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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 128-132, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994622

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is an increasingly recognised condition and it accounts for approximately 10% of all cases of MI. Despite the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, patients with MINOCA are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. While many well recognised conditions can present as MINOCA, it can be difficult to reach a final diagnosis with certainty due to the relative infrequency of these conditions in the general population and the lack of diagnostic gold-standard tests. The most common causes of MINOCA are myocarditis, coronary vasospasm, coronary plaque disruption and coronary thrombus or embolism. These can be assessed by way of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, intra-coronary imaging modalities and clinically relevant diagnostic blood tests, respectively. There are less common and rarer aetiologies which should be considered in the absence of an apparent cause, each with a unique diagnostic standard. By following a systematic approach of diagnostic tests, an underlying cause of MINOCA can be found in the majority of cases, allowing a directed management strategy to be pursued.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Infarto do Miocárdio , Algoritmos , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21983, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899042

RESUMO

Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) patients were more prone to present with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), this case-control research aimed to explore the underlying factors relating AMI for them.This study investigated a serial of 119 patients who underwent coronary angiography and were diagnosed as CAE between the years 2016 and 2017 at the Beijing Friendship Hospital; 32 of the patients developed AMI and 87 did not develop AMI. The possible factors relating to AMI, including disease history, cardiovascular risk factors, thrombotic condition, inflammation status, and coronary imaging characteristics, were comprehensively compared between CAE patients with and without AMI.CAE patients with AMI had a lower antiplatelet rate, a higher blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, increased neutrophil to lymphocyte (NL) ratio, higher Gensini score, and larger proportions of Markis type II. Logistic regression analysis also indicated that AMI history, lower antiplatelet rate, higher NL ratio, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and Gensini score, as well as Markis type II were associated with AMI in CAE patients.AMI history, lower antiplatelet treatment rates, poor blood lipid control and higher coronary stenosis extent, higher inflammatory response, and Markis type II were closely related to the incidence of AMI in CAE patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboelastografia
3.
Am Heart J ; 228: 109-115, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients aged ≥80 years are often treated with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), but data from randomized studies are scarce owing to underrepresentation in most trials. We assessed 1-year clinical outcome of octogenarians treated with new-generation DES versus younger patients. METHODS: We pooled patient-level data of 9,204 participants in the TWENTE, DUTCH PEERS, BIO-RESORT, and BIONYX (TWENTE I-IV) randomized trials. The main clinical end point was target vessel failure (TVF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization. RESULTS: The 671 octogenarian trial participants had significantly more comorbidities. TVF was higher in octogenarians than in 8,533 patients <80 years (7.3% vs 5.3%, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.0-1.83, P = .04). The cardiac death rate was higher in octogenarians (3.9% vs 0.8%, P < .001). There was no significant between-group difference in target vessel MI (2.3% vs 2.3%, P = .88) and repeat target vessel revascularization (1.9% vs 2.8%, P = .16). In multivariate analyses, age ≥ 80 years showed no independent association with TVF (adjusted HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.76-1.42), whereas the risk of cardiac death remained higher in octogenarians (adjusted HR: 3.38, 95% CI: 2.07-5.52, P < .001). In 6,002 trial participants, in whom data on major bleeding were recorded, octogenarians (n = 459) showed a higher major bleeding risk (5.9% vs 1.9%; HR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.01-4.74, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarian participants in 4 large-scale randomized DES trials had more comorbidities and a higher incidence of the main end point TVF. Cardiac mortality was higher in octogenarians, whereas there was no increase in MI or target vessel revascularization rates. Treatment of octogenarian patients with new-generation DES appears to be safe and effective.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos/classificação , Everolimo/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21554, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) completely resorb within 3 years after placement into the coronary artery. The safety and effectiveness of bioabsorbable scaffolds are of critical importance during this 3-year period. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of BVS and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) at 3 years after implantation. METHODS: Published randomized trials comparing BVS to second-generation DES for the treatment of coronary artery disease were identified within PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and relevant Web sites with publication dates through June 2019. The primary efficacy endpoint was target lesion failure. The primary safety endpoint was definite/probable stent/scaffold thrombosis. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, and a patient-oriented composite end point. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 5,412 patients (BVS n = 3,177; DES n = 2,235), were included. At 3 years, BVS was associated with higher rates of target lesion failure (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.10-1.60, P = 0.003) and definite/probable stent/scaffold thrombosis (OR = 3.75, 95% CI: 2.22-6.35, P < .00001)compared with DES. The incidence of target vessel myocardial infarction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.30-2.17, P < .0001), ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.14-1.86, P = .003), and the patient-oriented composite end point(OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.39, P = .01) were higher for those treated with BVS compared with DES. However, there was no significant difference in risk of cardiac death (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.61-1.45, P = .79) between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: At the 3-year follow-up, BVS was inferior to second-generation DES in both safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Morte , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenho de Prótese , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombose/etiologia
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(7): 597-605, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although current guidelines recommend the administration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for up to 12 months after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES), extended DAPT is frequently used in real-world practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Korean Multicenter Angioplasty Team registry, we identified a total of 1414 patients who used DAPT for >3 years after DES implantation (extended-DAPT group) and conducted a landmark analysis at 36 months after the index procedure. We evaluated the determinants for and long-term outcomes of extended DAPT and compared the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and stroke, between the extended-DAPT group and the guideline-DAPT group [DAPT <1 year after DES implantation (n=1273)]. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome as the most significant clinical determinant of the use of extended DAPT. Bifurcation, stent diameter ≤3.0 mm, total stented length ≥28 mm, and use of first-generation DESs were also significant angiographic and procedural determinants. MACCE rates were similar between the extended-DAPT group and the guideline-DAPT group in crude analysis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.68; p=0.739] and after propensity matching (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.72-2.07; p=0.453). Major bleeding rates were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, indefinite use of DAPT does not show superior outcomes to those of guideline-DAPT. Major bleeding rates are also similar.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombose/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA ; 324(3): 279-290, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692391

