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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050220

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a worldwide health crisis.Although respiratory disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID patients,myocardial damage is a common finding. Many possible biological pathways may explain therelationship between COVID-19 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Increased immune andinflammatory responses, and procoagulant profile have characterized COVID patients. All theseresponses may induce endothelial dysfunction, myocardial injury, plaque instability, and AMI.Disease severity and mortality are increased by cardiovascular comorbidities. Moreover, COVID-19has been associated with air pollution, which may also represent an AMI risk factor. Nonetheless,a significant reduction in patient admissions following containment initiatives has been observed,including for AMI. The reasons for this phenomenon are largely unknown, although a real decreasein the incidence of cardiac events seems highly improbable. Instead, patients likely may presentdelayed time from symptoms onset and subsequent referral to emergency departments because offear of possible in-hospital infection, and as such, may present more complications. Here, we aim todiscuss available evidence about all these factors in the complex relationship between COVID-19and AMI, with particular focus on psychological distress and the need to increase awareness ofischemic symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
2.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 879-887, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921674

RESUMO

Since the number of elderly patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been increasing in developed countries, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the very elderly aged ≥80 years old is already common. The study aimed to examine the determinants of in-hospital death among the very elderly with AMI in current PCI era. We included 412 consecutive AMI patients aged ≥ 80 years old who received PCI to the culprit lesion; however, 42 patients (10.2%) died during the index hospitalization. Thus, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of in-hospital death. Of note, the modified KATZ index, which is a seven-point scale ranging from 0 to 6 (0 point indicating no dependence and six points indicating full dependence), was calculated to evaluate pre-admission activity of daily living (ADL). In multivariate analysis, cardiac arrest (OR 4.642, 95% CI 1.177-18.305, P = 0.028), Killip class IV (versus Killip class I: OR 5.732, 95% CI 1.076-16.630, P = 0.001), modified KATZ index (OR 1.212, 95% CI 1.001-1.469, P = 0.049), hemoglobin levels (OR 0.803, 95% CI 0.656-0.983, P = 0.033), use of temporary pacemaker (OR 2.603, 95% CI 1.010-6.709, P = 0.048), final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3 (versus TIMI ≤ 2: OR 0.240, 95% CI 0.093-0.618, P = 0.003), and mechanical circulatory support (OR 4.264, 95% CI 1.818-10.005, P = 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with in-hospital death. In conclusion, in-hospital outcomes of the very elderly with AMI were still poor in the current PCI era. Poor pre-admission ADL as well as cardiogenic shock and anemia were determined to be strongly associated with in-hospital death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/epidemiologia
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 888-895, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921675

RESUMO

Although B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has gradually gained recognition as an indicator in risk stratification for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the prognostic impact on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) without creatine kinase (CK) elevation remains unclear.This prospective multicenter study assessed 3,283 consecutive patients with AMI admitted to 28 institutions in Japan between 2012 and 2014. We analyzed 218 patients with NSTEMI without CK elevation (NSTEMI-CK) for whom BNP was available. In the NSTEMI-CK group, patients were assigned to high- and low-BNP groups according to BNP values (cut-off BNP, 100 pg/mL). The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, cardiac failure, and urgent revascularization for unstable angina up to 3 years. Primary endpoints were observed in 60 (33.3%) events among patients with NSTEMI-CK. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly higher event rate for primary endpoints among patients with high BNP (log-rank P < 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, a higher BNP level was significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes in NSTEMI-CK (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.86; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-12.44; P < 0.001).The BNP concentration is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes among patients with NSTEMI-CK who are considered low risk. Careful clinical management may be warranted for secondary prevention in patients with NSTEMI-CK with high BNP levels.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 128-132, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994622

