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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 11-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between periodontitis and nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and registered (CRD42018105124) with PROSPERO (International prospective register for systematic reviews, University of York, York, UK). A search was conducted in five databases without restrictions regarding language or date of publication. From 560 studies selected, 10 underwent full-text analysis. Five studies were eligible (five case-control studies), and all were entered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed with tests for sensitivity and statistical heterogeneity. Summary effect measures were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: There was a significant association between periodontitis and nosocomial pneumonia in the meta-analysis (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.86). In this meta-analysis, I2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence demonstrates a positive association between periodontitis and nosocomial pneumonia. Individuals with periodontitis admitted to the ICU were more likely to present nosocomial pneumonia than individuals without periodontitis.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Periodontite , Pneumonia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos
2.
Br J Nurs ; 29(1): 8, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917933

RESUMO

Tracy Doherty, Assistant Director of Infection Prevention & Control, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda, Co Louth, discusses the maintenance of a clean healthcare environment.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Ambiente de Instituições de Saúde , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Ambiente de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções
3.
Br J Nurs ; 29(1): 10, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917942

RESUMO

Neesha Ridley, Senior Lecturer, University of Central Lancashire, discusses the importance of hand hygiene in preventing healthcare-associated infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Humanos
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904319

RESUMO

In recent years, Serratia marcescens has emerged as an important agent of hospital-acquired infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and meningitis, particularly in vulnerable patients. Compared to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, S. marcescens is less commonly associated with bla KPC genes, yet few cases of plasmid transmission at the gastrointestinal level from K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales to S. marcescens have been described. Here we report a case of in vivo acquisition, during a 3-month period of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, of a bla KPC-3 gene carried by a pKpQIL-IT plasmid, and its probable transmission at the bronchial level among different species of Enterobacterales, including K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens. By using whole genome sequence analyses we were able provide insight into the dynamics of carbapenem-resistance determinants acquisition in the lower respiratory tract, a novel anatomical region for such plasmid transmission events, that usually involve the gastrointestinal tract. The co-presence at the same time of both wild-type and resistant Enterobacterales could have been the critical factor leading to the spread of plasmids harbouring carbapenem-resistance genes, of particular importance during surveillance screenings. The possibility of such an event may have significant consequences in terms of antimicrobial treatment, with a potential limitation of therapeutic options, thereby further complicating the clinical management of high-risk critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos , Serratia marcescens/enzimologia , Serratia marcescens/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(2): S24-S26, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preventing CLABSI events in the dialysis inpatient population represents significant challenges. Bacteremia associated with lines or grafts are common health-associated infections that lead to adverse patient outcomes. Dialysis patients represent a much higher infection risk due to health frequency needs, more frequent hospitalizations, multiple comorbidity issues, fistula functionality, and multiple attempts for line access leading to additional complications, costs, morbidity, and mortality. METHODS: An observational study was conducted including central line device days, CLABSI events, and possible confounding variables in admitted dialysis patients. All CLABSI data were identified according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network's definitions for CLABSIs. The intervention involved the removal of 70% alcohol swabs and alcohol hub disinfecting caps, then replacing with swabs containing 3.15% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% alcohol for central line hub disinfection and vascular graft access skin disinfection. RESULTS: The 5-year preintervention period (2008-2012) involved 7568 central line days, 11 CLABSI events, and a 1.45 per 1000 device day rate. The 6-month trial period involved 1559 central line days and no CLABSI events. The 5-year postimplementation period (2013-2017) involved 9787 central line days, 5 CLABSI events, and a 0.51 per 1000 device day rate. The postimplementation period represented a statistically significant (P value=0.0493) reduction with 65% fewer CLABSI events compared with the preimplementation period. LIMITATIONS: A limitation was variations in scrub time and dry time during central venous catheter hub access. While we were comparing 2 products, behavioral practices using these 2 products were possible influencers and represent a possible confounding variable. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that using alcohol with chlorhexidine gluconate prior to accessing central line hubs and vascular grafts allows for reduction in CLABSI events and sustains statistically significant lower CLABSI rates in the inpatient dialysis population. HIGHLIGHTS Using alcohol with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) before accessing central line hubs helps reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) events Using alcohol with CHG before accessing vascular grafts helps reduce CLABSI events A statistically significant reduction (65%) in CLABSI events occurred after use. Statistically significant lower CLABSI rates are sustainable with use of alcohol with CHG.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Álcoois/administração & dosagem , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem
7.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770164

