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1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(11): 869-873, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009170

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to verify the impact on the number and characteristics of coronary invasive procedures for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of two hub centers with cardiac catheterization facilities, during the first month of lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Procedural data of ACS patients admitted between 10 March and 10 April 2020 were compared with those of the same period of 2019. RESULTS: We observed a 23.4% reduction in ACS admissions during 2020, with a decrease for both ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (-5.6%) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (-34.5%), albeit not statistically significant (P = 0.2). During the first 15 days of the examined periods, the reduction in ACS admissions reached 52.5% (-25% for STEMI and -70.3% for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, P = 0.04). Among STEMI patients, the rate of those with a time delay from symptoms onset longer than 180 min was significantly higher during the lockdown period (P = 0.01). Radiograph exposure (P = 0.01) was higher in STEMI patients treated in 2020 with a slightly higher amount of contrast medium (P = 0.1) and number of stents implanted (P = 0.1), whereas the number of treated vessels was reduced (P = 0.03). Percutaneous coronary intervention procedural success and in-hospital mortality were not different between the two groups and in STEMI patients (P NS for all). CONCLUSION: During the early phase, the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a lower rate of admissions for ACS, with a substantial impact on the time delay presentation of STEMI patients, but apparently without affecting the in-hospital outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
N Z Med J ; 133(1521): 40-54, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994636

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates after myocardial infarction (MI) are higher in Maori and Pacific compared to European people. The reasons for these differences are complex and incompletely understood. Our aim was to use a contemporary real-world national cohort of patients presenting with their first MI to better understand the extent to which differences in the clinical presentation, cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, comorbidity and in-hospital treatment explain the mortality outcomes for Maori and Pacific peoples. METHODS: New Zealand residents (≥20 years old) hospitalised with their first MI (2014-2017), and who underwent coronary angiography, were identified from the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. All-cause mortality up to one year after the index admission date was obtained by linkage to the national mortality database. RESULTS: There were 17,404 patients with a first ever MI. European/other comprised 76% of the population, Maori 11.5%, Pacific 5.1%, Indian 4.3% and Other Asian 2.9%. Over half (55%) of Maori, Pacific and Indian patients were admitted with their first MI before age 60 years, compared with 29% of European/other patients. Maori and Pacific patients had a higher burden of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and despite being younger, were more likely to present with heart failure and, together with Indian peoples, advanced coronary disease at presentation with first MI. After adjustment for age and sex, Maori and Pacific, but not Indian or Other Asian patients had significantly higher all-cause mortality at one year compared with the European/other reference group (HR 2.55 (95% CI 2.12-3.07), HR 2.98 (95% CI 2.34-3.81) for Maori and Pacific respectively). When further adjusted for differences in clinical presentation, clinical history and cardiovascular risk factors, the excess mortality risk for Maori and Pacific patients was reduced substantially, but a differential persisted (HR 1.77 (95% CI 1.44-2.19), HR 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.83)) which was not further reduced by adjustment for differences in in-hospital management and discharge medications. CONCLUSION: In New Zealand patients after their first MI there is a three-fold variation in one-year mortality based on ethnicity. At least half of the inequity in outcomes for Maori, and three-quarters for Pacific people, is associated with differences in preventable or modifiable clinical factors present at, or prior to, presentation.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970774