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is an increasingly recognised condition and it accounts for approximately 10% of all cases of MI. Despite the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, patients with MINOCA are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. While many well recognised conditions can present as MINOCA, it can be difficult to reach a final diagnosis with certainty due to the relative infrequency of these conditions in the general population and the lack of diagnostic gold-standard tests. The most common causes of MINOCA are myocarditis, coronary vasospasm, coronary plaque disruption and coronary thrombus or embolism. These can be assessed by way of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, intra-coronary imaging modalities and clinically relevant diagnostic blood tests, respectively. There are less common and rarer aetiologies which should be considered in the absence of an apparent cause, each with a unique diagnostic standard. By following a systematic approach of diagnostic tests, an underlying cause of MINOCA can be found in the majority of cases, allowing a directed management strategy to be pursued.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Infarto do Miocárdio , Algoritmos , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1521): 40-54, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994636

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates after myocardial infarction (MI) are higher in Maori and Pacific compared to European people. The reasons for these differences are complex and incompletely understood. Our aim was to use a contemporary real-world national cohort of patients presenting with their first MI to better understand the extent to which differences in the clinical presentation, cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, comorbidity and in-hospital treatment explain the mortality outcomes for Maori and Pacific peoples. METHODS: New Zealand residents (≥20 years old) hospitalised with their first MI (2014-2017), and who underwent coronary angiography, were identified from the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. All-cause mortality up to one year after the index admission date was obtained by linkage to the national mortality database. RESULTS: There were 17,404 patients with a first ever MI. European/other comprised 76% of the population, Maori 11.5%, Pacific 5.1%, Indian 4.3% and Other Asian 2.9%. Over half (55%) of Maori, Pacific and Indian patients were admitted with their first MI before age 60 years, compared with 29% of European/other patients. Maori and Pacific patients had a higher burden of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and despite being younger, were more likely to present with heart failure and, together with Indian peoples, advanced coronary disease at presentation with first MI. After adjustment for age and sex, Maori and Pacific, but not Indian or Other Asian patients had significantly higher all-cause mortality at one year compared with the European/other reference group (HR 2.55 (95% CI 2.12-3.07), HR 2.98 (95% CI 2.34-3.81) for Maori and Pacific respectively). When further adjusted for differences in clinical presentation, clinical history and cardiovascular risk factors, the excess mortality risk for Maori and Pacific patients was reduced substantially, but a differential persisted (HR 1.77 (95% CI 1.44-2.19), HR 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.83)) which was not further reduced by adjustment for differences in in-hospital management and discharge medications. CONCLUSION: In New Zealand patients after their first MI there is a three-fold variation in one-year mortality based on ethnicity. At least half of the inequity in outcomes for Maori, and three-quarters for Pacific people, is associated with differences in preventable or modifiable clinical factors present at, or prior to, presentation.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 905-912, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921660

RESUMO

There is little data on management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) undergoing general surgery.We retrospectively assessed 98 surgeries in 85 nonvalvular AF patients aged 73 ± 8 (59 men) receiving DOACs. Cardiac, emergency, and minimally invasive surgeries were excluded.The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0 to 8. The DOACs being given were: dabigatran, 16; rivaroxaban, 25; apixaban, 28; and edoxaban, 16. While the DOACs were not suspended in 11 cases, they were interrupted for a median of 2.0 days before surgery and restarted at a median of 3.0 days after surgery. There were 9 complications (9.2%), 3 instances of thromboembolism and 6 bleeding. Thromboembolism occurred at a mean of 3.0 postoperative days, all of which occurred before resumption of DOACs, while bleeding events occurred at a mean of 4.0 postoperative days. Two of the 3 patients with thromboembolism went into cardiopulmonary arrest during the event, but were resuscitated. There were significantly more patients with congestive heart failure or combined antiplatelets in the patients with complications. The complication group had a significantly higher HAS-BLED score and lower preoperative hemoglobin level. There were no significant differences in the management of DOAC interruption between those with complications and without.The perioperative complication rate in nonvalvular AF patients undergoing elective surgery treating with DOACs was 9.2%. Patients with congestive heart failure, receiving combined therapy with antiplatelets, a higher HAS-BLED score, or lower preoperative hemoglobin level were at higher risk. Further studies evaluating the ideal perioperative DOAC protocol are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
8.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 856-861, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879090

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the world are increasing, and the age of onset is gradually getting younger. Extensive atherosclerotic lesions are rare in patients under 35 years old with acute myocardial infarction, and the atherosclerotic burden is low. The risk factors are unique. In addition to traditional risk factors such as smoking and dyslipidemia, new risk factors such as genetic polymorphisms related to blood coagulation, fibrinogen, homocysteine and uric acid, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of patients with early-onset acute myocardial infarction. Enhanced prevention can reduce the incidence of premature coronary heart disease, early detection and early treatment can improve the prognosis. .


