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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936824

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. After an ischemic injury, the myocardium undergoes severe necrosis and apoptosis, leading to a dramatic degradation of function. Numerous studies have reported that cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) play a critical role in heart function even after injury. However, CFs present heterogeneous characteristics according to their development stage (i.e., fetal or adult), and the molecular mechanisms by which they maintain heart function are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to explore the hypothesis that a specific population of CFs can repair the injured myocardium in heart failure following ischemic infarction, and lead to a significant recovery of cardiac function. Flow cytometry analysis of CFs defined two subpopulations according to their relative expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1). Whole-transcriptome analysis described distinct profiles for these groups, with a correlation between VCAM1 expression and lymphangiogenesis-related genes up-regulation. Vascular formation assays showed a significant stimulation of lymphatic cells network complexity by VCFs. Injection of human VCAM1-expressing CFs (VCFs) in postinfarct heart failure rat models (ligation of the left anterior descending artery) led to a significant restoration of the left ventricle contraction. Over the course of the experiment, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening increased by 16.65% ± 5.64% and 10.43% ± 6.02%, respectively, in VCF-treated rats. Histological examinations revealed that VCFs efficiently mobilized the lymphatic endothelial cells into the infarcted area. In conclusion, human CFs present heterogeneous expression of VCAM1 and lymphangiogenesis-promoting factors. VCFs restore the mechanical properties of ventricular walls by mobilizing lymphatic endothelial cells into the infarct when injected into a rat heart failure model. These results suggest a role of this specific population of CFs in the homeostasis of the lymphatic system in cardiac regeneration, providing new information for the study and therapy of cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Linfangiogênese , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ratos , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue
2.
Life Sci ; 259: 118199, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781064

RESUMO

Cellular senescence, a process whereby cells enter a state of permanent growth arrest, appears to regulate cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction in response to various stresses including myocardial infarction (MI). However, the precise role as well as the underlying regulatory mechanism of cardiac cellular senescence in the ischemic heart disease remain to be further determined. Herein we report an inhibitory role of Nrf2, a key transcription factor of cellular defense, in regulating cardiac senescence in infarcted hearts as well as a therapeutic potential of targeting Nrf2-mediated suppression of cardiac senescence in the treatment of MI-induced cardiac dysfunction. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation for 28 days in mice. Heart tissues from the infarct border zone were used for the analyses. The MI-induced cardiac dysfunction was associated with increased myocardial cell senescence, oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult wild type (WT) mice. In addition, a downregulated Nrf2 activity was associated with upregulated Keap1 levels and increased phosphorylation of JAK and FYN in the infarcted border zone heart tissues. Nrf2 Knockout (Nrf2-/-) enhanced the MI-induced myocardial, cardiac dysfunction and senescence. Qiliqiangxin (QLQX), a herbal medicine which could reverse the MI-induced suppression of Nrf2 activity, significantly inhibited the MI-induced cardiac senescence, apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction in WT mice but not in Nrf2-/- mice. These results indicate that MI downregulates Nrf2 activity thus promoting oxidative stress to accelerate cellular senescence in the infarcted heart towards cardiac dysfunction and Nrf2 may be a drug target for suppressing the cellular senescence-associated pathologies in infarcted hearts.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Senescência Celular/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Inativação Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco consumption continues to cause a huge burden of preventable diseases. Chile has been leading the tobacco burden ranking in the Latin American region for the last ten years; it has currently a 33. 3% prevalence of current smokers. METHODS: A microsimulation economic model was developed within the framework of a multi-country project in order to estimate the burden attributable to smoking in terms of morbidity, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and direct costs of care. We also modelled the impact of increasing cigarettes' taxes on this burden. RESULTS: In Chile, 16,472 deaths were attributable to smoking in 2017, which represent around 16% of all deaths. This burden corresponds to 416,445 DALYs per year. The country's health system spends 1.15 trillion pesos annually (in Dec 2017 CLP, approx. U$D 1.8 billion) in health care treatment of illnesses caused by smoking. If the price of tobacco cigarettes was to be raised by 50%, around 13,665 deaths and 360,476 DALYs from smoking-attributable diseases would be averted in 10 years, with subsequent savings on health care costs, and increased tax revenue collection. In Chile, the tobacco tax collection does not fully cover the direct healthcare costs attributed to smoking. CONCLUSION: Despite a reduction observed on smoking prevalence between 2010 (40.6%) and 2017 (33.3%), this study shows that the burden of disease, and the economic toll due to smoking, remain high. As we demonstrate, a rise in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant reduction of this burden, averting deaths and disability, and reducing healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Fumar/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/epidemiologia
4.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1389312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788926

