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1.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 783-790, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among babies born in developing countries are higher than among those born in resource-rich countries, as a result of suboptimal infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. Following two reported deaths of neonates with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs), we conducted an outbreak investigation in a neonatal unit of a regional hospital in Gauteng Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To confirm an outbreak of K. pneumoniae BSIs and assess the IPC programme in the neonatal unit. METHODS: We calculated total and organism-specific BSI incidence risks for culture-confirmed cases in the neonatal unit for baseline and outbreak periods. We conducted a clinical record review for a subset of cases with K. pneumoniae BSI that had been reported to the investigating team by the neonatal unit. An IPC audit was performed in different areas of the neonatal unit. We confirmed species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility, and used polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of carbapenemase genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for typing of submitted clinical isolates. RESULTS: From January 2017 to August 2018, 5 262 blood cultures were submitted, of which 11% (560/5 262) were positive. Of 560 positive blood cultures, 52% (n=292) were positive for pathogenic organisms associated with healthcare-associated BSIs. K. pneumoniae comprised the largest proportion of these cases (32%; 93/292). The total incidence risk of healthcare-associated BSI for the baseline period (January 2017 - March 2018) was 6.8 cases per 100 admissions, and that for the outbreak period (April - September 2018) was 10.1 cases per 100 admissions. The incidence risk of K. pneumoniae BSI for the baseline period was 1.6 cases per 100 admissions, compared with 5.0 cases per 100 admissions during the outbreak period. Average bed occupancy for the entire period was 118% (range 101 - 133%), that for the baseline period was 117%, and that for the outbreak period was 121%. In a subset of 12 neonates with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia, the median (interquartile range (IQR)) gestational age at birth was 27 (26 - 29) weeks, and the median (IQR) birth weight was 1 100 (880 - 1 425) g. Twelve bloodstream and 31 colonising K. pneumoniae isolates were OXA-48-positive. All isolates were genetically related by PFGE analysis (89% similarity). Inadequate IPC practices were noted, including suboptimal adherence to aseptic technique and hand hygiene (57% overall score in the neonatal intensive care unit), with poor monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial use (pharmacy score 55%). CONCLUSIONS: Overcrowding and inadequate IPC and antimicrobial stewardship contributed to a large outbreak of BSIs caused by genetically related carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal unit.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Unidades Hospitalares , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Auditoria Clínica , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Aglomeração , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Programas Médicos Regionais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 154, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, hospitals have been forced to divert substantial resources to cope with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is unclear if this situation will affect long-standing infection prevention practices and impact on healthcare associated infections. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that occurred on a COVID-19 dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) despite intensified contact precautions during the current pandemic. Whole genome sequence-based typing (WGS) was used to investigate genetic relatedness of VRE isolates collected from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the outbreak and to compare them to environmental VRE samples. METHODS: Five VRE isolated from patients (three clinical and two screening samples) as well as 11 VRE and six vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) samples from environmental sites underwent WGS during the outbreak investigation. Isolate relatedness was determined using core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). RESULTS: WGS revealed two genotypic distinct VRE clusters with genetically closely related patient and environmental isolates. The cluster was terminated by enhanced infection control bundle strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the importance of continued adherence to infection prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent VRE transmission and healthcare associated infections.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prevenção Primária , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4522, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908144

RESUMO

A unique, protective cell envelope contributes to the broad drug resistance of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Here we use transposon insertion sequencing to identify A. baumannii mutants displaying altered susceptibility to a panel of diverse antibiotics. By examining mutants with antibiotic susceptibility profiles that parallel mutations in characterized genes, we infer the function of multiple uncharacterized envelope proteins, some of which have roles in cell division or cell elongation. Remarkably, mutations affecting a predicted cell wall hydrolase lead to alterations in lipooligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the analysis of altered susceptibility signatures and antibiotic-induced morphology patterns allows us to predict drug synergies; for example, certain beta-lactams appear to work cooperatively due to their preferential targeting of specific cell wall assembly machineries. Our results indicate that the pathogen may be effectively inhibited by the combined targeting of multiple pathways critical for envelope growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1132-1144, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812863

