPT administration affect IMR, epicardial flow, and left ventricular function in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This was a prospective non-randomized study on STEMI receiving primary PCI in a tertiary hospital. All subjects received loading dose DAPT (Aspirin + Clopidogrel) before primary PCI. Patients were then divided into 2 groups, the first group consists of patients receiving DAPT time ≤2 hours and the second group consists of those with DAPT time >2 hours. The primary endpoint of this study was IMR, a microvasculature function index measured quantitatively by pressure-/temperature-tipped guidewire after balloon dilatation. The secondary endpoint was the mean difference of global longitudinal strain (GLS) change at 6 months follow-up, TIMI flow before, and after PCI between the 2 groups.There were 40 subjects qualified for the study, 20 subjects in each group. There was no significant difference in IMR (50.90 [34.66] vs 58.06 [45.56], P = .579) between the 2 groups. Early administration of DAPT improved ventricular function at 6 months, reflected by statistically significant greater improvement in terms of ΔGLS (-3.48 [2.61] vs -1.23 [2.87], P = .013) and Δejection fraction (10.65% [8.74] vs -0.75% [12.83], P = .002) in the DAPT time ≤2 hours group compared with DAPT time >2 hours group. TIMI flow before PCI (P = .653) and TIMI flow after PCI (P = .205) were similar in the 2 groups.Early DAPT administration ≤2 hours may improve left ventricular function, but not IMR and TIMI flow.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Am Heart J ; 226: 140-146, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STREAM study demonstrated that a pharmaco-invasive strategy was at least as effective as primary PCI (pPCI) in patients presenting early with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The current trial is a response to the finding that reduced intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients ≥75 years occurred after halving the dose of tenecteplase. Additionally, a subsequent analysis of full dose tenecteplase or alteplase in the Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT) trials demonstrated a steep increase in bleeding events beginning around the age of 60 years. METHODS: STREAM-2 will compare the efficacy and safety of a novel pharmaco-invasive strategy as compared to routine pPCI in STEMI patients ≥60 years presenting within 3 hours from symptom onset. In the pharmaco-invasive arm patients will receive half-dose tenecteplase, as soon as possible before transport to a PCI center. In the pPCI arm, patients will be treated according to optimal standard of care defined by local practice. The key criteria for efficacy will be the number of patients achieving ≥50% ST-segment resolution before and after PCI in lead with maximal ST elevation at baseline and the clinical endpoints of death, congestive heart failure, shock or re-infarction, rescue PCI and aborted myocardial infarction, both singularly and as a composite at 30 days. Key safety criteria are total stroke, ICH and major non-intracranial bleeds. Approximately 600 patients will be randomized (400 to pharmaco-invasive treatment and 200 to pPCI). An interim analysis is planned after 300 patients are enrolled to consider adapting the trial to include a larger sample size aimed at undertaking a formal confirmatory trial. DISCUSSION: The study will provide new insights aimed at establishing an effective and safer pharmaco-invasive treatment for the growing population of older STEMI patients who cannot undergo timely pPCI.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Tenecteplase/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20402, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501985