RESUMO

Importance: Perioperative cardiovascular complications occur in 3% of hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery in the US. This review summarizes evidence regarding cardiovascular risk assessment prior to noncardiac surgery. Observations: Preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment requires a focused history and physical examination to identify signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and severe valvular disease. Risk calculators, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, identify individuals with low risk (<1%) and higher risk (≥1%) for perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events during the surgical hospital admission or within 30 days of surgery. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients at low risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be considered in patients at higher risk (determined by the inability to climb ≥2 flights of stairs, which is <4 metabolic equivalent tasks) if the results from the testing would change the perioperative medical, anesthesia, or surgical approaches. Routine coronary revascularization does not reduce perioperative risk and should not be performed without specific indications independent of planned surgery. Routine perioperative use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/d) does not decrease cardiovascular events but does increase surgical bleeding. Statins are associated with fewer postoperative cardiovascular complications and lower mortality (1.8% vs 2.3% without statin use; P < .001) in observational studies, and should be considered preoperatively in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease undergoing vascular surgery. High-dose ß-blockers (eg, 100 mg of metoprolol succinate) administered 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery are associated with a higher risk of stroke (1.0% vs 0.5% without ß-blocker use; P = .005) and mortality (3.1% vs 2.3% without ß-blocker use; P = .03) and should not be routinely used. There is a greater risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events in adults aged 75 years or older (9.5% vs 4.8% for younger adults; P < .001) and in patients with coronary stents (8.9% vs 1.5% for those without stents; P < .001) and these patients warrant careful preoperative consideration. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive history, physical examination, and assessment of functional capacity during daily life should be performed prior to noncardiac surgery to assess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients with a low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, but may be useful in patients with poor functional capacity (<4 metabolic equivalent tasks) undergoing high-risk surgery if test results would change therapy independent of the planned surgery. Perioperative medical therapy should be prescribed based on patient-specific risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Kardiologiia ; 60(6): 994, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720621