RESUMO

While hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, controversy remains about respective complication and mortality rates. This study evaluated admission rates, complications, and intrahospital mortality for selected life-threatening cardiovascular emergencies (MI, PE, and acute aortic dissection (AAD)) during COVID-19-associated restrictive social measures (RM) in Styria, Austria. By screening a patient information system for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) diagnosis codes covering more than 85% of acute hospital admissions in the state of Styria (~1.24 million inhabitants), we retrospectively identified patients with admission diagnoses for MI (I21, I22), PE (I26), and AAD (I71). Rates of complications such as cardiogenic shock and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, treatment escalations (thrombolysis for PE), and mortality were analyzed by patient chart review during 6 weeks following onset of COVID-19 associated RM, and during respective time frames in the years 2016 to 2019. 1,668 patients were included. Cumulative admissions for MI, PE and AAD decreased (RR 0.77; p<0.001) during RM compared to previous years. In contrast, intrahospital mortality increased by 65% (RR 1.65; p = 0.041), mainly driven by mortality following MI (RR 1.80; p = 0.042). PE patients received more frequently thrombolysis treatment (RR 3.63; p = 0.006), while rates of cardiogenic shock and cardiopulmonary resuscitation remained unchanged. Of 226 patients hospitalized during RM, 81 patients with suspected COVID-19 disease were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection with only 5 testing positive. Thus, cumulative hospital admissions for cardiovascular emergencies decreased during COVID-19 associated RM while intrahospital mortality increased.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria , Betacoronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Am Heart J ; 228: 109-115, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients aged ≥80 years are often treated with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), but data from randomized studies are scarce owing to underrepresentation in most trials. We assessed 1-year clinical outcome of octogenarians treated with new-generation DES versus younger patients. METHODS: We pooled patient-level data of 9,204 participants in the TWENTE, DUTCH PEERS, BIO-RESORT, and BIONYX (TWENTE I-IV) randomized trials. The main clinical end point was target vessel failure (TVF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization. RESULTS: The 671 octogenarian trial participants had significantly more comorbidities. TVF was higher in octogenarians than in 8,533 patients <80 years (7.3% vs 5.3%, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.0-1.83, P = .04). The cardiac death rate was higher in octogenarians (3.9% vs 0.8%, P < .001). There was no significant between-group difference in target vessel MI (2.3% vs 2.3%, P = .88) and repeat target vessel revascularization (1.9% vs 2.8%, P = .16). In multivariate analyses, age ≥ 80 years showed no independent association with TVF (adjusted HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.76-1.42), whereas the risk of cardiac death remained higher in octogenarians (adjusted HR: 3.38, 95% CI: 2.07-5.52, P < .001). In 6,002 trial participants, in whom data on major bleeding were recorded, octogenarians (n = 459) showed a higher major bleeding risk (5.9% vs 1.9%; HR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.01-4.74, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarian participants in 4 large-scale randomized DES trials had more comorbidities and a higher incidence of the main end point TVF. Cardiac mortality was higher in octogenarians, whereas there was no increase in MI or target vessel revascularization rates. Treatment of octogenarian patients with new-generation DES appears to be safe and effective.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos/classificação , Everolimo/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e22049, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871964

RESUMO

The long-term association between serum albumin-to-creatinine ratio (sACR) and poor patient outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether sACR was a predictor of poor long-term survival in patients with AMI.This was a study of patients with AMI in the emergency department (ED) from the retrospective multicenter study for early evaluation of acute chest pain (REACP) study. The patients were categorized into tertiles (T1, T2, and T3) based on the admission sACR (0.445 and 0.584 g/µmol). Baseline sACR at admission to the ED was predictive of adverse outcomes. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to investigate the association between sACR and all-cause mortality in patients with AMI.A total of 2250 patients with AMI were enrolled, of whom 229 (10.2%) died within the median follow-up period of 10.7 (7.2-14.6) months. Patients with a lower sACR had higher all-cause mortality and adverse outcomes rates than patients with a higher sACR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with a higher sACR had a higher cumulative survival rate (P < .001). Cox regression analysis showed that a decreased sACR was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality [T2 vs T1: hazard ratio (HR); 0.550, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.348-0.867; P = .010 and T3 vs T1: HR, 0.305; 95% CI, 0.165-0.561; P < .001] and cardiac mortality (T2 vs T1: HR, 0.536; 95% CI, 0.332-0.866; P = .011 and T3 vs T1: HR, 0.309; 95% CI, 0.164-0.582, P < .001).The sACR at admission to ED was independently associated with adverse outcomes, indicating that baseline sACR was a useful biomarker to identify high-risk patients with AMI at an early phase in ED.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 285-297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764949