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a major role in the development of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP), a man-made version of a peptide that is elevated in heart failure, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues. However, its role in myocardial IR injury remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with rhBNP provided protection for mice against myocardial IR injury as manifested by reduced infarct size and well-preserved myocardial, attenuated inflammatory infiltration and CD4+ T cell proliferation function, and inhibited expression of proinflammatory related genes. Furthermore, mechanistic studies revealed that rhBNP inhibited Jurkat T proliferation by promoting PI3K/AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. Collectively, our data suggest that the administration of rhBNP during IR injury could expand our understanding of the cardioprotective effects of rhBNP.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/enzimologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3955, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769998

RESUMO

Cellular therapy to treat heart failure is an ongoing focus of intense research, but progress toward structural and functional recovery remains modest. Engineered augmentation of established cellular effectors overcomes impediments to enhance reparative activity. Such 'next generation' implementation includes delivery of combinatorial cell populations exerting synergistic effects. Concurrent isolation and expansion of three distinct cardiac-derived interstitial cell types from human heart tissue, previously reported by our group, prompted design of a 3D structure that maximizes cellular interaction, allows for defined cell ratios, controls size, enables injectability, and minimizes cell loss. Herein, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and c-Kit+ cardiac interstitial cells (cCICs) when cultured together spontaneously form scaffold-free 3D microenvironments termed CardioClusters. scRNA-Seq profiling reveals CardioCluster expression of stem cell-relevant factors, adhesion/extracellular-matrix molecules, and cytokines, while maintaining a more native transcriptome similar to endogenous cardiac cells. CardioCluster intramyocardial delivery improves cell retention and capillary density with preservation of cardiomyocyte size and long-term cardiac function in a murine infarction model followed 20 weeks. CardioCluster utilization in this preclinical setting establish fundamental insights, laying the framework for optimization in cell-based therapeutics intended to mitigate cardiomyopathic damage.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Miocárdio/patologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Capilares/patologia , Agregação Celular , Morte Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Tamanho Celular , Citoproteção , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Recém-Nascido , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Comunicação Parácrina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transcrição Genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730272

RESUMO

Mammalian cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle shortly after birth. As a result, an occurrence of coronary occlusion-induced myocardial infarction often results in heart failure, postinfarction LV dilatation, or death, and represents one of the most significant public health morbidities worldwide. Interestingly however, the hearts of neonatal pigs have been shown to regenerate following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) occuring on postnatal day 1 (P1); a recovery period which is accompanied by an increased expression of markers for cell-cycle activity, and suggests that early postnatal myocardial regeneration may be driven in part by the MI-induced proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. In this study, we identified signaling pathways known to regulate the cell cycle, and determined of these, the pathways persistently upregulated in response to MI injury. We identified five pathways (mitogen associated protein kinase [MAPK], Hippo, cyclic [cAMP], Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription [JAK-STAT], and Ras) which were comprehensively upregulated in cardiac tissues collected on day 7 (P7) and/or P28 of the P1 injury hearts. Several of the initiating master regulators (e.g., CSF1/CSF1R, TGFB, and NPPA) and terminal effector molecules (e.g., ATF4, FOS, RELA/B, ITGB2, CCND1/2/3, PIM1, RAF1, MTOR, NKF1B) in these pathways were persistently upregulated at day 7 through day 28, suggesting there exists at least some degree of regenerative activity up to 4 weeks following MI at P1. Our observations provide a list of key regulators to be examined in future studies targeting cell-cycle activity as an avenue for myocardial regeneration.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H443-H455, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618511