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Dislipidemias , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 573-582, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933609

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and peripheral blood CD14 +CD16 + monocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis in CHD by analyzing the correlation between infection, inflammation, and CHD, to provide a basis for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Methods: In total, 192 patients with CHD were divided into three groups: latent CHD, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction. HCMV-IgM and -IgG antibodies were assessed using ELISA; CD14 +CD16 + monocytes were counted using a five-type automated hematology analyzer; mononuclear cells were assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, lipoprotein, hs-CRp and Hcy. Results: The positive rates of HCMV-IgM and -IgG were significantly higher in the CHD groups than in the control group. HCMV infection affects lipid metabolism to promote immune and inflammatory responses. Conclusion: HCMV infection has a specific correlation with the occurrence and development of CHD. The expression of CD14 +CD16 + mononuclear cells in the CHD group was increased accordingly and correlated with acute HCMV infection. Thus, HCMV antibody as well as peripheral blood CD14 +CD16 + mononuclear cells can be used to monitor the occurrence and development of CHD.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/etiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/virologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21321, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791726

RESUMO

The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were initially developed to assess the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Recently, these two scoring systems have been demonstrated to predict long- and short-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in many patient cohorts. However, to the best of our knowledge, their prognostic value has not been fully elucidated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aimed to investigate the association of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores with CV outcomes in such patients.We included a total of 915 ACS patients undergoing PCI in this study. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated from data collected before discharge. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of major adverse CV events (MACE) including overall death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and unplanned repeat revascularization. We assessed MACE's relationship to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores using Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses.Mean follow-up duration was 918 days. MACE occurred in 167 (18.3%) patients. A higher CHADS2 score was associated with reduced event-free survival (EFS) from MACE (logrank test, P = .007) with differences potentiated if stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score (logrank test, P < .001). Univariate analysis showed that both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were good predictors of MACE. In the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.27; P = .007) remained a useful predictor of MACE; however, CHADS2 score was no longer associated with increased risk of MACE. C-statistics for CHA2DS2-VASc score, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) hospital discharge risk score (GRACE Score) and SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) Score II (SS II) in predicting MACE were 0.614, 0.598, and 0.609, respectively.CHA2DS2-VASc score was an independent and significant predictor of MACE in ACS patients undergoing PCI, and its discriminatory performance was not inferior to those of GRACE Score and SS II.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(2): 94-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rates of depression after ischemic stroke (IS) and myocardial infarction (MI) are significantly higher than in the general population and associated with morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of nationally representative data comparing depression and suicide attempt (SA) after these distinct ischemic vascular events. METHODS: The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database contains >14 million US admissions for all payers and the uninsured. Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes, we identified index admission with IS (n = 434,495) or MI (n = 539,550) and readmission for depression or SA. We calculated weighted frequencies of readmission. We performed adjusted Cox regression to calculate hazard ratio (HR) for readmission for depression and SA up to 1 year following IS versus MI. Analyses were stratified by discharge home versus elsewhere. RESULTS: Weighted depression readmission rates were higher at 30, 60, and 90 days in patients with IS versus MI (0.04%, 0.09%, 0.12% vs. 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, respectively). There was no significant difference in SA readmissions between groups. The adjusted HR for readmission due to depression was 1.49 for IS versus MI (95% CI 1.25-1.79, p < 0.0001). History of depression (HR 3.70 [3.07-4.46]), alcoholism (2.04 [1.34-3.09]), and smoking (1.38 [1.15-1.64]) were associated with increased risk of depression readmission. Age >70 years (0.46 [0.37-0.56]) and discharge home (0.69 [0.57-0.83]) were associated with reduced hazards of readmission due to depression. CONCLUSIONS: IS was associated with greater hazard of readmission due to depression compared to MI. Patients with a history of depression, smoking, and alcoholism were more likely to be readmitted with depression, while advanced age and discharge home were protective. It is unclear to what extent differences in type of ischemic tissue damage and disability contribute, and further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Afeto , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760080