RESUMO

Aim      To study possible correlations between echocardiography (EchoCG) indexes and markers of myocardial fibrosis, procollagen I C-terminal propeptide (PICP) and procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) during one year following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Material and methods  120 patients with STEMI were evaluated. EchoCG was used to assess dimensions and volumes of heart chambers, left ventricular (LV) systolic function, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), and indexes of LV diastolic function (Em, early diastolic lateral mitral annular velocity; e', peak early diastolic septal mitral annular velocity; E / e', ratio of peak early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity and mitral annular velocity  -, Е / А, ratio of peak early and late transmitral inflow velocities; DT, deceleration time of LV early diastolic filling). EchoCG indexes and serum concentrations of PICP and PIIINP were determined at 1 (point 1) and 12 (point 2) days of disease and one year after STEMI (point 3). The sample was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=86; 71.7 %) included patients with a LV ejection fraction (EF) ≥50 % and group 2 (n=34; 28.3 %) consisted of patients with LV EF ≤49 %.Results At one year, the number of patients with signs of diastolic dysfunction increased by 10% in group 1 whereas myocardial systolic dysfunction worsened in both groups. LV EF decreased in 15 (17.4%) patients of group 1 and in 4 (11.8%) patients of group 2. Concentrations of PIIINP were correlated with Em, E / e', mPAP, PICP, e', and LV EF.Conclusion      Direct correlations between PIIINP concentrations and Em, E / e', and mPAP were found in the group with LV EF ≥50 %. In the group with LV EF <50 %, correlations were observed between PICP concentrations, LV EF, and e'. Also, in this group, the increase in PIIINP was statistically more significant. These results indicate continuing formation of myocardial fibrosis in a year following MI, which may underlie progression of chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Diástole , Fibrose/complicações , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673331