RESUMO

Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a paracrine growth factor, secreted by cardiac endothelial cells (ECs) in conditions of cardiac overload/injury. The current concept is that the cardiac effects of NRG1 are mediated by activation of erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ERBB)4/ERBB2 receptors on cardiomyocytes. However, recent studies have shown that paracrine effects of NRG1 on fibroblasts and macrophages are equally important. Here, we hypothesize that NRG1 autocrine signaling plays a role in cardiac remodeling. We generated EC-specific Erbb4 knockout mice to eliminate endothelial autocrine ERBB4 signaling without affecting paracrine NRG1/ERBB4 signaling in the heart. We first observed no basal cardiac phenotype in these mice up to 32 wk. We next studied these mice following transverse aortic constriction (TAC), exposure to angiotensin II (ANG II), or myocardial infarction in terms of cardiac performance, myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and capillary density. In general, no major differences between EC-specific Erbb4 knockout mice and control littermates were observed. However, 8 wk following TAC both myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis were attenuated by EC-specific Erbb4 deletion, albeit these responses were normalized after 20 wk. Similarly, 4 wk after ANG II treatment, myocardial fibrosis was less pronounced compared with control littermates. These observations were supported by RNA-sequencing experiments on cultured endothelial cells showing that NRG1 controls the expression of various hypertrophic and fibrotic pathways. Overall, this study shows a role of endothelial autocrine NRG1/ERBB4 signaling in the modulation of hypertrophic and fibrotic responses during early cardiac remodeling. This study contributes to understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of myocardial autocrine and paracrine responses following cardiac injury.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The role of NRG1/ERBB signaling in endothelial cells is not completely understood. Our study contributes to the understanding of spatiotemporal heterogeneity of myocardial autocrine and paracrine responses following cardiac injury and shows a role of endothelial autocrine NRG1/ERBB4 signaling in the modulation of hypertrophic and fibrotic responses during early cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-4/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Comunicação Parácrina , Receptor ErbB-4/deficiência , Receptor ErbB-4/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal perforation and left ventricular aneurysm are examples of potentially fatal complications of myocardial infarction. While various artificial materials are used in the repair of these issues, the possibility of associated infection and calcification is non-negligible. Cell-seeded biodegradable tissue-engineered patches may be a potential solution. This study evaluated the feasibility of a new left ventricular patch rat model to study neotissue formation in biodegradable cardiac patches. METHODS: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hiPS-CPCs) were cultured onto biodegradable patches composed of polyglycolic acid and a 50:50 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer for one week. After culturing, patches were implanted into left ventricular walls of male athymic rats. Unseeded controls were also used (n = 10/group). Heart conditions were followed by echocardiography and patches were subsequently explanted at 1, 2, 6, and 9 months post-implantation for histological evaluation. RESULT: Throughout the study, no patches ruptured demonstrating the ability to withstand the high pressure left ventricular system. One month after transplantation, the seeded patch did not stain positive for human nuclei. However, many new blood vessels formed within patches with significantly greater vessels in the seeded group at the 6 month time point. Echocardiography showed no significant difference in left ventricular contraction rate between the two groups. Calcification was found inside patches after 6 months, but there was no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: We have developed a surgical method to implant a bioabsorbable scaffold into the left ventricular environment of rats with a high survival rate. Seeded hiPS-CPCs did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes, but the greater number of new blood vessels in seeded patches suggests the presence of cell seeding early in the remodeling process might provide a prolonged effect on neotissue formation. This experiment will contribute to the development of a treatment model for left ventricular failure using iPS cells in the future.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Implantes Absorvíveis , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Poliésteres/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Tecidos Suporte/química , Troponina T/metabolismo , Função Ventricular
9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 91, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor had favorable impact on the attenuation of hyperglycemia together with the severity of heart failure. However, the effects of acute dapagliflozin administration at the time of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are not established. METHODS: The effects of dapagliflozin on cardiac function were investigated by treating cardiac I/R injury at different time points. Cardiac I/R was instigated in forty-eight Wistar rats. These rats were then split into 4 interventional groups: control, dapagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor, 1 mg/kg) given pre-ischemia, at the time of ischemia and at the beginning of reperfusion. Left ventricular (LV) function and arrhythmia score were evaluated. The hearts were used to evaluate size of myocardial infarction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and function. RESULTS: Dapagliflozin given pre-ischemia conferred the maximum level of cardioprotection quantified through the decrease in arrhythmia, attenuated infarct size, decreased cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac mitochondrial function, biogenesis and dynamics, leading to LV function improvement during cardiac I/R injury. Dapagliflozin given during ischemia also showed cardioprotection, but at a lower level of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Acute dapagliflozin administration during cardiac I/R injury exerted cardioprotective effects by attenuating cardiac infarct size, increasing LV function and reducing arrhythmias. These benefits indicate its potential clinical usefulness.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3363-3376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494135