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza may precipitate cardiovascular disease, but influenza typically peaks in winter, coinciding with other triggers of myocardial infarction (MI) such as low air temperature, high wind velocity, low atmospheric pressure, and short sunshine duration. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the relationship of week-to-week variation in influenza cases and acute MI, controlling for meteorological factors in a nationwide population. METHODS: Weekly laboratory-confirmed influenza case reports were obtained from the Public Health Agency of Sweden from 2009 to 2016 and merged with the nationwide SWEDEHEART MI registry. Weekly incidence of MI was studied with regard to number of influenza cases stratified into tertiles of 0-16, 17-164, and >164 cases/week. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a count regression model for each category and compared to a non-influenza period as reference, controlling for air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and sunshine duration. RESULTS: A total of 133562 MI events was reported to the registry during the study period. Weeks with influenza cases were associated with higher incidence of MI than those without in unadjusted analysis for overall MI, ST-elevation MI and non ST-elevation MI independently. During the influenza season, weeks with 0-16 reported cases/week were not associated with MI incidence after adjusting for weather parameters, adjusted IRR for MI was 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.09). However, weeks with more cases reported were associated with MI incidence: 17-163 reported cases/week, adjusted IRR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.003); and for ≥164 cases/week, the IRR = 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.09, P = 0.002). Results were consistent across a large range of subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide observational study, we found an association of incidence of MI with incidence of influenza cases beyond what could be explained by meteorological factors.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2918-2924, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shelter-in-place (SIP) orders implemented to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spread may inadvertently discourage patient care-seeking behavior for critical conditions like acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to compare temporal trends in volume of acute stroke alerts, patient characteristics, telestroke care, and short-term outcomes pre- and post-SIP orders. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in 21 stroke centers of an integrated healthcare system serving 4.4+ million members across Northern California. We included adult patients who presented with suspected acute stroke and were evaluated by telestroke between January 1, 2019, and May 9, 2020. SIP orders announced the week of March 15, 2020, created pre (January 1, 2019, to March 14, 2020) and post (March 15, 2020, to May 9, 2020) cohort for comparison. Main outcomes were stroke alert volumes and inpatient mortality for stroke. RESULTS: Stroke alert weekly volume post-SIP (mean, 98 [95% CI, 92-104]) decreased significantly compared with pre-SIP (mean, 132 [95% CI, 130-136]; P<0.001). Stroke discharges also dropped, in concordance with acute stroke alerts decrease. In total, 9120 patients were included: 8337 in pre- and 783 in post-SIP cohorts. There were no differences in patient demographics. Compared with pre-SIP, post-SIP patients had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (P=0.003), lower comorbidity score (P<0.001), and arrived more often by ambulance (P<0.001). Post-SIP, more patients had large vessel occlusions (P=0.03), and there were fewer stroke mimics (P=0.001). Discharge outcomes were similar for post-SIP and pre-SIP cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, regional stroke alert and ischemic stroke discharge volumes decreased significantly in the early COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with pre-SIP, the post-SIP population showed no significant demographic differences but had lower comorbidity scores, more severe strokes, and more large vessel occlusions. The inpatient mortality was similar in both cohorts. Further studies are needed to understand the causes and implications of care avoidance to patients and healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Comunitários , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco consumption continues to cause a huge burden of preventable diseases. Chile has been leading the tobacco burden ranking in the Latin American region for the last ten years; it has currently a 33. 3% prevalence of current smokers. METHODS: A microsimulation economic model was developed within the framework of a multi-country project in order to estimate the burden attributable to smoking in terms of morbidity, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and direct costs of care. We also modelled the impact of increasing cigarettes' taxes on this burden. RESULTS: In Chile, 16,472 deaths were attributable to smoking in 2017, which represent around 16% of all deaths. This burden corresponds to 416,445 DALYs per year. The country's health system spends 1.15 trillion pesos annually (in Dec 2017 CLP, approx. U$D 1.8 billion) in health care treatment of illnesses caused by smoking. If the price of tobacco cigarettes was to be raised by 50%, around 13,665 deaths and 360,476 DALYs from smoking-attributable diseases would be averted in 10 years, with subsequent savings on health care costs, and increased tax revenue collection. In Chile, the tobacco tax collection does not fully cover the direct healthcare costs attributed to smoking. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction observed on smoking prevalence between 2010 (40.6%) and 2017 (33.3%), this study shows that the burden of disease, and the economic toll due to smoking, remain high. As we demonstrate, a rise in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant reduction of this burden, averting deaths and disability, and reducing healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Fumar/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009716, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antiplatelet agents are considered to be the cornerstone for secondary prevention of stroke, but the role of using multiple antiplatelet agents early after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) to improve outcomes has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of initiating, within 72 hours after an ischaemic stroke or TIA, multiple antiplatelet agents versus fewer antiplatelet agents to prevent stroke recurrence. The analysis explores the evidence for different drug combinations. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 6 July 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 7 of 12, 2020) (last searched 6 July 2020), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946 to 6 July 2020), Embase (1980 to 6 July 2020), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO ICTRP. We also searched the reference lists of identified studies and reviews and used the Science Citation Index Cited Reference search for forward tracking of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of multiple versus fewer antiplatelet agents initiated within 72 hours after stroke or TIA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data from eligible studies for the primary outcomes of stroke recurrence and vascular death, and secondary outcomes of myocardial infarction; composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death; intracranial haemorrhage; extracranial haemorrhage; ischaemic stroke; death from all causes; and haemorrhagic stroke. We computed an estimate of treatment effect and performed a test for heterogeneity between trials. We analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis and assessed bias for all studies. We rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs with a total of 17,091 participants. Compared with fewer antiplatelet agents, multiple antiplatelet agents were associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke recurrence (5.78% versus 7.84%, risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.82; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) with no significant difference in vascular death (0.60% versus 0.66%, RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.45; P = 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). There was a higher risk of intracranial haemorrhage (0.42% versus 0.21%, RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.50; P = 0.03; low-certainty evidence) and extracranial haemorrhage (6.38% versus 2.81%, RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.70; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence) with multiple antiplatelet agents. On secondary analysis of dual versus single antiplatelet agent therapy, benefit for stroke recurrence (5.73% versus 8.06%, RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.80; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) was maintained as well as risk of extracranial haemorrhage (1.24% versus 0.40%, RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.74 to 5.46; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence). The composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death (6.37% versus 8.77%, RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.82; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) and ischaemic stroke (6.30% versus 8.94%, RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence) were significantly in favour of dual antiplatelet therapy, whilst the risk of intracranial haemorrhage became less significant (0.34% versus 0.21%, RR 1.53, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.06; P = 0.23; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Multiple antiplatelet agents are more effective in reducing stroke recurrence but increase the risk of haemorrhage compared to one antiplatelet agent. The benefit in reduction of stroke recurrence seems to outweigh the harm for dual antiplatelet agents initiated in the acute setting and continued for one month. There is lack of evidence regarding multiple versus multiple antiplatelet agents. Further studies are required in different populations to establish comprehensive safety profiles and long-term outcomes to establish duration of therapy.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Viés , Causas de Morte , Intervalos de Confiança , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Hypertens ; 38(11): 2237-2244, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to high blood pressure variability (BPV), low BPV was associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis in selected high-risk patients. We explored this issue in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) using a nonlinear approach with BPV as a continuous variable. METHODS: Long-term systolic BPV (SBPV) (coefficient of variation, CoV %) was calculated on quarterly visits until a fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular event or all-cause mortality, excluding titration period and patients with missing visits. We used Cox proportional hazard models with penalized smoothing splines to shape the risk of outcomes against the continuum of SBPV (independent variable). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR, 95% CI) were calculated using the reference range derived from the nonlinear model. Sensitivity analysis based on propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. RESULTS: The association of SBPV with fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events was J-shaped, whereas that with all-cause mortality was linear. After multivariate adjustment, however, the only significant associations remained that of low SBPV (CoV <5%) with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, P = 0.003), and of high SBPV (CoV >10%) with the composite of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80; P = 0.037). Low SBPV was associated with ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.55-4.91; P < 0.001). There was a significant U-shaped association of SBPV with cardiovascular events in the PSM cohort. CONCLUSION: Nonlinear modeling indicates that low and high long-term SBPV have prognostic relevance in high-risk hypertensive individuals from SPRINT. Randomized trials are needed to test these findings and their potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 191-203, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706208