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the various challenges in infection control in eye clinics and successful measures taken to prevent nosocomial infections. RECENT FINDINGS: The Center for Disease Control recommends hand-washing when hands are visibly soiled, and after direct contact with patients, and inanimate objects such as medical equipment. Published studies have identified poor hygiene in clinical settings as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks, particularly in cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Some studies of EKC outbreaks are able to support direct observation of hygiene lapses with molecular analysis that can match viral strains on particular instruments to those found in infected patients. Although most studies are about adenoviral infection and tonometer use, researchers have found viral and bacterial loads on other common surfaces, indicating a need for further research. SUMMARY: Proper hygiene in eye clinics requires special attention because of the potential to examine many patients at a time and because multiple instruments are often used during a single exam. Studies reinforce the link between hygiene and outbreak prevention, and more research can be done to determine the specific links between certain instruments and nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Oftalmologia/instrumentação , Esterilização/métodos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Humanos , Oftalmologia/normas
8.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1048348

RESUMO

Objetivo: elaborar um bundle de cuidados para a prevenção e o controle das infecções hospitalares em unidade de emergência, com base no conhecimento e prática dos profissionais de saúde e nas evidências científicas disponíveis na literatura. Método: pesquisa convergente assistencial, realizada em um serviço de emergência adulto de um hospital geral universitário localizado em uma capital do Sul do Brasil com aplicação de um Survey para 52 trabalhadores da equipe multiprofissional e posterior discussão em grupos "Aqui e Agora". Foi aprovado pelo CEPSH/UFSC com CAAE: 56390616.0.0000.0121. Resultados: emergiram três aspectos mais significativos que compuseram o bundle de cuidados: higienização das mãos; uso de equipamentos de proteção individual; e assepsia de materiais e equipamentos. Conclusão: a utilização do bundle permite informar, orientar, melhorar hábitos e relembrar a equipe de saúde sobre a necessidade de aderir a atitudes que tornem o cuidado realizado mais qualificado e seguro, tanto para o paciente, quanto para o profissional


Objective: develop a care bundle in order to help preventing and controlling hospital infections in emergency care units, based on the knowledge and practice of health professionals, as well as on scientific evidences available in the literature. Method: The study was carried out through the application of a survey comprising 52 health professionals working in the multi-professional team of the aforementioned hospital. The data from the survey were discussed in "Here-and-Now" groups. It was approved by CEPSH / UFSC with CAAE: 56390616.0.0000.0121. Results: the three most significant aspects composing the care bundle were selected based on data derived from the survey, from the groups and from the literature, namely: hand hygiene; use of personal protection equipment; and asepsis of materials and equipment. Conclusion: using the bundle allows inform, guide, as well as to improve habits and remind health teams about the need to adhere to measures able to make the health care practice more qualified and safer for both the patients and the professionals


Objetivo: elaborar un bundle de cuidados para la prevención y el control de las infecciones hospitalarias en unidad de emergencia, con base en el conocimiento y práctica de los profesionales de salud y en las evidencias científicas disponibles en la literatura. Método: se realizó con aplicación de un Survey de que participaron 52 trabajadores del equipo multiprofesional. Los datos de Survey fueron discutidos posteriormente en grupos "Aquí y Ahora". Fue aprobado por el CEPSH / UFSC con CAAE: 56390616.0.0.0000.0121. Resultados: en base a los datos de Survey, de los grupos y de la literatura se seleccionaron los tres aspectos más significativos que compusieron el bundle de cuidados: higienización de las manos; uso de equipos de protección individual; y asepsia de materiales y equipos. Conclusión: la utilización del bundle permite informar, orientar, mejorar hábitos y recordar el equipo de salud sobre la necesidad de adherir a actitudes que hagan del cuidado realizado más calificado y seguro, tanto para el paciente, como para el profesional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Grupos Focais , Segurança do Paciente , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente
9.
Orv Hetil ; 160(49): 1957-1962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786938