RESUMO

Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of congestive heart failure and mortality. Hypoxia is an important trigger in the cardiac remodeling of the myocardium in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. Objective: Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia-induced exosomes on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and its related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we successfully isolated and identified the exosomes from hypoxic cardiomyocytes (CMs). Exosomes derived from hypoxic CMs promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion in CFs. RNA-Seq assay suggested that long noncoding RNA AK139128 (lncRNA AK139128) was found to overexpress in both hypoxic CMs and CMs-secreting exosomes. After coculturing with CFs, hypoxic exosomes increased the expression of AK139128 in recipient CFs. Moreover, exosomal AK139128 derived from hypoxic CMs stimulated CFs apoptosis and inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, the effect of exosomal AK139128 derived from hypoxic CMs could also exacerbate MI in the rat model. Conclusion: Taken together, hypoxia upregulated the level of AK139128 in CMs and exosomes and exosomal AK139128 derived from hypoxic CMs modulated cellular activities of CFs in vitro and in vivo. This study provides a new understanding of the mechanism underlying hypoxia-related cardiac diseases and insight into developing new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 2016259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528555

RESUMO

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) was a severe cardiovascular disease resulted from acute, persistent hypoxia, or ischemia condition. Additionally, MI generally led to heart failure, even sudden death. A multitude of research studies proposed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) frequently participated in the regulation of heart diseases. The specific function and molecular mechanism of SOX2-OT in MI remained unclear. Aim of the Study. The current research was aimed to explore the role of SOX2-OT in MI. Methods: Bioinformatics analysis (DIANA tools and Targetscan) and a wide range of experiments (CCK-8, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, luciferase reporter, RIP, caspase-3 activity, trans-well, and western blot assays) were adopted to investigate the function and mechanism of SOX2-OT. Results: We discovered that hypoxia treatment decreased cell viability but increased cell apoptosis. Besides, lncRNA SOX2-OT expression was upregulated in hypoxic HCMs. Hereafter, we confirmed that SOX2-OT could negatively regulate miR-27a-3p levels by directly binding with miR-27a-3p, and miR-27a-3p also could negatively regulate SOX2-OT levels. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX2-OT promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, but limited cell apoptosis. However, these effects were reversed by anti-miR-27a-5p. Besides, we verified that miR-27a-3p binding with the 3'UTR of TGFBR1 and SOX2-OT regulated TGFßR1 level by collaborating with miR-27a-3p in HCMs. Eventually, rescue assays validated that the influence of SOX2-OT silence or miR-27a-3p overexpression on cellular processes in cardiomyocytes injury was counteracted by TGFBR1 overexpression. Conclusions: Long noncoding RNA SOX2-OT exacerbated hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes injury by regulating miR-27a-3p/TGFßR1 axis, which may provide a novel insight for heart failure treatment.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Apoptose , Hipóxia Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1789-1800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473918

RESUMO

We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in the expression of alternative activation markers (M2) on macrophage, cytokines, and fibrosis through the temporal evolution of healing, ventricular remodeling, and function after myocardial infarction (MI). C57BL/6J and Gal-3 knockout mice (Lgals3-/-) were subjected to permanent coronary ligation or sham. We studied i) mortality, ii) macrophage infiltration and expression of markers of alternative activation, iii) cytokine, iv) matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, v) fibrosis, and vi) cardiac function and remodeling. At 1 week post-MI, lack of Gal-3 markedly attenuated F4/80+ macrophage infiltration and significantly increased the expression of Mrc1 and Chil1, markers of M2 macrophages at the MI zone. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were significantly increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-ß, and fibrosis were remarkably attenuated at the infarct zone. In Gal-3 knockout mice, scar thinning ratio, expansion, and cardiac remodeling and function were severely affected from the onset of MI. At 4 weeks post-MI, the natural evolution of fibrosis in Gal-3 knockout mice was also affected. Our results suggest that Gal-3 is essential for wound healing because it regulates the dynamics of macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and fibrosis along the temporal evolution of MI in mice. The deficit of Gal-3 affected the dynamics of wound healing, thus aggravating the evolution of remodeling and function.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo
13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20200034, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374626

RESUMO

Necrosis plays vital roles in living organisms which is related closely with various diseases. Non-invasively necrotic imaging can be of great values in clinical decision-making, evaluation of individualized treatment responses, and prediction of patient prognosis. This narrative review will demonstrate how the evolution of quinones for necrotic imaging has been promoted by searching for their active centers. In this review, we summarized the recent developments of various quinones with the continuous simplified π-conjugated cores in necrotic imaging and speculated their possible molecular mechanisms might be attributed to their intercalations with exposed DNA in necrotic tissues. We discussed their clinical challenges of necrotic imaging with quinones and their future translation studies deserved to be explored in personalized patient treatment.