RESUMO

Purpose: To ascertain the most appropriate treatment for chronic, stable, coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients submitted to elective coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: A total of 814 patients included in the prospective cohort study were referred for elective coronary angiography and were followed up on average for 6±1.9 years. Main outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and late revascularization and their combinations as major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE): MACCE-1 included cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke; MACCE-2 was MACCE-1 plus late revascularization. Survival curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between the type of treatment and outcomes. Results: All-cause death was lower in participants submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (0.41, 0.16-1.03, P=0.057) compared to medical treatment (MT). Coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) had an overall trend for poorer outcomes: cardiovascular death 2.53 (0.42-15.10), combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke 2.15 (0.73-6.31) and these events plus late revascularization (2.17, 0.86-5.49). The corresponding numbers for PCI were 0.27 (0.05-1.43) for cardiovascular death, 0.77 (0.32-1.84) for combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke and 2.35 (1.16-4.77) with the addition of late revascularization. These trends were not influenced by baseline blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous MI. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher risk of recurrent revascularization when submitted to PCI than CABG. Conclusion: Patients with confirmed CAD in elective coronary angiography do not have a better prognosis when submitted to CABG comparatively to medical treatment. Patients treated with PCI had a trend for the lower incidence of combined cardiovascular events, at the expense of additional revascularization procedures. Patients without significant CAD had a similar prognosis than CAD patients treated with medical therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco consumption continues to cause a huge burden of preventable diseases. Chile has been leading the tobacco burden ranking in the Latin American region for the last ten years; it has currently a 33. 3% prevalence of current smokers. METHODS: A microsimulation economic model was developed within the framework of a multi-country project in order to estimate the burden attributable to smoking in terms of morbidity, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and direct costs of care. We also modelled the impact of increasing cigarettes' taxes on this burden. RESULTS: In Chile, 16,472 deaths were attributable to smoking in 2017, which represent around 16% of all deaths. This burden corresponds to 416,445 DALYs per year. The country's health system spends 1.15 trillion pesos annually (in Dec 2017 CLP, approx. U$D 1.8 billion) in health care treatment of illnesses caused by smoking. If the price of tobacco cigarettes was to be raised by 50%, around 13,665 deaths and 360,476 DALYs from smoking-attributable diseases would be averted in 10 years, with subsequent savings on health care costs, and increased tax revenue collection. In Chile, the tobacco tax collection does not fully cover the direct healthcare costs attributed to smoking. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction observed on smoking prevalence between 2010 (40.6%) and 2017 (33.3%), this study shows that the burden of disease, and the economic toll due to smoking, remain high. As we demonstrate, a rise in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant reduction of this burden, averting deaths and disability, and reducing healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Fumar/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011737, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally, it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats eliminated from the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO), polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and/or protein on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, using all available randomised clinical trials. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid) on 15 October 2019, and searched Clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 17 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Included trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised; 2) intention to reduce saturated fat intake OR intention to alter dietary fats and achieving a reduction in saturated fat; 3) compared with higher saturated fat intake or usual diet; 4) not multifactorial; 5) in adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease (but not acutely ill, pregnant or breastfeeding); 6) intervention duration at least 24 months; 7) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity analyses, funnel plots and GRADE assessment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (16 comparisons, 56,675 participants), that used a variety of interventions from providing all food to advice on reducing saturated fat. The included long-term trials suggested that reducing dietary saturated fat reduced the risk of combined cardiovascular events by 17% (risk ratio (RR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 0.98, 12 trials, 53,758 participants of whom 8% had a cardiovascular event, I² = 67%, GRADE moderate-quality evidence). Meta-regression suggested that greater reductions in saturated fat (reflected in greater reductions in serum cholesterol) resulted in greater reductions in risk of CVD events, explaining most heterogeneity between trials. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) was 56 in primary prevention trials, so 56 people need to reduce their saturated fat intake for ~four years for one person to avoid experiencing a CVD event. In secondary prevention trials, the NNTB was 53. Subgrouping did not suggest significant differences between replacement of saturated fat calories with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate, and data on replacement with monounsaturated fat and protein was very limited. We found little or no effect of reducing saturated fat on all-cause mortality (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; 11 trials, 55,858 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.12, 10 trials, 53,421 participants), both with GRADE moderate-quality evidence. There was little or no effect of reducing saturated fats on non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07) or CHD mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.16, both low-quality evidence), but effects on total (fatal or non-fatal) myocardial infarction, stroke and CHD events (fatal or non-fatal) were all unclear as the evidence was of very low quality. There was little or no effect on cancer mortality, cancer diagnoses, diabetes diagnosis, HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides or blood pressure, and small reductions in weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and BMI. There was no evidence of harmful effects of reducing saturated fat intakes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this updated review suggest that reducing saturated fat intake for at least two years causes a potentially important reduction in combined cardiovascular events. Replacing the energy from saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate appear to be useful strategies, while effects of replacement with monounsaturated fat are unclear. The reduction in combined cardiovascular events resulting from reducing saturated fat did not alter by study duration, sex or baseline level of cardiovascular risk, but greater reduction in saturated fat caused greater reductions in cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
9.
J Hypertens ; 38(11): 2237-2244, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to high blood pressure variability (BPV), low BPV was associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis in selected high-risk patients. We explored this issue in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) using a nonlinear approach with BPV as a continuous variable. METHODS: Long-term systolic BPV (SBPV) (coefficient of variation, CoV %) was calculated on quarterly visits until a fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular event or all-cause mortality, excluding titration period and patients with missing visits. We used Cox proportional hazard models with penalized smoothing splines to shape the risk of outcomes against the continuum of SBPV (independent variable). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR, 95% CI) were calculated using the reference range derived from the nonlinear model. Sensitivity analysis based on propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. RESULTS: The association of SBPV with fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events was J-shaped, whereas that with all-cause mortality was linear. After multivariate adjustment, however, the only significant associations remained that of low SBPV (CoV <5%) with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, P = 0.003), and of high SBPV (CoV >10%) with the composite of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80; P = 0.037). Low SBPV was associated with ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.55-4.91; P < 0.001). There was a significant U-shaped association of SBPV with cardiovascular events in the PSM cohort. CONCLUSION: Nonlinear modeling indicates that low and high long-term SBPV have prognostic relevance in high-risk hypertensive individuals from SPRINT. Randomized trials are needed to test these findings and their potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716962