RESUMO

Introduction. While colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in haemodialysis patients has been assessed, knowledge about colonization by beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is still limited.Aim. To describe clinical and molecular characteristics in haemodialysis patients colonized by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) and beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in an ambulatory renal unit.Methodology. The study included patients with central venous catheters in an outpatient haemodialysis facility in Medellín, Colombia (October 2017-October 2018). Swab specimens were collected from the nostrils and skin around vascular access to assess colonization by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA). Stool samples were collected from each patient to evaluate beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacilli colonization. Molecular typing included PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC). Clinical information was obtained from medical records and personal interview.Results. A total of 210 patients were included in the study. S. aureus colonization was observed in 33.8 % (n=71) of the patients, 4.8 % (n=10) of which were colonized by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Stool samples were collected from 165 patients and of these 41.2 % (n=68) and 11.5 % (n=19) were colonized by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant bacilli, respectively. Typing methods revealed high genetic diversity among S. aureus and ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB). Antibiotic use and hospitalization in the previous 6 months were observed in more than half of the studied population.Conclusion. The high colonization by ESBL-GNB in haemodialysis patients shows evidence for the need for stronger surveillance, not only for S. aureus but also for multidrug-resistant bacilli in order to avoid their spread. Additionally, the high genetic diversity suggests other sources of transmission outside the renal unit instead of horizontal transmission between patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Lactamas/farmacologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Idoso , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 597, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii presents challenges for clinical treatment and causes high mortality in children. We aimed to assess the risk factors and overall mortality for MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infected pediatric patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included 102 pediatric patients who developed MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infection in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shanghai Children's Hospital in China from December 2014 to May 2018. Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates were recovered from different specimens including blood, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, hydrothorax, and urine. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria. Clinical and biological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: 102 patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection were enrolled. The median age was 36 (9.6, 98.8) months, and there were 63 male in the case group. The overall mortality rate was 29.4%, while the Acinetobacter baumannii-associated mortality rate was 16.7% (17/102, 12 bloodstream infections, 4 meningitis and 1 intra-abdominal infection). Bloodstream infections occurred in 28 patients (27.5%), and 10 patients (9.8%) among them had central line-associated bloodstream infections (6 central venous catheters, 2 PICCs, 1 venous infusion port and 1 arterial catheter). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive in 4(3.9%) patients. 14(13.7%) patients got positive cultures in ascites and hydrothorax. Lower respiratory isolates (56/102) accounted for 54.9% of all patients. Non-survival patients appeared to have a lower NK cell activity (6.2% ± 3.61% vs. 9.15% ± 6.21%, P = 0.029), higher CD4+ T cell ratio (39.67% ± 12.18% vs. 32.66% ± 11.44%, P = 0.039),and a higher serum level of interlukin-8 (IL-8, 15.25 (1.62, 47.22)pg/mL vs. 0.1 (0.1, 22.99)pg/mL, P = 0.01) when Acinetobacter baumannii infection developed. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that high serum level of Cr (RR, 0.934, 95%CI, 0.890-0.981; P = 0.007) and high BUN/ALB level (RR, 107.893, 95%CI, 1.425-870.574; p = 0.005) were associated with high risk of mortality in MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infected patients. CONCLUSION: MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infection is a serious concern in pediatric patients with high mortality. Bloodstream and central nervous system infection accounted for high risk of death. Acute kidney injury is associated with high risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/mortalidade , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are a significant burden on the healthcare system. Recent research has suggested the role of copper in reducing HAI. The purpose of this study was to systematically search literature and pool data from studies evaluating the efficacy of copper-impregnated hospital linen in reducing HAI. METHODS: We carried out a systematic electronic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, BioMed Central, Springer, Embase, and Google Scholar databases for controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of copper-impregnated linen in reducing the incidence of HAI. The last search was carried out on 15th February 2020. RESULTS: Six studies were included. There was no restriction on the type of organism causing HAI in three studies while three trials reported HAI from Clostridioides difficile and multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO). A meta-analysis of six studies indicated the use of copper-impregnated linen did not reduce the risk of HAI [Incidence rate ratio (IRR):0.66, 95% CI:0.28-1.58, p = 0.36, I2 = 100%)]. On subgroup analysis, while pooled data from three studies HAI indicated a statistical significant reduction in all-HAI with copper-impregnated linen (IRR:0.76, 95% CI:0.75-0.77, p<0.00001, I2 = 0%), no such difference was seen when HAI was defined as infection by Clostridioides difficile and MDROs only (IRR:0.57, 95% CI:0.12-2.75, p = 0.48, I2 = 99%). Meta-regression analysis for study duration and number of days of hospitalization did not demonstrate any influence on the overall effect size. On sensitivity analysis, there was no change in the significance of results after the sequential exclusion of every study. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on the use of copper-impregnated linen to reduce HAI is conflicting. Our results indicate that copper-impregnated linen may reduce HAI, but there is still no evidence of such an effect regarding infections caused by MDRO or Clostridioides difficile. The overall quality of evidence is not high. Homogenous high-quality studies are required to strengthen the evidence on this subject.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Cobre , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Incidência
7.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors for mortality in adult patients with candidemia by investigating the causative agents, underlying conditions and predisposing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data including causative Candida species, predisposing factors, and underlying conditions of candidemia patients between the years 2015-2017 were collected and the impact of these factors on mortality was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as died (died patients within 30 days of the onset of candidemia) and survived and risk factors were evaluated for each group. RESULTS: We found 163 adult candidemia cases during the study period. Overall 30-day mortality was 40.5%. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequent causative agent (49.1%). C. parapsilosis candidemia was more common in the survived group compared with the died group (n: 49 (61.3%) vs. n: 31 (38.8%), P=0.888). Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with dialysis (n: 27 (69.2%) vs. n: 12 (30.8%), P<0.00) and concurrent bacteremia (n: 20 (57.1%) vs. n: 15 (42.9%), P=0.024). Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with follow-up blood cultures (n: 75 (65.8%) vs. n: 39 (34.2%), P=0.013). The most important source of candidemia was catheter (49.7%), and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent (58%). The catheter was removed in 96.3% of these patients and the mortality rate was 38.5%. All of the patients received antifungal therapy and there was no significant difference between the effects of antifungals on mortality (n: 65 (39.9%) vs. 98 (60.1%), P=0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis and concurrent bacteremia are strong predictors of mortality in 30 days within patients with candidemia, whereas follow-up blood cultures have a protective role with lower mortality rates. In our study, the most important source of candidemia was catheter, and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent. The catheter was removed in almost all patients and the mortality rate was almost one third among these patients.