RESUMO

Introduction: Infections affect about 30-50% of intensive care unit patients resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Multimodal interventions proved to be successful in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Appropriate hand hygiene including correct disinfection technique and timing is essential. Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the hand hygiene practice among the intensive care unit healthcare workers by immediate feedback system implementation and compliance study. Method: A 3-week-long observational study was conducted at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Semmelweis University, during November and December, 2018. Data regarding hand hygiene technique were collected by using the Semmelweis Scanner technology, while compliance data were recorded by direct observations. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test, Fisher's exact test and χ2-test. Results: 604 measurements were recorded by the electronic system. Hand disinfection was appropriate in 86.5% of cases. The median value of coverage was 99.87%. The trend of these indices showed persistently high values. A lower error rate was observed in the physiotherapy group compared to others (doctors: p<0.01, nurses: p = 0.03, assistant nurses: p = 0.03). 162 opportunities were recorded during direct observations. The mean compliance rate was 60.49%, with the lowest among doctors (53.97%). The difference was non-significant compared to nurses (62.92%, p = 0.26). Conclusions: Hand hygiene technique during the study period was found to be highly and permanently appropriate, while compliance was lower than expected. The immediate feedback system may be useful in achieving appropriate hand disinfection technique, although further interventions are needed for higher compliance rates. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(49): 1957-1962.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos
11.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 323-329, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880878

RESUMO

This study conducts a comparative phenotypic and genetic analysis of C. perfringens strains isolated from two patients hospitalized at the same time in 2017 in the surgical ward of the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Wloclawek (Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province) who developed necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI). To explain the recurring cases of this infection, a comparative analysis was performed for these strains and the ones originating from infections recorded at the same hospital in three patients with gas gangrene in 2015. The two C. perfringens isolates studied in 2017 (8554/M/17 from patient No. 1 and 8567/M/17 from patient No. 2) had identical biochemical profiles. A comparison of research results using multiplex PCR from 2017 with a genetic analysis of strains from 2015 enabled us to demonstrate that the strains currently studied have the genes encoding the same toxins (α and ß2) as the two strains analyzed in 2015: no. 7143 (patient No. 3) and no. 7149 (patient No. 2). A comparative analysis of the strain profiles obtained with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in 2017 with the results from 2015 has found one identical and genetically unique restriction profile, corresponding to one clone of C. perfringens comprising of two strains: no. 8567/M/17 (patient No. 2 in 2017) and no. 7143 (patient No. 3 in 2015). The epidemiological data and detailed analysis of the course of both events suggest that this clone of C. perfringens possibly survived in adverse conditions of the external environment in the operating block of this hospital for many months.This study conducts a comparative phenotypic and genetic analysis of C. perfringens strains isolated from two patients hospitalized at the same time in 2017 in the surgical ward of the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Wloclawek (Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province) who developed necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI). To explain the recurring cases of this infection, a comparative analysis was performed for these strains and the ones originating from infections recorded at the same hospital in three patients with gas gangrene in 2015. The two C. perfringens isolates studied in 2017 (8554/M/17 from patient No. 1 and 8567/M/17 from patient No. 2) had identical biochemical profiles. A comparison of research results using multiplex PCR from 2017 with a genetic analysis of strains from 2015 enabled us to demonstrate that the strains currently studied have the genes encoding the same toxins (α and ß2) as the two strains analyzed in 2015: no. 7143 (patient No. 3) and no. 7149 (patient No. 2). A comparative analysis of the strain profiles obtained with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in 2017 with the results from 2015 has found one identical and genetically unique restriction profile, corresponding to one clone of C. perfringens comprising of two strains: no. 8567/M/17 (patient No. 2 in 2017) and no. 7143 (patient No. 3 in 2015). The epidemiological data and detailed analysis of the course of both events suggest that this clone of C. perfringens possibly survived in adverse conditions of the external environment in the operating block of this hospital for many months.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Gangrena Gasosa/microbiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Clostridium perfringens/classificação , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/metabolismo , Vestuário/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 371-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880882