RESUMO

AIMS: The usefulness of mortality statistics relies on the validity of death certificate diagnosis. However, diagnosing the causal sequence of conditions leading to death is not simple. We examined diagnostic support for fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and investigated its association with regional variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide registers, we identified the study population (N = 3,244,051) of whom 36,669 individuals were recorded with AMI as the underlying cause-of-death between 2002 and 2015. We included clinical diagnoses, procedures, and claimed prescriptions related to atherosclerotic disease to evaluate the level of diagnostic support for fatal AMI in three diagnostic groups (Definite; Plausible; Uncertain). Adjusted mortality rates, rate ratios, and odds ratios were estimated for each AMI category, stratified by hospital region using multivariable regression models. More than one-third (N = 12,827, 35%) of deaths reported as fatal AMI had uncertain diagnostic support. The largest regional variation in AMI mortality rate ratios, varying from 1.16 (95%CI:1.02;1.31) to 1.62 (95%CI:1.43;1.83), was found among cases with uncertain diagnostic supportive data. Substantial inter-regional differences in the degree to which death occurs outside hospital [OR: 1.01 (95%CI:0.92;1.12) - 1.49 (95%CI:1.36;1.63)] and general practitioners determining the cause-of-death at home were present. Minor regional differences [OR: 0.96 (95%CI:0.85;1.07) - 1.16 (95%CI:1.04;1.29)] in in-hospital AMI mortality were observed. CONCLUSION: There is significant regional variation associated with recording AMI as a cause-of-death. This variation is predominately based on death certificate diagnoses without diagnostic supportive evidence. Studies of fatal AMI should include a stratification on supportive evidence of the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Incerteza , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Am Heart J ; 226: 214-221, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that under-diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be common in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective studies of routine AMI screening among patients presenting to emergency departments in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of AMI among patients in a Tanzanian emergency department. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, consecutive adult patients presenting with chest pain or shortness of breath to a referral hospital emergency department in northern Tanzania were enrolled. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and troponin testing were performed for all participants to diagnose AMI types according to the Fourth Universal Definition. All ECGs were interpreted by two independent physician judges. ECGs suggesting ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were further reviewed by additional judges. Mortality was assessed 30 days following enrollment. RESULTS: Of 681 enrolled participants, 152 (22.3%) had AMI, including 61 STEMIs and 91 non-STEMIS (NSTEMIs). Of AMI patients, 91 (59.9%) were male, mean (SD) age was 61.2 (18.5) years, and mean (SD) duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 6.6 (12.2) days. In the emergency department, 35 (23.0%) AMI patients received aspirin and none received thrombolytics. Of 150 (98.7%) AMI patients completing 30-day follow-up, 65 (43.3%) had died. CONCLUSIONS: In a northern Tanzanian emergency department, AMI is common, rarely treated with evidence-based therapies, and associated with high mortality. Interventions are needed to improve AMI diagnosis, care, and outcomes.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 411-420, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery have increased risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI), which may be due to unsuspected (silent) coronary ischaemia. The aim was to determine whether pre-operative diagnosis of silent ischaemia using coronary computed tomography (CT) derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) can facilitate multidisciplinary care to reduce post-operative death and MI, and improve survival. METHODS: This was a single centre prospective study with historic controls. Patients with no cardiac symptoms undergoing lower extremity surgical revascularisation with pre-operative coronary CTA-FFRCT testing were compared with historic controls with standard pre-operative testing. Silent coronary ischaemia was defined as FFRCT ≤ 0.80 distal to coronary stenosis with FFRCT ≤ 0.75 indicating severe ischaemia. End points included cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, and all cause death through one year follow up. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between CT angiography (CTA-FFRCT) (n = 135) and control (n = 135) patients with regard to age (66 ± 8 years), sex, comorbidities, or surgery performed. Coronary CTA showed ≥ 50% stenosis in 70% of patients with left main stenosis in 7%. FFRCT revealed silent coronary ischaemia in 68% of patients with severe ischaemia in 53%. The status of coronary ischaemia was unknown in the controls. At 30 days, CV death and MI in the CTA-FFRCT group were not statistically significantly different from controls (0% vs. 3.7% [p = .060] and 0.7% vs. 5.2% [p = .066], respectively). Post-operative coronary revascularisation was performed in 54 patients to relieve silent ischaemia (percutaneous coronary intervention in 47, coronary artery bypass graft in seven). At one year, CTA-FFRCT patients had fewer CV deaths (0.7% vs. 5.9%; p = .036) and MIs (2.2% vs. 8.1%; p = .028) and improved survival (p = .018) compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative diagnosis of silent coronary ischaemia in patients undergoing lower extremity revascularisation surgery can facilitate multidisciplinary patient care with selective post-operative coronary revascularisation. This strategy reduced post-operative death and MI and improved one year survival compared with standard care.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
13.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 658-664, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641636

RESUMO

Increased body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, patients with elevated BMI, in comparison to those with low BMI, seem to have better survival, a phenomenon reported as "obesity paradox," which remains controversial. We investigated the effect of BMI on cardiac mortality post acute myocardial infarction (AMI).In this analysis, 3562 AMI patients were included and classified into four groups based on BMI values. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. Compared to normoweight group, overweight and obese group subjects were younger, mostly men, and more likely to receive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and had higher levels of glucose and lipids, but lower level of NTproBNP. Subjects in the underweight group were older, were mostly women, had lower Barthel index (BI), were less likely to receive PCI, and had lower levels of glucose and lipids, but higher level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and higher rates of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50%. During a median follow-up period of 1.9 years, cardiac death occurred significantly more in the underweight group (30.0%, 10.6%, 7.0%, and 5.0% among the four groups from underweight to obese; P < 0.001 for trend). The Cox analysis revealed that underweight was an independent predictor of subsequent cardiac death (odds ratio (OR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.25) and identified that older age, BI < 60, higher levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), LVEF < 50%, and not receiving PCI were independently associated with increased risk of cardiac death.Patients who were underweight were at greater risk of cardiac death post AMI. In addition, older age, frail, higher levels of cTnI, LVEF < 50%, and not receiving PCI also independently predicted cardiac mortality post AMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(27): e258, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657091