Assuntos
Candidemia/etiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 403-408, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite progress in hospital care, infections continue to represent one of the major complications among hospitalised patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiology and incidence of hospital-acquired infections and their associated risk factors following neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from October 2013 to September 2014. Data including demographics, hospitalisation period, type of operation and primary diagnosis were collected. Post-surgical infections were confirmed microbiologically. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 23 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among a total of 1 688 patients who underwent neurosurgical operations, the incidence of post-surgical infections was 4.2% per year. Post-surgical infections were significantly associated with craniotomy (p<0.0001), prolonged stay in hospital (≥30 days) (p=0.008), and patient age ≥35 years (p=0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen (19.7%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.7%). A total of 42.9% of S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), but all these isolates were susceptible to vancomycin; 44.4% of K. pneumoniae isolates were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive, but were susceptible to carbapenems, piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin. CONCLUSIONS: Post-surgical infections remain an important problem in neurosurgery. Increased resistance to causative pathogens is a major concern.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal/efeitos adversos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 452, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are the most frequent complications in patients with malignancy, and the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among cancer patients has changed over time. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics, antibiotic resistance patterns, and prognosis of nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed cancer patients with nosocomial infections caused by MDR from August 2013 to May 2019. The extracted clinical data were recorded in a standardized form and compared based on the survival status of the patients after infection and during hospitalization. The data were analyzed using independent samples t-test, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: One thousand eight patients developed nosocomial infections during hospitalization, with MDR strains detected in 257 patients. Urinary tract infection (38.1%), respiratory tract infection (26.8%), and bloodstream infection (BSI) (12.5%) were the most common infection types. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) (72.8%) members were the most frequently isolated MDR strains, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (11.7%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6.2%). The results of multivariate regression analysis revealed that smoking history, intrapleural/abdominal infusion history within 30 days, the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter, length of hospitalization, and hemoglobin were independent factors for in-hospital mortality in the study population. The isolated MDR bacteria exhibited high rates of sensitivity to amikacin, meropenem, and imipenem. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of nosocomial infections due to MDR bacteria is considerably high in oncological patients, with ESBL-PE being the most predominant causative pathogen. Our findings suggest that amikacin and carbapenems actively against more than 89.7% of MDR isolates. The precise management of MDR bacterial infections in cancer patients may improve the prognosis of these individuals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was done to assess the etiology and infectious complications of CVC in children on long term hemodialysis. METHODS: Children newly undergoing hemodialysis and having indwelling CVC were included. They were followed up to a period of 2-years to assess infectious complications. Catheter bundle care approach was employed to prevent infections and other complications. Automated culture from the central catheter and peripheral vein and 2D echocardiography were done in each hemodialysis. Serial procalcitonin (PCT) was measured. Differential time of positivity (DTP) was used to detect CLABSI. During homestay in weekly telephone conversations were done to assess features of infection, and whenever having, we have asked to admit to the tertiary care unit. Logistic regression was performed, and the significant outcome variable was considered following multivariable analysis as a risk factor. RESULTS: Blood cultures were positive in 1090 (74.5%) out of 1462 children. According to DTP, 410 (28%) were having CLABSI, while 520 (35.6%) were having bacteremia without CLABSI. Out of 410 CLABSI patients, 79 (19.2%) were asymptomatic. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) bacteremia was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI. Right-sided infective endocarditis (RS-IE) was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia without CLABSI. CoNS was associated significantly in RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia. PCT was in asymptomatic CLABSI was 1.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL while in symptomatic CLABSI was 11.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml (P = 0.02). CoNS bloodstream infection, tunneled CVC, peripherally inserted central catheter, femoral site, the number of line days > 90, receipt of vancomycin, meropenem, or linezolid in the 5 days before CLABSI diagnosis and recurrent bacteremia were risk factors for asymptomatic CLABSI. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic CLABSI could be a rare occurrence. CoNS was predominantly isolated in patients with asymptomatic CLABSI. RS- IE is a well-known complication in long term indwelling CVC. CoNS was significantly associated with RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI. Regular procalcitonin, microbiological, and imaging studies would be essential to detect infectious complications in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients implanted with long term indwelling CVCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 539, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports have described deep-seated infections. Virulence factors remain poorly known, although, genomic analysis highlights pathogenic potential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus spondylodiscitis that followed kyphoplasty, a procedure associated with a low rate but possible severe infectious complication (0.46%), and have reviewed the literature. This case specifically stresses the risk of healthcare-associated S. saccharolyticus infection in high-risk patients (those with a history of alcoholism and heavy smoking). CONCLUSION: S. saccharolyticus infection is difficult to diagnose due to microbiological characteristics of this bacterium; it requires timely treatment, and improved infection control procedure should be encouraged for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Torácicas/microbiologia , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21051, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664118