RESUMO

Smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk but increases body weight. We investigated the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke according to weight gain after smoking cessation, using a nationwide population based cohort. We enrolled 3,797,572 Korean adults aged over 40 years who participated in national health screenings between 2009 and 2010. Subjects who quit smoking were classified into three subgroups according to the weight change between baseline and 4 years prior. Myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes were followed until the end of 2015. We compared the hazard ratios among smoking cessation subgroups, non-smokers, and current smokers. The mean changes in weight (1.5 ± 3.9 kg) of the smoking cessation group were higher than those of the other groups (p < 0.0001). A total of 31,277 and 46,811 subjects were newly diagnosed with myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, respectively. Regardless of weight change, all subgroups of smoking cessation had significantly less risk than current smokers. The subgroup of smoking cessation with weight gain over 4kg showed the lowest risk for myocardial infarctions (hazard ratio 0.646, 95% confidence interval 0.583-0.714, p < 0.0001) and ischemic strokes (hazard ratio 0.648, 95% confidence interval 0.591-0.71, p < 0.0001) after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation did not adversely affect the cardiovascular protective effect.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In selected patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by Cardiogenic shock (CS), mechanical circulatory support with Impella may be beneficial, although conclusive evidence is still lacking. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that Impella initiation prior to primary PCI might improve survival. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect pre-PCI versus immediate post-PCI Impella initiation on short term mortality. METHODS: A prospective, single center, observational study, was performed including all patients with STEMI complicated by CS, treated with primary PCI and Impella. Thirty day mortality was compared between patients with Impella initiation pre-PCI and immediately post-PCI. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. In the pre-PCI group (n = 21), admission heart rate was lower (84 versus 94 bpm, p = 0.04) and no IABP was implanted before Impella initiation, versus 17.9% in post-PCI group (n = 67), p = 0.04. Total 30-day all-cause mortality was 58%, and was lower in pre-PCI group, 47.6% versus 61.2% in the post-PCI group, however not statistically significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.3, p = 0.21). Thirty-day cardiac mortality was significantly lower in the pre-PCI group, 19% versus 44.7% in the post-PCI group (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09-0.96, p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Pre-PCI Impella initiation in AMICS patients was not associated with a statistically significant difference in 30-day all-cause mortality, compared to post-PCI Impella initiation.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 411-420, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery have increased risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI), which may be due to unsuspected (silent) coronary ischaemia. The aim was to determine whether pre-operative diagnosis of silent ischaemia using coronary computed tomography (CT) derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) can facilitate multidisciplinary care to reduce post-operative death and MI, and improve survival. METHODS: This was a single centre prospective study with historic controls. Patients with no cardiac symptoms undergoing lower extremity surgical revascularisation with pre-operative coronary CTA-FFRCT testing were compared with historic controls with standard pre-operative testing. Silent coronary ischaemia was defined as FFRCT ≤ 0.80 distal to coronary stenosis with FFRCT ≤ 0.75 indicating severe ischaemia. End points included cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and all cause death through one year follow up. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between CT angiography (CTA-FFRCT) (n = 135) and control (n = 135) patients with regard to age (66 ± 8 years), sex, comorbidities, or surgery performed. Coronary CTA showed ≥ 50% stenosis in 70% of patients with left main stenosis in 7%. FFRCT revealed silent coronary ischaemia in 68% of patients with severe ischaemia in 53%. The status of coronary ischaemia was unknown in the controls. At 30 days, CV death and MI in the CTA-FFRCT group were not statistically significantly different from controls (0% vs. 3.7% [p = .060] and 0.7% vs. 5.2% [p = .066], respectively). Post-operative coronary revascularisation was performed in 54 patients to relieve silent ischaemia (percutaneous coronary intervention in 47, coronary artery bypass graft in seven). At one year, CTA-FFRCT patients had fewer CV deaths (0.7% vs. 5.9%; p = .036) and MIs (2.2% vs. 8.1%; p = .028) and improved survival (p = .018) compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative diagnosis of silent coronary ischaemia in patients undergoing lower extremity revascularisation surgery can facilitate multidisciplinary patient care with selective post-operative coronary revascularisation. This strategy reduced post-operative death and MI and improved one year survival compared with standard care.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e19977, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501965