RESUMO

Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.Elderly people living in nursing homes are a high-risk population for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Multiple comorbidities, a weakened immune system, inadequate hygienic conditions, and crowding might increase the prevalence rates of this opportunistic pathogen. However, the epidemiological aspects, genetic diversity, and transmission of S. aureus in nursing homes are still poorly understood, especially in Poland. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous colonization with more than one unique S. aureus strain in any one individual as well as the incidence of colonization with the same genetic variant of S. aureus in different individuals was observed. These findings suggest that inter-participant S. aureus transmission might contribute to the development of cross-infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3869-3875, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872717

RESUMO

Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty have been widely used in treating Yang deficiency and exogenous wind-cold syndrome by traditional Chinese medicine physicians for thousands of years. The indications of Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction include bradyarrhythmia,sinus bradycardia,sick sinus node syndrome,senile exogenous,asthmatic cold,rhinitis,bronchial asthma,optic neuritis,optic atrophy,sudden blindness,sudden onset of cough,laryngeal obstruction,migraine,joint pain,low back pain,insomnia,shock,heart failure,renal failure,accompanied by fever or nosocomial infection,and hyperpyrexia after tracheotomy; dark complexion,chills,cold limbs,listlessness,fatigue,insomnia,lack of thirst,liking hot drinks,slightly swollen limbs or whole body,pale fat tongue,greasy fur,and deep pulse. Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction is a potential drug for Shaoyin disease complicated with fever and pain. Tracheal intubation is an artificial ephedrine syndrome. It is necessary to distinguish Yin and Yang syndrome in treating hyperpyrexia after tracheotomy. However,it belongs to Yin syndrome,which could be treated by Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction. Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction is effective in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome,second degree atrioventricular block and third degree atrioventricular block. It can significantly alleviate symptoms,improve heart rate,and heart rhythm in a short period of time. However,after one year of drug withdrawal,the diseases may recur,indicating that Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction may not improve the long-term prognosis of slow arrhythmia. Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction is often used for fever or nosocomial infection in critical care medicine. In the treatment of critical care medicine complicated with high fever,Mahuang Fuzi Xixin Decoction is often taken continuously by stomach tube.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Traqueotomia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Críticos , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Síndrome
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3876-3882, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872718

RESUMO

Chaige Jieji Decoction recorded in Six Books of Exogenous Febrile Disease could be used to treat exterior syndrome due to wind-cold and heat caused by stagnation. The indications of Chaige Jieji Decoction include acute exogenous febrile diseases,such as influenza,upper respiratory tract infection,nosocomial infection; symptoms and signs,such as headache,eye pain,orbital pain,dizziness; fever,cold and hot exchanges; dry mouth,thirst,cold drinks,bitter mouth,dry throat; dry nose,stuffy nose,runny nose; poor appetite,silent appetite; strong neck,stiff back; insomnia,difficulty in sleeping; cough and sputum; abdominal pain,limb twitching;slightly torrent pulse. Disease involving all three Yang channels is very common in acute exogenous febrile diseases; the pathogenesis of exogenous diseases is quite different between cases in South China and North China. Most of the exogenous diseases in North China involves all three Yang channels. Disease involving all three Yang channels is the core of the pathogenesis of Chaige Jieji Decoction syndrome,in which headache is the key indications. Chaige Jieji Decoction can not only treat exogenous diseases,but also treat nosocomial infections in critically ill patients during hospitalization. Although Chaige Jieji Decoction,Xiaochaihu-Maxing Shigan Decoction,and Xiaochaihu-Daqinglong Decoction could be used to treat disease involving all three Yang channels,there are differences in indicators among them.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , China , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Síndrome
15.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03486, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020393