RESUMO

Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is one of the major types of infection in hospitalized patients. The development of AB resistance is becoming a global clinical challenge. To assist in the clinical management of AB-induced pneumonia, we designed the present retrospective observational study to investigate the risk factors for antimicrobial drug-resistant/-sensitive AB infections.A total of 214 individuals were reviewed, in which 100 and 55 pneumonia patients were infected with drug-resistant and drug-sensitive AB, respectively. Fifty-nine pneumonia patients without AB infection served as a control group. Age, sex, duration of hospital stay, prior surgery history, the presence of coinfection and companion diseases, routine blood test results, and immunogenicity were recorded. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors of AB infections.Multivariate analysis revealed that long duration of hospital stay (odds ratio = 1.091 [95% CI: 1.010-1.178], P = .027) and the absence of coinfection (odds ratio = 0.507 [95% CI: 0.265-0.970], P = .040) were independent risk factors for AB infections. Same pattern of risk factors was identified for the drug-sensitive group (long duration of hospital stay: odds ratio = 1.119 [95% CI: 1.016-1.232], P = .022; absence of coinfection: odds ratio = 0.328 [95% CI: 0.135-0.797], P = .014), while high blood urea nitrogen (odds ratio: 1.382 [95% CI: 1.042-1.833], P = .025) was the only significant risk factor for drug-resistant AB infection.Long duration of hospital stay and the absence of coinfection might predict AB infections in hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial drug-resistant and drug-sensitive AB infections possess different risk factor profiles. A poor kidney function may be predictive of drug-resistant AB infection. Further prospective studies are required to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coinfecção , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235771, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658912