Assuntos
Sondas Moleculares , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Quinonas , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Células/patologia , DNA/análise , Humanos , Sondas Moleculares/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Naftoquinonas/química , Quinonas/química , Quinonas/classificação , Ratos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365112

RESUMO

The pathological process and mechanism of myocardial ischemia (MI) is very complicated, and remains unclear. An integrated proteomic-metabolomics analysis was applied to comprehensively understand the pathological changes and mechanism of MI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a mock surgery (MS) group and an MI group. The MI model was made by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery, twenty-four hours after which, echocardiography was employed to assess left ventricular (LV) function variables. Blood samples and left ventricular tissues were collected for ELISA, metabolomics and proteomics analysis. The results showed that LV function, including ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), was significantly reduced and the level of cTnT in the serum increased after MI. iTRAQ proteomics showed that a total of 169 proteins were altered including 52 and 117 proteins with increased and decreased expression, respectively, which were mainly involved in the following activities: complement and coagulation cascades, tight junction, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, endocytosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, as well as phagosome coupled with vitamin digestion and absorption. Altered metabolomic profiling of this transition was mostly enriched in pathways including ABC transporters, glycerophospholipid metabolism, protein digestion and absorption and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. The integrated metabolomics and proteomics analysis indicated that myocardial injury after MI is closely related to several metabolic pathways, especially energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, vascular smooth muscle contraction, gap junction and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. These findings may contribute to understanding the mechanism of MI and have implication for new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Masculino , Metabolômica , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/química , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2585, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444791

RESUMO

Cardiac maturation lays the foundation for postnatal heart development and disease, yet little is known about the contributions of the microenvironment to cardiomyocyte maturation. By integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing data of mouse hearts at multiple postnatal stages, we construct cellular interactomes and regulatory signaling networks. Here we report switching of fibroblast subtypes from a neonatal to adult state and this drives cardiomyocyte maturation. Molecular and functional maturation of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are considerably enhanced upon co-culture with corresponding adult cardiac fibroblasts. Further, single-cell analysis of in vivo and in vitro cardiomyocyte maturation trajectories identify highly conserved signaling pathways, pharmacological targeting of which substantially delays cardiomyocyte maturation in postnatal hearts, and markedly enhances cardiomyocyte proliferation and improves cardiac function in infarcted hearts. Together, we identify cardiac fibroblasts as a key constituent in the microenvironment promoting cardiomyocyte maturation, providing insights into how the manipulation of cardiomyocyte maturity may impact on disease development and regeneration.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única
16.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(11): 1191-1218, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432676

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Interleukin (IL)-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine present in most cardiac cells and is secreted on necrosis where it acts as a functional ligand for the ST2 receptor. Although IL-33/ST2 axis is protective against various forms of cardiovascular diseases, some studies suggest potential detrimental roles for IL-33 signaling. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of IL-33 administration on cardiac function post-MI in mice. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Mice were treated with IL-33 (1 µg/day) or vehicle for 4 and 7 days. Functional and molecular changes of the left ventricle (LV) were assessed. Single cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow, heart, spleen, and peripheral blood to assess the immune cells using flow cytometry at 1, 3, and 7 days post-MI in IL-33 or vehicle-treated animals. The results of the present study suggest that IL-33 is effective in activating a type 2 cytokine milieu in the damaged heart, consistent with reduced early inflammatory and pro-fibrotic response. However, IL-33 administration was associated with worsened cardiac function and adverse cardiac remodeling in the MI mouse model. IL-33 administration increased infarct size, LV hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and overall mortality rate due to cardiac rupture. Moreover, IL-33-treated MI mice displayed a significant myocardial eosinophil infiltration at 7 days post-MI when compared with vehicle-treated MI mice. The present study reveals that although IL-33 administration is associated with a reparative phenotype following MI, it worsens cardiac remodeling and promotes heart failure.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-33/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Sístole/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinofilia/patologia , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-33/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
17.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(3): 303-310, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236860