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto das Infecções Relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde no custo da hospitalização de crianças. Método Estudo de coorte, prospectivo, quantitativo, envolvendo crianças admitidas nas Unidades de Internação e de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica de um hospital universitário público. Os dados foram analisados por meio do software SPSS por distribuição de frequências, medidas de tendência central e dispersão. Para todas as análises foi considerado o nível de significância estatística de p<0,05. Resultados A amostra foi composta de 173 crianças, destas, 18,5% desenvolveram infecção relacionada à assistência à saúde, que aumentou em 4,2 vezes (p<0,001) o custo da hospitalização. Maior impacto de custo foi observado entre pacientes com dois ou mais sítios infecciosos (R$ 81.037,57, p=0,010) e sepse (R$ 46.315,63 p<0,001). Crianças colonizadas por microrganismos multirresistentes, com prevalência de E. coli e A. baumannii ESBL, geraram custos maiores, R$ 35.206,15 e R$ 30.692,52, respectivamente. Conclusão As infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde aumentaram significativamente os custos da hospitalização de crianças, em especial entre aquelas com mais de dois sítios infecciosos, que desenvolveram sepse e colonizadas por microrganismos multirresistentes.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el impacto de las Infecciones Relacionadas con la Asistencia Sanitaria en el costo de la hospitalización de niños. Método Estudio de cohorte, prospectivo, cuantitativo, involucrando a niños ingresados en las Unidades de Hospitalización y de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos de un hospital universitario público. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el software SPSS por distribución de frecuencias, medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Para todos los análisis, se consideró el nivel de significación estadística de p<0,05. Resultado La muestra estuvo compuesta de 173 niños, de estos el 18,5% desarrollaron infección relacionada con la asistencia sanitaria, que aumentó 4,2 veces (p<0,001) el costo de la estancia hospitalaria. Mayor impacto de costo fue observado entre pacientes con dos o más sitios infecciosos (R$ 81.037,57, p=0,010) y sepsis (R$ 46.315,63 p<0,001). Niños colonizados por microorganismos multirresistentes, con prevalencia de E. coli y A. baumannii ESBL, generaron costos mayores, R$ 35.206,15 y R$ 30.692,52, respectivamente. Conclusión Las infecciones relacionadas con la asistencia sanitaria aumentaron significativamente los costos de la hospitalización de niños, en especial entre los con más de dos sitios infecciosos, que desarrollaron sepsis y colonizados por microorganismos multirresistentes.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the impact of Healthcare-Associated Infections on the hospitalization cost of children. Method A prospective, quantitative cohort study involving children admitted to the Inpatient and Pediatric Intensive Care Units of a public university hospital. The data were analyzed through SPSS software by frequency distribution, central tendency measures and dispersion. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analyzes. Results The sample consisted of 173 children, of whom 18.5% developed Healthcare-Associated Infections, which increased the hospitalization costs 4.2 times (p<0.001). A greater cost impact was observed among patients with two or more infectious sites (R$81,037.57; p=0.010) and sepsis (R$46,315.63; p<0.001). Children colonized by multiresistant microorganisms with a prevalence of E. coli and A. baumannii ESBL also generated higher costs of R$35,206.15 and R$30,692.52, respectively. Conclusion Healthcare-Associated Infections significantly increased the hospitalization costs for children, especially among those with more than two infectious sites, who developed sepsis or were colonized by multiresistant microorganisms.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Infecção Hospitalar , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitais Universitários
16.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(4): [135-142], out - dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049377