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus commonly causes catheter-related bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hospital settings, and occasionally occurs fatal central nervous system (CNS) complications. B. cereus harboring Ba813, a specific chromosomal marker of Bacillus anthracis, has been found in patients with severe infection and nosocomial BSI. However, the bacteriological profile and clinical feature of Ba813 (+) B. cereus are unclear. Fifty-three patients with B. cereus BSI were examined. Isolates were evaluated for Ba813, B. anthracis-related and food poisoning-related virulence, multilocus sequencing typing, and biofilm formation. Patients' clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. The 53 isolates were comprised of 29 different sequence types in two distinct clades. Seventeen of the 53 (32%) B. cereus isolates including five sequence types possessed Ba813 and were classified into Clade-1/Cereus-III lineage which is most closely related to Anthracis lineage. No B. cereus possessed B. anthracis-related virulence genes. Ba813 (+) strains showed a lower prevalence of enterotoxin genes than Clade-2 strains (n = 4), but no difference from Clade-1. Ba813 (+) strains showed significantly lower biofilm formation than Clade-1/non-Cereus-III (n = 22) and Clade-2 strains, respectively. Compared to Clade-1/non-Cereus-III and Clade-2 B. cereus, Ba813 (+) strains were isolated more frequently from elderly patients, patients with indwelling central venous catheter rather than peripheral venous catheter, and patients who remained in the hospital for longer before BSI onset. No significant differences in disease severity or mortality were observed. Though two of the ten Ba813 (-) strains in Clade-1/Cereus III were isolated from the patients with CNS complication, no significant difference was observed in the bacterial profile and clinical characteristics among Clade-1/Cereus III strains. In conclusion, our report suggested that Ba813-harboring B. cereus strains, genetically closely related to B. anthracis, were abundant among B. cereus strains in the hospital setting, and might cause catheter-related nosocomial BSI. However, it did not affect the clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacillaceae/microbiologia , Bacillus anthracis/genética , Bacillus cereus/genética , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Bacillaceae/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 676-681, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery (CRS) remains a significant problem for its negative clinical outcomes. However, it is poorly understood in China. This study aims to investigate the incidence, risk factors and microbiology of SSI after CRS. METHODS: A nationwide prospective multicenter design was applied. Patients in 19 Chinese hospitals from 2015 to 2018 were prospectively monitored for SSI after CRS. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 3,663 study participants, 134(3.66%) episodes of SSI were identified. The incidence rate of SSI decreased from 5.9 infections per 100 procedures in 2015 to 3.1 infections per 100 procedures in 2018 (incidence rate ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.94). The SSI rates were 1.88, 4.15, 6.27 and 11.58 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS) risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. Escherichia coli (54/134, 40.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10/134, 7.5%) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. A high prevalence of antibiotic resistance were observed in our study, with rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing or carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia of 50.0%(27/54) and 30.0%(3/10) respectively. Preoperative hospital stay ≥ 48h (OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.03-5.02, P=0.042) and contaminated or dirty wound (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.88-6.06, P=4.50×10-5) were significantly associated with increasing risk of SSI after CRS. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant but modest decrease in the incidence rate of CRS SSI over the 4-year study period was observed in this study. Noticeably, the relatively high rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens causing SSI after CRS should be alert, while more studies with large population are needed due to the small number of isolates identified in our survey.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
16.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 663-679, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505259

RESUMO

Hospital-acquired infections increase cost, morbidity, and mortality for patients across the United States and the world. Principal among these infections are central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, Clostridioides difficile, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infections. This article provides succinct summaries of the background, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these conditions. In addition, novel prevention strategies, including those related to recent national interventions, are reviewed.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/terapia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/terapia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492060

RESUMO

Several studies have shown the ubiquitous presence of bacteria in hospital surfaces, staff, and patients. Frequently, these bacteria are related to HAI (healthcare-associated infections) and carry antimicrobial resistance (AMR). These HAI-related bacteria contribute to a major public health issue by increasing patient morbidity and mortality during or after hospital stay. Bacterial high-throughput amplicon gene sequencing along with identification of AMR genes, as well as whole genome sequencing (WGS), are biotechnological tools that allow multiple-sample screening for a diversity of bacteria. In this paper, we used these methods to perform a one-year cross sectional profiling of bacteria and AMR genes in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and NICU) in a Brazilian public, tertiary hospital. Our results showed high abundances of HAI-related bacteria such as S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii complex, E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. aeruginosa in patients and hospital surfaces. Most abundant AMR genes detected throughout ICU and NICU were mecA, blaCTX-M-1 group, blaSHV-like, and blaKPC-like. We found that NICU environment and patients were more widely contaminated with pathogenic bacteria than ICU. Patient samples, despite the higher bacterial load, have lower bacterial diversity than environmental samples in both units. Finally, we also identified contamination hotspots in the hospital environment showing constant frequencies of bacterial and AMR contamination throughout the year. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), 16S rRNA oligotypes, and AMR identification allowed a high-resolution characterization of the hospital microbiome profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0228234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589639