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The melatonin receptor (MT) agonist ramelteon has a higher affinity to MT1 than for MT2 receptors and induces cardioprotection by involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Activation of mitochondrial potassium channels leads to release of free radicals. We investigated whether (1) ramelteon-induced cardioprotection is MT2 receptor specific and (2) if free radicals are involved in ramelteon-induced cardioprotection. METHODS: Hearts of male Wistar rats were randomized, placed on a Langendorff system, and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at a constant pressure of 80 mmHg. All hearts were subjected to 33 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Before ischemia hearts were perfused with ramelteon (Ram) with or without the MT2 receptor inhibitor 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT+Ram, 4P-PDOT). In subsequent experiments, ramelteon was administered together with the radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG+Ram). To determine whether the blockade of ramelteon-induced cardioprotection can be restored, we combined ramelteon and MPG with mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) at different time points. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. RESULTS: Ramelteon-induced infarct size reduction was completely blocked by 4P-PDOT and MPG. Ramelteon and MPG combined with CsA before ischemia were not cardioprotective but CsA at the onset of reperfusion could restore infarct size reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that despite the higher affinity to MT1 receptors, (1) ramelteon-induced cardioprotection involves MT2 receptors, (2) cardioprotection requires ROS release, and (3) inhibition of the mPTP can restore infarct size reduction.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Indenos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/agonistas , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250361

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease outranks all other causes of death and is responsible for a staggering 31% of mortalities worldwide. This disease manifests in cardiac injury, primarily in the form of an acute myocardial infarction. With little resilience following injury, the once healthy cardiac tissue will be replaced by fibrous, non-contractile scar tissue and often be a prelude to heart failure. To identify novel treatment options in regenerative medicine, research has focused on vertebrates with innate regenerative capabilities. One such model organism is the neonatal mouse, which responds to cardiac injury with robust myocardial regeneration. In order to induce an injury in the neonatal mouse that is clinically relevant, we have developed a surgery to occlude the left anterior descending artery (LAD), mirroring a myocardial infarction triggered by atherosclerosis in the human heart. When matched with the technology to track changes both within cardiomyocytes and non-myocyte populations, this model provides us with a platform to identify the mechanisms that guide heart regeneration. Gaining insight into changes in cardiac cell populations following injury once relied heavily on methods such as tissue sectioning and histological examination, which are limited to two-dimensional analysis and often damage the tissue in the process. Moreover, these methods lack the ability to trace changes in cell lineages, instead providing merely a snapshot of the injury response. Here, we describe how technologically advanced methods in lineage tracing models, whole organ clearing, and three-dimensional (3D) whole-mount microscopy can be used to elucidate mechanisms of cardiac repair. With our protocol for neonatal mouse myocardial infarction surgery, tissue clearing, and 3D whole organ imaging, the complex pathways that induce cardiomyocyte proliferation can be unraveled, revealing novel therapeutic targets for cardiac regeneration.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos
19.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(4): 446-462, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284552

RESUMO

Environmental factors are the largest contributors to cardiovascular disease. Here we show that cardiac organoids that incorporate an oxygen-diffusion gradient and that are stimulated with the neurotransmitter noradrenaline model the structure of the human heart after myocardial infarction (by mimicking the infarcted, border and remote zones), and recapitulate hallmarks of myocardial infarction (in particular, pathological metabolic shifts, fibrosis and calcium handling) at the transcriptomic, structural and functional levels. We also show that the organoids can model hypoxia-enhanced doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Human organoids that model diseases with non-genetic pathological factors could help with drug screening and development.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Organoides/metabolismo , Organoides/patologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 251-258, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ischemic heart disease is closely associated with many risk factors. Germinated brown rice extract (GBR) has potent antioxidant activities for alleviating the factors for developing heart failure such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. AIM: The objective of the present study was to determine the cardio-protective effects of GBR and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects in a model of simulated myocardial ischemic/ reperfusion injury (sI/R). METHODS: An in vitro study was performed on cultured rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) exposed to sI/R. The expression of apoptosis and signaling proteins was assessed using Western blot analyses. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 3 groups and the left circumflex coronary artery was ligated to induce myocardial ischemia. Heart functions were monitored by electrocardiography and echocardiography 0, 30, and 60 days after coronary artery ligation. RESULTS: GBR consumption group showed significantly improved cardiac function and reduced the heart rate, along with reduced mean arterial pressure and plasma glucose level. Also, GBR showed good scavenging activity, pretreatment with GBR inhibited I/R induced apoptosis by suppressing the production of caspase 3 and p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that intake of germinated brown rice may effectively to protect cell proliferation and apoptosis and may provide important nutrients to prevent heart failure due to myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
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