RESUMO

Introdução: A automedicação ocorre, em especial, por fatores sociais, econômicos e culturais, podendo refletir na eficácia do tratamento antibacteriano, devido à adaptação das bactérias aos antibióticos de primeira escolha. A resistência bacteriana é uma problemática mundial. Objetivo: Verificar a etiologia e o perfil de resistência de bactérias isoladas em uroculturas frente aos antibióticos comumente utilizados em um hospital no município de Macapá (AP), Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com coleta de dados no sistema de registros cadastrais do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Amapá, onde foram processadas as uroculturas oriundas do hospital-alvo deste estudo, no período de junho de 2016 a junho de 2018. Resultados: Os resultados demonstraram que, das 2.078 uroculturas, 289 (13,9%) eram positivas, sendo 55% de pacientes do sexo feminino. As infecções urinárias foram causadas, predominantemente, por enterobactérias Escherichia coli (50,4%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (21%), sendo sensíveis ao meropenem e à amicacina, e respectivamente resistentes às quinolonas norfloxacina (63% e 66%) e ciprofloxacina (61% e 46,6%). Por outro lado, Staphylococcus aureus (1,4%) apresentou maior resistência à eritromicina (100%) e à oxacilina (50%). O Enterococcus faecalis (5%) foi mais resistente aos antibióticos ciprofloxacina, ampicilina e gentamicina, com 35,7%. Conclusão: Os uropatógenos foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino entre a faixa etária de 40 a 79 anos. Os microrganismos mais isolados foram as bactérias Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae, que apresentaram perfil de resistência às quinolonas norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina, o que foi associado ao frequente uso empírico destes fármacos no tratamento de infecções do trato urinário. Verificou-se a existência de bactérias como Burkholderia cepacia e Stenotrophomonas maltophillia, que, por serem resistentes à maioria dos fármacos clinicamente utilizados, representam preocupação especial para os pacientes em condições de imunodepressão.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Infecção Hospitalar , Epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Antibacterianos
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20180498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main pathogens causing infection in intensive care units (ICUs) and usually presents antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data were obtained from ICUs between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa had a prevalence of 14.5% of which 48.7% were multidrug resistant. We observed increasing resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin B and growing consumption of aminoglycosides, meropenem, ceftazidime, and polymyxin B. The regression impact between resistance and consumption was significant with respect to amikacin, imipenem, meropenem, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring antimicrobial consumption and resistant microorganisms should be reinforced to combat antimicrobial- and multi-drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1072, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) is present in hospital environments and has been one of the pathogens that cause nosocomial contamination and infections. To investigate the occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMA) in bronchoscope lavage fluid (BALF) among 25 cases treated in the Division of Infection and to trace the contamination source and transmission route. METHODS: 25 cases of SMA positive BALF occurring from May 11 to August 10, 2018 were tested for drug sensitivity. Environmental hygiene conditions were investigated to identify the source of contamination and the route of transmission. RESULTS: BALF associated SMA was in all cases sensitive to minocycline, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol and resistant to ceftazidime and imipenem. 92.3% of samples were sensitivity to compound sulfamethoxazole. Investigation of environmental hygiene parameters revealed SMA growing on the inner wall of the fiberoptic bronchoscope as a likely source of contamination. CONCLUSION: Incomplete cleaning and sterilization of the fiberoptic bronchoscope led to SMA nosocomial contamination. Strict sterilization procedures are required to prevent and control nosocomial contamination.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/transmissão , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Wiad Lek ; 72(11 cz 1): 2069-2075, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However data of BSI from Ukraine are scarce. The aim: To obtain the first national estimates of the current incidence of BSI and antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens, and associated mortality in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted at the 14 hospitals of Ukraine between January 2013 to December 2015. Definitions of BSIs were adapted from the CDC. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultures were determined, using automated microbiology analyzer. Some antimicrobial susceptibility test used Kirby - Bauer antibiotic testing. RESULTS: Results: Among 20,544 patients, 3816 (18.6%) BSIs were observed. The rate of health care associated BSI was 92.4%. Death was reported in 68.4% BSI cases. The predominant pathogens were: Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.1%), Escherichia coli (17.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.9%), and Acinetobacter spp.(8.5%). The overall proportion of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among Enterobacteriaceae was 24.8% and of methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) 38.2%. Vancomycin resistance was observwd in 9.2% of isolated enterococci (VRE). Carbapenem resistance was identified in 33.1% of P.aeruginosa isolates and 63.2% of A. baumannii isolates. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was observed in 14.2% K. pneumoniae and E.coli 55% isolates. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Healthcare-associated BSIs and antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens together with their associated impact on mortality, presents a significant burden to the Ukraine hospital system. Surveillance of BSIs may help to delineate the requirements for infection prevention and control.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecção Hospitalar , Antibacterianos , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus , Ucrânia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859846

RESUMO

Nosocomial bacterial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is associated with high mortality in neurosurgical patients. There are few reports in the literature on meningitis caused by CRKP. We report two cases of CRKP meningitis after neurosurgery. The K. pneumoniae identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek Compact System. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of polymyxin B were determined using the broth microdilution method. Molecular typing of K. pneumoniae isolates was investigated using multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the K. pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant and co-produced extended-spectrum ß-lactamases and KPC enzymes. The patients were treated with intrathecal polymyxin. Genetic polymorphism analyses revealed two different K. pneumoniae clones (ST1298 and ST2687), which were observed for the first time in CRKP infections. We recommend intravenous administration of intrathecal polymyxin for treating meningitis caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae .


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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