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) represents one of the most common hospital encounters, with significant short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality, and frequently occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiac troponin is an exquisitely sensitive biomarker for myocardial injury and plays an essential role in the diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management of MI. In 2017, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Roche Diagnostics' 5th generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) for clinical use. Whilst the improved analytical sensitivity of these new high-sensitivity troponin assays facilitate early diagnosis of MI, it also frequently identifies troponin elevations above the conventional reference threshold in the context of non-coronary conditions such as renal dysfunction, and can represent a major diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Furthermore, the optimal management strategy of patients with troponin elevation and high comorbidity burden, a common issue in patients with CKD, remains undefined. In recent years, there has been substantial research and progress undertaken in this rapidly evolving area. In this review, we aim to provide clinicians with an overview of hs-cTn in the setting of CKD as well as an update on its application and the particular considerations involved in the management of myocardial infarction, stable coronary artery disease and myocardial injury in this high risk population.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Regulação para Cima
19.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 309-314, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706219

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare in-hospital and long-term events between bailout rotational atherectomy (RA) and planned RA. In this retrospective study, All patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using RA at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from November 2011 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Planned RA was defined as RA performed immediately before balloon pre-dilation, while bailout RA was defined as RA after failure to expand the balloon or perform any other procedure. In-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE, defined as cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and stroke) were compared between the two groups. After statistical analysis, a total of 211 patients underwent PCI with RA during the study period: 153 in the planned RA group, and 58 in the bailout group. The incidence of coronary dissection was significantly higher in the bailout RA group than in the planned RA group (22.4% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.001). However, no significant difference in in-hospital MACE was found between the two groups (12.1% vs. 13.7%, P = 0.752). There was no difference in all-cause mortality (9.1% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.504) or long-term MACE (13.8% vs. 17.1%, P = 0.560) between the groups. Bailout RA was associated with a significantly longer procedural time (139.86 ± 56.24 min vs. 105.56 ± 36.71 min, P < 0.001) than planned RA. Therefore, compared with bailout RA, planned RA is associated with shorter procedural time and reduced incidence of coronary dissection, with no difference in MACE or mortality.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Aterectomia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Aterectomia Coronária/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study describes the overall design and results of the Program for the Evaluation and Management of the Cardiac Events registry for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region. METHODS: This prospective, multi-center, multi-country study included patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and/or acute heart failure (AHF). We evaluated the clinical characteristics, socioeconomic and educational levels, management, in-hospital outcomes, and 30-day mortality rate of patients that were admitted to one tertiary-care center in each of 14 Arab countries in the MENA region. RESULTS: Between 22 April and 28 August 2018, 543 AMI and 381AHF patients were enrolled from 14 Arab countries (mean age, 57±12 years, 82.5% men). Over half of the patients in both study groups had low incomes with limited health care coverage, and limited education. Nearly half of the cohort had a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia. Among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions, 56.4% received primary percutaneous interventions, 24% received thrombolysis, and 19.5% received no acute reperfusion therapy. The main causes of AHF were ischemic heart diseases (55%) and primary valvular heart diseases (15%). The in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were 2.0% and 3.5%, respectively, for AMI, and 5.4% and 7.0%, respectively, for AHF. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study revealed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with AMI and AHF in Arab countries, and low levels of socioeconomic and educational status. Future phases of the study will improve our understanding of the impact that these factors have on the management and outcomes of cardiac events in these patient populations.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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