RESUMO

The clinical outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in prior coronary artery bypass graft (pCABG) patients have been investigated; however, the results are inconsistent.The present meta-analysis compared the clinical outcomes of CTO PCI in patients with and without prior CABG (nCABG). The endpoints included technical success, procedural success, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), major bleeding, coronary perforation, pericardial tamponade, emergency CABG, and vascular access complication.A total of 7 studies comprising of 11099 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that compared to nCABG patents, pCABG patients were associated with lower technical success (82.3% versus 87.8%; OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.53-0.68; P < .00001; I = 0%) and procedural success (80.4% versus 86.2%; OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.53-0.70; P < .00001; I = 10%); a higher risk of all-cause mortality (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.56-5.57; P = 0.0008; I = 0%), MI (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.40-3.80; P = .001; I = 5%), and coronary perforation (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.51-3.08; P < 0.0001; I = 52%). On the other hand, the risk of pericardial tamponade (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.18; P = .10; I = 21%), major bleeding (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.90-2.53; P = .11; I = 0%), vascular access complication (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.93-2.41; P = .10; I = 0%), and emergency CABG (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.25-3.91; P = .99; I = 0%) was similar in both groups.Compared to nCABG patients, pCABG patients had lower CTO PCI success rates, higher rates of in-hospital mortality, MI, and coronary perforation, and similar risk of pericardial tamponade and vascular complication rates.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMJ ; 369: m1731, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test a scalable health system intervention to improve long term adherence to secondary prevention treatments among patients who have had a recent myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Three arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Nine cardiac centres in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 2632 patients with obstructive coronary artery disease after a myocardial infarction, identified from a centralised cardiac registry. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised 1:1:1 to receive usual care, five mail-outs developed through a user centred design process, or mail-outs plus phone calls. The phone calls were delivered first by an interactive automated system to screen for non-adherence to treatment. Trained lay health workers followed up as necessary. Interventions were coordinated centrally but delivered from each patient's hospital site. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Co-primary outcomes were completion of cardiac rehabilitation and adherence to recommended medication. Data were collected by blinded assessors through patient report and from administrative health databases at 12 months. RESULTS: 2632 patients (mean age 66, 71% male) were randomised: 878 to the full intervention (mail plus phone calls), 878 to mail only, and 876 to usual care. Of the respondents, 174 (27%) of 643 in the usual care group, 200 (32%) of 628 in the mail only group, and 196 (37%) of 531 allocated to the full intervention completed cardiac rehabilitation (adjusted odds ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.03). In the mail plus phone group, 11.7%, 6.0%, 14.4%, 32.9%, and 35.0% reported adherence to 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 drug classes after one year, respectively, in comparison with 12.5%, 6.8%, 13.6%, 30.2%, and 36.8% in the mail only group, and 12.2%, 8.4%, 13.1%, 30.3%, and 36.1% in the usual care group, respectively (mail only v usual care, odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.19; full intervention v usual care, 0.99, 0.82 to 1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Scalable interventions delivered by mail plus phone can increase completion of cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction but not adherence to medication. More intensive interventions should be tested to improve adherence to medication and to evaluate the association between attendance at cardiac rehabilitation and adherence to medication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02382731, registered 9 March 2015 before any patient enrolment.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Ontário , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Serviços Postais , Qualidade de Vida , Sistemas de Alerta , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Telefone , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am Heart J ; 225: 97-107, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. METHODS: EBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly. RESULTS: In 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model. At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, ß-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk for adverse clinical events following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is not well-known. The aim of the current analysis was to examine the clinical impact of DM on clinical outcomes and the time sequence of associated risks in patients treated with second-generation DES. METHODS: Using patient-level data from two stent-specific, all-comer, prospective DES registries, we evaluated 1,913 patients who underwent PCI with second-generation DES between Feb 2009 and Dec 2013. The primary outcomes assessed were two-year major cardiac adverse events (MACE), composite endpoints of death from any cause, myocardial infarction (MI), and any repeat revascularization. We classified 0-1 year as the early period and 1-2 years as the late period. Landmark analyses were performed according to diabetes mellitus status. RESULTS: There were 1,913 patients with 2,614 lesions included in the pooled dataset. The median duration of clinical follow-up in the overall population was 2.0 years (interquartile range 1.9-2.1). Patients with DM had more cardiovascular risk factors than patients without DM. In multivariate analyses, the presence of DM and renal failure were strong predictors of MACE and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). After inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses, patients with DM had significantly increased rates of 2-year MACE (HR 2.07, 95% CI; 1.50-2.86; P <0.001). In landmark analyses, patients with DM had significantly higher rates of MACE in the early period (0-1 year) (HR 3.04, 95% CI; 1.97-4.68; P < 0.001) after IPTW adjustment, but these findings or trends were not observed in the late period (1-2 year) (HR 1.24, 95% CI; 0.74-2.07; P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: In the second-generation DES era, the clinical impact of DM significantly increased the 2-year event rate of MACE, mainly caused by clinical events in the early period (0-1 year). Careful observation of patients with DM is advised in the early period following PCI with second-generation DES.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(3): 1479164120922123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a serious complication in patients with dysglycaemia, defined as either type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Research focusing on the identification of potential markers for atherothrombotic disease in these subjects is warranted. The antiphospholipid syndrome is a common acquired prothrombotic condition, defined by a combination of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity and positivity of specific antiphospholipid antibodies. Available information on antiphospholipid antibodies in dysglycaemia is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the association between antiphospholipid antibodies and dysglycaemia. PATIENTS/METHODS: The PAROKRANK (periodontitis and its relation to coronary artery disease) study included 805 patients, investigated 6-10 weeks after a first myocardial infarction, and 805 matched controls. Participants without known diabetes (91%) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Associations between antiphospholipid antibodies (anti-cardiolipin and anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I IgG, IgM and IgA) and dysglycaemia were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 137 (9%) subjects had previously known type 2 diabetes and 371 (23%) newly diagnosed dysglycaemia. Compared with the normoglycaemic participants, those with dysglycaemia had a higher proportion with first myocardial infarction (61% vs 45%, p < 0.0001) and were more often antiphospholipid antibody IgG positive (8% vs 5%; p = 0.013). HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h glucose were significantly associated to antiphospholipid antibody IgG. Odds ratios (ORs) were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), 1.14 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.27) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 - 1.21), respectively, after adjustments for age, gender and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports an association between antiphospholipid antibody IgG positivity and dysglycaemia. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and to investigate if antithrombotic therapy reduces vascular complications in antiphospholipid antibody positive subjects with dysglycaemia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Idoso , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
18.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(6): 417-420, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459027