RESUMO

A 60-year-old male patient with coronavirus disease-2019 showed new onset ST-segment elevation in V1-V2 leads on electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme elevation in intensive care unit. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. He was receiving mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment for severe hypoxia. Two-D echocardiogram showed regional wall motion abnormalities. We performed primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction complicating cardiogenic shock under hemodynamic support. He expired on the 16th day of admission because of cardiogenic shock and multi-organ failure. Active surveillance and intensive treatment strategy are important for saving lives of COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Eletrocardiografia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Pandemias , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21236, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702900

RESUMO

Sulphonylureas (SUs) subclasses have different risks of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and stroke. Therefore, we assessed these risks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus administered gliclazide, glimepiride, or metformin monotherapy with retrospective cohort study design. Total 195,235 subjects were included in the study who were ≥20 years' old and prescribed monotherapy for at least 1 year as a first-line therapy for incident diabetes from January 01, 2009 to December 31, 2013 in the National Health Insurance Service Claim data. Incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality, AMI, and stroke were compared with glimepiride monotherapy as a reference. Gliclazide monotherapy increased all-cause mortality compared with glimepiride monotherapy. However, the gliclazide and glimepiride groups showed no difference in AMI and stroke incidences. In line with previous studies, metformin monotherapy showed significant clinical benefits in reducing risks of all-cause mortality, AMI, and stroke compared with glimepiride. This population-based cohort study suggested that gliclazide increases risks of all-cause mortality and has similar risk of AMI and stroke with gliclazide monotherapy in Korean.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21288, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702922

RESUMO

Compared with the general population, myocardial infarction (MI) survivors have a higher risk of mortality in the first year after the index event.The aim of this study was to determine the associations between variables obtained during the index admission and 1-year all-cause mortality on follow-up.A cohort of 296 patients was enrolled in the study, with a median age of 63.8 ±â€Š12.68 years. All patients received a coronary angiography and stent implantation by percutaneous coronary intervention. Each variable was tested for association with all-cause mortality, using chi-square tests for categorical and binary variables and t tests for continuous variables. The relative prognostic power of each significant variable was further evaluated by logistic regression before and after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics.Patients who were deceased after 1-year of MI had significantly higher mean age, increased prevalence of diabetes, and elevated heart rate as compared to those who were surviving. Univariate analysis indicated that patient mortality within 1-year of MI was strongly correlated with higher rates of pump failure on admission (P < .0001), bleeding complications (P = .02), the severity of coronary artery disease measured by Gensini score (P = .04), and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P < .0001). After adjustment of baseline variables, only pump failure (P = .006) and reduced LVEF (P < .0001) were independently associated with 1-year mortality.Our study shows that LVEF dysfunction and pump failure are independent predictors of 1-year all-cause post-MI mortality, while the severity of coronary artery disease and bleeding did not qualify as independent predictors. Also, age, history of diabetes, and elevated heart rate may be used as markers for increased mortality rates.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Angiology ; 71(9): 812-816, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715720

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a heterogeneous entity with an inflammatory etiopathogenesis. This study investigated the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with MINOCA. Coronary angiographies performed between June 2015 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively and included 72 patients with MINOCA and 248 controls with normal coronary angiograms. The predictors of mortality were determined by univariate Cox regression analysis. The mean age of the subjects was 46 ± 9 years, and 176 (55%) were female. Median follow-up was 21 (max: 42) months. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the MINOCA group than in the controls (P < .01). During long-term follow-up, the number of deaths was 6 in the MINOCA group and none in the control patients (P < .01). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the NLR (hazard ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.41, P = .001) was a predictor of mortality in patients with MINOCA. Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed that patients with MINOCA had relatively higher mortality rate (long-rank test; P < .01). In conclusion, the NLR is significantly higher in patients with MINOCA compared with controls, and it is a predictor of long-term mortality.