RESUMO

Tirofiban is widely used in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This drug can efficiently improve myocardial perfusion and cardiac function, but its dose still remains controversial. We here investigated the effects of different dose of tirofiban on myocardial reperfusion and heart function in patients with STEMI. A total of 312 STEMI patients who underwent PCI in our hospital from March 2017 to March 2018 were enrolled and randomly divided into control group (75 cases, 0 µg/kg), low-dose group (79 cases, 5 µg/kg), medium-dose group (81 cases, 10 µg/kg) and high-dose group (77 cases, 20 µg/kg). The infarction-targeted artery flow grade evaluated by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI), corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) and sum-ST-segment resolution were recorded. At Day 7 and Day 30 after PCI, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, major adverse cardiovascular events and the hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia were also evaluated. After PCI, the rate of TIMI grade 3, CTFC and incidence of sum-ST-segment resolution > 50% of high-dose group were significantly higher than those of control group, low-dose group and medium-dose group (P < .05), and the CTFC of medium -dose group were significantly higher than that of control group, low-dose group (P < .05). Moreover, the LVEF, left ventricular end diastolic diameter and left ventricular end systolic diameter of high-dose group were significantly improved than those of other groups, and the LVEF of medium-dose group was significantly superior to that of low-dose group (P < .05). However, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in high-dose group was significantly decreased, while the hemorrhage and incidence of thrombocytopenia of high-dose group were significantly higher than those of other 3 groups (P < .05). The tirofiban can effectively alleviate the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and promote the recovery of cardiac function in STEMI patients underwent PCI. Although the high-dose can enhance the clinical effects, it also increased the hemorrhagic risk. Therefore, the rational dosage application of tirofiban become much indispensable in view of patient's conditions and hemorrhagic risk, and a medium dose of 10 µg/kg may be appropriate for patients without high hemorrhagic risk.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Tirofibana/administração & dosagem , Tirofibana/normas , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/normas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tirofibana/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am Heart J ; 224: 129-137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiac remodeling is a major risk factor for the development of post myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure (HF). This study investigates the effects of the chymase inhibitor fulacimstat on adverse cardiac remodeling after acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial patients with first STEMI were eligible. To preferentially enrich patients at high risk of adverse remodeling, main inclusion criteria were a left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% and an infarct size >10% on day 5 to 9 post MI as measured by cardiac MRI. Patients were then randomized to 6 months treatment with either 25 mg fulacimstat (n = 54) or placebo (n = 53) twice daily on top of standard of care starting day 6 to 12 post MI. The changes in LVEF, LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), and LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) from baseline to 6 months were analyzed by a central blinded cardiac MRI core laboratory. RESULTS: Fulacimstat was safe and well tolerated and achieved mean total trough concentrations that were approximately tenfold higher than those predicted to be required for minimal therapeutic activity. Comparable changes in LVEF (fulacimstat: 3.5% ±â€¯5.4%, placebo: 4.0% ±â€¯5.0%, P = .69), LVEDVI (fulacimstat: 7.3 ±â€¯13.3 mL/m2, placebo: 5.1 ±â€¯18.9 mL/m2, P = .54), and LVESVI (fulacimstat: 2.3 ±â€¯11.2 mL/m2, placebo: 0.6 ±â€¯14.8 mL/m2, P = .56) were observed in both treatment arms. CONCLUSION: Fulacimstat was safe and well tolerated in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD) after first STEMI but had no effect on cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Quimases/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(3): 226-231, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is strong evidence supporting the use of statin therapy after myocardial infarction (MI), some mechanistic gaps exist regarding the benefits of this therapy at the very onset of MI. Among the potential beneficial mechanisms, statins may improve myocardial electrical stability and reduce life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, as reported in stable clinical conditions. This study was designed to evaluate whether this mechanism could also occur during the acute phase of MI. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation MI were treated without statin (n = 57) or with a simvastatin dose of 20 to 80 mg (n = 87) within the first 24 hours after MI symptom onset. Patients underwent digital electrocardiography within the first 24 hours and at the third and fifth days after MI. The QTC dispersion (QTcD) was measured both with and without the U waves. RESULTS: Although QTcD values were equivalent between the groups at the first day (80.6 ± 36.0 vs 80.0 ± 32.1; P = 0.36), they were shorter among individuals using simvastatin than in those receiving no statins on the third (90.4 ± 38.6 vs 86.5 ± 36.9; P = .036) and fifth days (73.1 ± 31 vs 69.2 ± 32.6; P = .049). We obtained similar results when analyzing the QTcD duration including the U wave. All values were adjusted by an ANCOVA model after propensity-score matching. CONCLUSIONS: Statins administered within 24 hours of ST-segment elevation MI reduced QTc dispersion, which may potentially attenuate the substrate for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Xenobiotica ; 50(8): 929-938, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065000

RESUMO

We assessed the contribution of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity to the ADP-induced platelet aggregation 1h and 24h after a loading dose of 60 mg prasugrel or 180 mg ticagrelor in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Further, we assessed the contribution of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and medication to the CYP enzymatic activity.Patients with STEMI were randomly assigned to the treatment with prasugrel (n = 51) or ticagrelor (n = 46). Metabolic activity of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was assessed by the rate of 5-hydroxylation and sulfoxidation of lansoprazole. Further, patients were genotyped for CYP2C19 *2 and *17 alleles.In prasugrel-treated patients, high ADP-induced platelet reactivity 1h after the loading dose positively correlated with 5OH-lansoprazole/lansoprazole ratio (r = 0.44, p = 0.002), a marker of CYP2C19 metabolic activity, and negatively with lansoprazole-sulfone/lansoprazole ratio, which reflects CYP3A4 metabolic activity (r = -0.35, p = 0.018).CYP2C19 poor metabolizers had lower 5OH-lansoprazole/lansoprazole ratio and higher lansoprazole-sulfone/lansoprazole ratio, but without any effect on the ADP-induced platelet reactivity. The treatment with amiodarone, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, influenced neither the metabolic ratios nor the ADP-induced platelet reactivity.The CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 metabolic activity is associated with ADP-induced platelet reactivity in prasugrel-treated, but not ticagrelor-treated patients with STEMI.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/farmacologia , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 661-669, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898965