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is one of the causes of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries, and is often triggered by physical events (e.g. acute respiratory failure), or emotional events (e.g. loss of a family member, cardiac stress induced by an acute illness). SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia currently represents a worldwide health problem; the correlations between cardiovascular disease, myocardial injury and SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear, but initial data show that myocardial damage represents a negative prognostic factor. Myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2, as defined by a pathological rise in circulating troponin levels, is not an uncommon complication in hospitalized patients, and is significantly more frequent in intensive care unit patients and among those who died. In this setting, myocardial injury is mainly secondary to type 2 myocardial infarction (mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand during respiratory failure); other causes include myocarditis, coronary thrombosis, sepsis or septic shock. At present, only few cases of TTS have been described during SARS-CoV-2. Here we report the case of a patient hospitalized for pneumonia and respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 with subsequent onset of TTS triggered by both physical and emotional events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/virologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/virologia
19.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(6): 417-420, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306015

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is one of the causes of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries, and is often triggered by physical events (e.g. acute respiratory failure), or emotional events (e.g. loss of a family member, cardiac stress induced by an acute illness). SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia currently represents a worldwide health problem; the correlations between cardiovascular disease, myocardial injury and SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear, but initial data show that myocardial damage represents a negative prognostic factor. Myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2, as defined by a pathological rise in circulating troponin levels, is not an uncommon complication in hospitalized patients, and is significantly more frequent in intensive care unit patients and among those who died. In this setting, myocardial injury is mainly secondary to type 2 myocardial infarction (mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand during respiratory failure); other causes include myocarditis, coronary thrombosis, sepsis or septic shock. At present, only few cases of TTS have been described during SARS-CoV-2. Here we report the case of a patient hospitalized for pneumonia and respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 with subsequent onset of TTS triggered by both physical and emotional events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/virologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/virologia
20.
Thromb Res ; 191: 148-150, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We recently reported a high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three Dutch hospitals. In answering questions raised regarding our study, we updated our database and repeated all analyses. METHODS: We re-evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction and/or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital from ICU admission to death, ICU discharge or April 22nd 2020, whichever came first. RESULTS: We studied the same 184 ICU patients as reported on previously, of whom a total of 41 died (22%) and 78 were discharged alive (43%). The median follow-up duration increased from 7 to 14 days. All patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome, adjusted for competing risk of death, was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41-57%). The majority of thrombotic events were PE (65/75; 87%). In the competing risk model, chronic anticoagulation therapy at admission was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.29, 95%CI 0.091-0.92). Patients diagnosed with thrombotic complications were at higher risk of all-cause death (HR 5.4; 95%CI 2.4-12). Use of therapeutic anticoagulation was not associated with all-cause death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.35-1.8). CONCLUSION: In this updated analysis, we confirm the very high cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Estado Terminal , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
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