Assuntos
Contagem de Linfócitos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Neutrófilos , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In selected patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by Cardiogenic shock (CS), mechanical circulatory support with Impella may be beneficial, although conclusive evidence is still lacking. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that Impella initiation prior to primary PCI might improve survival. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect pre-PCI versus immediate post-PCI Impella initiation on short term mortality. METHODS: A prospective, single center, observational study, was performed including all patients with STEMI complicated by CS, treated with primary PCI and Impella. Thirty day mortality was compared between patients with Impella initiation pre-PCI and immediately post-PCI. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. In the pre-PCI group (n = 21), admission heart rate was lower (84 versus 94 bpm, p = 0.04) and no IABP was implanted before Impella initiation, versus 17.9% in post-PCI group (n = 67), p = 0.04. Total 30-day all-cause mortality was 58%, and was lower in pre-PCI group, 47.6% versus 61.2% in the post-PCI group, however not statistically significant (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.3, p = 0.21). Thirty-day cardiac mortality was significantly lower in the pre-PCI group, 19% versus 44.7% in the post-PCI group (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09-0.96, p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Pre-PCI Impella initiation in AMICS patients was not associated with a statistically significant difference in 30-day all-cause mortality, compared to post-PCI Impella initiation.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(4): 1479164120941809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for myocardial infarction. However, we have previously found that diabetes was not a short-term risk factor for myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2003 to 2012 and followed them by cross-linking Danish health registries. Patients were stratified according to coronary artery disease and diabetes. Endpoints included myocardial infarction, cardiac death, all-cause death and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: 86,202 patients were included in total (diabetes: n = 12,652). Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Using patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes as reference (cumulative myocardial infarction incidence 2.6%), the risk of myocardial infarction was low and not substantially increased for patients with diabetes alone (3.2%; hazard ratio 1.202, 95% confidence interval 0.996-1.451), was increased for patients with coronary artery disease alone (9.3%; hazard ratio 2.75, 95% confidence interval 2.52-3.01) and was highest for patients with both coronary artery disease and diabetes (12.3%; hazard ratio 3.79, 95% confidence interval 3.43-4.20). Similar associations were observed for cardiac death and coronary revascularization. CONCLUSION: Diabetes patients without coronary artery disease by coronary angiography have a low risk of myocardial infarction, not substantially increased compared to patients with neither coronary artery disease nor diabetes. In the presence of coronary artery disease, however, diabetes increases the risk of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am Heart J ; 225: 60-68, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use and impact of transradial artery access (TRA) compared to transfemoral artery access (TFA) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) remain unclear. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial where patients presenting with MI and multivessel disease complicated by CS were randomized to a strategy of culprit-lesion-only or immediate multivessel PCI. Arterial access was left at operator's discretion. Adjudicated outcomes of interest were the composite of death or renal replacement therapy (RRT) at 30 days and 1 year. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess the association between the arterial access and outcomes. RESULTS: Among the 673 analyzed patients, TRA and TFA were successfully performed in 118 (17.5%) and 555 (82.5%) patients, respectively. Compared to TFA, TRA was associated with a lower 30-day rate of death or RRT (37.3% vs 53.2%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.96), a lower 30-day rate of death (34.7% vs 49.7%; aOR: 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.96), and a lower 30-day rate of RRT (5.9% vs 15.9%; aOR: 0.40; 95% CI 0.16-0.97). No significant differences were observed regarding the 30-day risks of type 3 or 5 Bleeding Academic Research Consortium bleeding and stroke. The observed reduction of death or RRT and death with TRA was no longer significant at 1 year (44.9% vs 57.8%; aOR: 0.85; 95% CI 0.50-1.45 and 42.4% vs 55.5%, aOR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.46-1.32, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing PCI for acute MI complicated by CS, TRA may be associated with improved early outcomes, although the reason for this finding needs further research.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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