RESUMO

An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but the association between WBC count and bleeding in ACS patients is not well established. The aim of this analysis was to assess and compare the association between WBC count and the occurrence of short- and long-term bleeding and ischemic events. This was a post hoc analysis of the ATLAS ACS2-TIMI 51 trial. A subset of patients had a WBC count measurement at baseline (n = 14,231, 91.6%). Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine if there is an association between WBC count at baseline and a composite outcome of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeds at 30 days and 1 year. Variables with a p <0.2 in the univariate analysis were included as potential parameters in the backward selection process A similar multivariable model was constructed to assess the association between WBC count and a composite ischemic endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. An increased risk of bleeding per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.08 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.17, p = 0.019) but not at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.02 95% CI 0.97 to 1.08, p = 0.409). Additionally, an increased risk of ischemia per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12, p = 0.002) and at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.05 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08, p = 0.001 at 1 year). In conclusion, a higher WBC count at baseline was associated with an increased risk of the composite bleeding endpoint by 30 days but not at 1 year. The association between WBC count and the risk of the composite ischemic endpoint was significant at 30 days and 1 year.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Leucocitose/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Angina Instável/tratamento farmacológico , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(1): 79-82, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some studies suggest better outcomes after the use of thrombolytics in inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared to other locations. The goal of this study is to compare the clinical endpoints of thrombolytic-treated STEMI based on coronary artery distribution. METHODS: The study population was extracted from the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Data using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modifications codes for STEMI, thrombolytic infusion, and complications of STEMI. Primary study endpoints included in-hospital all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), cardiogenic shock, and mechanical complications of STEMI. RESULTS: A principal diagnosis of thrombolytic-treated STEMI was identified for in 1231 patients (mean age 61.5 years; 26.5% female). Four hundred and thirty-one STEMIs occurred in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery distribution, 124 in the left circumflex (LCX) artery distribution, and 676 in the right coronary artery (RCA) distribution. In comparison to the LAD and LCX distributions, thrombolytic-treated STEMIs in the RCA distribution were associated with lower mortality (6.5% with LAD, 5.7% with LCX, and 3.6% with RCA; p = 0.02), fewer cardiogenic shock (12.3% with LAD, 12.1% with LCX, and 7.7% with RCA; p = 0.01), and shorter LOS (4.5 days with LAD, 3.9 with LCX, and 3.6 days with RCA; p < 0.01). Mechanical complications showed no significant difference based on coronary distribution (2.3% with LAD, 3.2% with LCX, and 1.2% with RCA; p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolytic-treated STEMIs in the RCA distribution were associated with lower in-hospital all-cause mortality, cardiogenic shock, and shorter LOS. Mechanical complications were not different based on coronary distribution.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia
19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor as a P2Y12 receptor antagonist is recommended in patients with acute coronary syndrome without a primary cardiosurgical therapy. Severe relevant side effects, especially anaphylactic reactions, have not yet been described in the current literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the first documented case in the current literature with a severe anaphylaxis after ticagrelor in a 76-year-old male patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The diagnosis seems to be objectivated by the observed time-related life-threatening event after repetitive administration of ticagrelor and the rapid stabilization after adequate anaphylactic treatment. CONCLUSION: This case should raise the awareness that a supposedly safe drug can still cause an anaphylactic shock.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Choque , Adenosina , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/induzido quimicamente , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 381(17): 1621-1631, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitors. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded trial in which patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a P2Y12 inhibitor on the basis of early CYP2C19 genetic testing (genotype-guided group) or standard treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel (standard-treatment group) for 12 months. In the genotype-guided group, carriers of CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C19*3 loss-of-function alleles received ticagrelor or prasugrel, and noncarriers received clopidogrel. The two primary outcomes were net adverse clinical events - defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, or major bleeding defined according to Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) criteria - at 12 months (primary combined outcome; tested for noninferiority, with a noninferiority margin of 2 percentage points for the absolute difference) and PLATO major or minor bleeding at 12 months (primary bleeding outcome). RESULTS: For the primary analysis, 2488 patients were included: 1242 in the genotype-guided group and 1246 in the standard-treatment group. The primary combined outcome occurred in 63 patients (5.1%) in the genotype-guided group and in 73 patients (5.9%) in the standard-treatment group (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 0.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The primary bleeding outcome occurred in 122 patients (9.8%) in the genotype-guided group and in 156 patients (12.5%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy for selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy was noninferior to standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel at 12 months with respect to thrombotic events and resulted in a lower incidence of bleeding. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular Genetics ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01761786; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2872.).


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Genótipo , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/genética , Método Simples-Cego , Stents , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
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