RESUMO

A major issue in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is "de-duplication" or removal of repeated isolates, for which there exist multiple methods. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) requires de-duplication by selecting only the first isolate of a given bacterial species per patient per surveillance period per specimen type per age group, gender, and infection origin stratification. However, no study on the comparative application of this method has been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in data tabulation between the WHO GLASS and the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) system, which counts both patients and isolates after removing repeated isolates of the same bacterial species isolated from a patient within 30 days, regardless of specimen type, but distinguishing isolates with change of antimicrobial resistance phenotype. All bacterial data, consisting of approximately 8 million samples from 1795 Japanese hospitals in 2017 were exported from the JANIS database, and were tabulated using either the de-duplication algorithm of GLASS, or JANIS. We compared the tabulated results of the total number of patients whose blood and urine cultures were taken and of the percentage of resistant isolates of Escherichia coli for each priority antibiotic. The number of patients per specimen type tabulated by the JANIS method was always smaller than that of GLASS. There was a small (< 3%) difference in the percentage of resistance of E. coli for any antibiotic between the two methods in both out- and inpatient settings and blood and urine isolates. The two tabulation methods did not show considerable differences in terms of the tabulated percentages of resistance for E. coli. We further discuss how the use of GLASS tabulations to create a public software and website that could help to facilitate the understanding of and treatment against AMR.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Sangue/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urina/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 411, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug resistant pathogens known as the ESKAPE pathogens, along with C. difficile, are the leading causes of HAIs. Interactions between patients, healthcare workers, and environmental conditions impact disease transmission. Studying pathogen transfer under varying contact scenarios in a controlled manner is critical for understanding transmission and disinfectant strategies. In lieu of human subject research, this method has the potential to contribute to modeling the routes of pathogen transmission in healthcare settings. METHODS: To overcome these challenges, we have developed a method that utilizes a synthetic skin surrogate to model both direct (skin-to-skin) and indirect (skin-to fomite-to skin) pathogen transfer between infected patients and healthy healthcare workers. This surrogate material includes a background microbiome community simulating typical human skin flora to more accurately mimic the effects of natural flora during transmission events. RESULTS: We demonstrate the ability to modulate individual bacterial concentrations within this microbial community to mimic bacterial concentrations previously reported on the hands of human subjects. We also explore the effect of various decontamination approaches on pathogen transfer between human subjects, such as the use of handwashing or surface disinfectants. Using this method, we identify a potential outlier, S. aureus, that may persist and retain viability in specific transfer conditions better than the overall microbial community during decontamination events. CONCLUSIONS: Our work describes the development of an in vitro method that uses a synthetic skin surrogate with a defined background microbiota to simulate skin-to-skin and skin-to fomite-to skin contact scenarios. These results illustrate the value of simulating a holistic microbial community for transfer studies by elucidating differences in different pathogen transmission rates and resistance to common decontamination practices. We believe this method will contribute to improvements in pathogen transmission modeling in healthcare settings and increase our ability to assess the risk associated with HAIs, although additional research is required to establish the degree of correlation of pathogen transmission by skin or synthetic alternatives.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Clostridium difficile , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fômites/microbiologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579600

RESUMO

Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) are an important cause of nosocomial infections, which are rapidly transmitted in hospitals. To identify possible transmission routes, we applied combined genomics and contact-network modeling to retrospectively evaluate routine VRE screening data generated by the infection control program of a hemato-oncology unit. Over 1 year, a total of 111 VRE isolates from 111 patients were collected by anal swabs in a tertiary care hospital in Southern Germany. All isolated VRE were whole-genome sequenced, followed by different in-depth bioinformatics analyses including genotyping and determination of phylogenetic relations, aiming to evaluate a standardized workflow. Patient movement data were used to overlay sequencing data to infer transmission events and strain dynamics over time. A predominant clone harboring vanB and exhibiting genotype ST117/CT469 (n = 67) was identified. Our comprehensive combined analyses suggested intra-hospital spread, especially of clone ST117/CT469, despite of extensive screening, single room placement, and contact isolation. A new interactive tool to visualize these complex data was designed. Furthermore, a patient-contact network-modeling approach was developed, which indicates both the periodic import of the clone into the hospital and its spread within the hospital due to patient movements. The analyzed spread of VRE was most likely due to placement of patients in the same room prior to positivity of screening. We successfully demonstrated the added value for this combined strategy to extract well-founded knowledge from interdisciplinary data sources. The combination of patient-contact modeling and high-resolution typing unraveled the transmission dynamics within the hospital department and, additionally, a constant VRE influx over time.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus faecium/classificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/fisiologia
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