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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17315, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568018

RESUMO

Early differential diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by different sources and species of bacteria in hospitalized patients is crucial for the timely targeted interventions including appropriate use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify 9 biomarkers for the early differentiation of gram-negative-bloodstream infection (GN-BSI), gram-positive (GP)-BSI, and fungal-BSI.A prospective study was conducted for a total of 390 inpatients who underwent blood culture in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from September 2015 to March 2018. Patients with positive culture of a single pathogen were divided into GN-BSI, GP-BSI, and Fungal-BSI groups, and a culture-negative disease control group was also established. The serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß (MIP-1ß), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-3, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, IL-4, IL-12p70, and P-selectin were detected and the NLR was calculated from routine blood test. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the efficacy of various indicators in the differential diagnosis of BSIs. Prediction and validation experiments on clinical patient samples (263 cases) were also performed.The level of IL-3 in the GP-BSI group was significantly higher than those in the other 3 groups. The level of IFN-γ in the fungal-BSI group was significantly higher than those in the other 3 groups. NLR, MIP-1ß, TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL3 exhibited some efficacy when distinguishing between GN-BSI and GP-BSI and NLR had the largest area under curve (AUC) (0.728), followed by MIP-1ß with an AUC of 0.679. IFN-γ and IL-3 exhibited some value in differential diagnosis between GN-BSI and Fungal-BSI. IL-3, MIP-1ß, TNF-α, IFN-γ, NLR, IL-17A, and IL-4 exhibited some value in distinguishing fungal-BSI and GP-BSI, with IL-3 had the largest AUC (0.722), followed by MIP-1ß with an AUC of 0.703.NLR and MIP-1ß may be valuable in differentiating GN-BSI from GP-BSI in hospitalized patients. IFN-γ and IL-3 may be helpful in differential diagnosis GN-BSI and fungal-BSI. IL-3 and MIP-1ß exhibited some diagnostic efficacy in distinguishing fungal-BSI and GP-BSI. Additionally, IL-3 with high serum level may be a marker for GP-BSI and IFN-γ with high serum level may be a valuable marker for the prediction of Fungal-BSI. The utility of these biomarkers to predict BSIs owing to different pathogens in hospitalized patients needs to be assessed in further studies.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Quimiocina CCL4/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-3/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Micoses/diagnóstico , Proteínas NLR/sangue , Selectina-P/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/sangue , Micoses/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1622-1628, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596198

RESUMO

Introduction. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important health issue and the detection of tuberculosis (TB) cases is the main tool for controlling this disease.Aim. We aimed to assess the possible occurrence of nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis in a reference hospital for HIV/AIDS patients and evaluate both the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) platform and drug resistance profiles.Methodology. We evaluated the performance of the Xpert platform. Samples that tested positive on the BACTEC MGIT 320 (MGIT320) platform were submitted for genotyping and drug susceptibility testing.Results. In this study, pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples from 407 patients were evaluated, and among these, 15.5 % were diagnosed with TB by the MGIT320 platform, with a TB/HIV coinfection rate of 52.4 %. The Xpert platform gave positive results for TB for 11 samples with negative results on the MGIT320 platform. In the genotyping results, 53.3 % of the strains clustered; of these strains, half were in two of the four clusters formed, and the patients had visited the hospital on the same day. Drug resistance was observed in 11.7 % of the strains.Conclusion. Putative nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis was detected, showing that genotyping is a powerful approach for understanding the dynamics of M. tuberculosis transmission, especially in a high-burden TB and HIV landscape.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Filogenia , Tuberculose , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1585-1590, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647400

RESUMO

Purpose. Acute bacterial meningitis continues to be a potentially life threatening condition. Hospital-acquired meningitis is rapidly increasing and adding an immense burden to the health system due to the emergence of multidrug resistance isolates. The purpose of this study is to find the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacteria detected from hospital- and community-acquired meningitis.Methodology. A total of 400 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the suspected meningitis cases were collected and processed for cell count, biochemical examination, Gram staining, latex agglutination and culture. Bacteria grown on blood, chocolate and Mac-conkey agar were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.Results. Of the isolates, most prevalent Gram negative organisms in hospital-acquired bacterial meningitis were Escherichia coli 13 (27.08 %), Acinetobacter baumannii 12 (25 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae 5 (10.42 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 (8.33 %) and Gram positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus 4 (8.33 %), Enterococcus faecium 3 (6.25 %) and CONS 2 (4.16 %). Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 (6.25 %) was the predominant organism in community-acquired bacterial meningitis. All the Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistance. Only colistin and imipenem were effective antibiotics against them. Likewise Gram positive organisms were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested. However, E. faecium was only susceptible to Vanco+Teicoplanin.Conclusion. In hospital-acquired bacterial meningitis, multidrug resistance Gram negative bacteria are a huge challenge for the treatment of patients. Hence, antimicrobial stewardship should be followed to counteract with the emerging multidrug resistance isolates.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colistina/farmacologia , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Vancomicina/farmacologia
4.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e49, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531627

RESUMO

This manuscript reports a case of intestinal toxemia botulism in an adult with recently diagnosed metastatic colon cancer in whom botulism symptoms began 23 days after hospital admission. Representing the rarest form of botulism presentation in clinical practice, this infectious disease may have developed due to a cluster of predisposing factors that favored Clostridium botulinum colonization and the endogenous production of neurotoxins, among which are previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and colon changes related to the development of the neoplasia. This case highlights the importance of considering intestinal toxemia botulism in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, since immediate treatment with botulinum antitoxin may improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Botulismo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Toxemia/diagnóstico , Botulismo/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Toxemia/complicações
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190205, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria surveillance (MDR) systems are used to identify the epidemiology of MDR bacteria in neonates and children. This study aimed to describe the patterns by which MDR bacteria colonize and infect neonatal (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed using electronic data on NICU and PICU patients reported to the Rio de Janeiro State MDR bacteria surveillance system. All healthcare institutions that reported at least one case during the study period were included. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 10,210 MDR bacteria cases, including 9261 colonizations and 949 infections, were reported. Among the colonizations, 5379 occurred in NICUs and 3882 in PICUs, while 405 infections occurred in NICUs and 544 in PICUs. ESBL producing Klebsiella sp and E. coli were the most reported colonization-causing agents in NICUs (1983/5379, 36.9%) and PICUs (1494/3882; 38.5%). The main causing bacteria reported in catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in NICUs were Klebsiella sp and E.coli (56/156, 35.9%), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) (22/65, 33.9%), and CRGNB (11/36, 30.6%) respectively, while in PICUs, they were MRSA (53/169, 31.4%), CRGNB (50/87, 57.4%), Klebsiella sp and E.coli (18/52, 34.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MDR Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant bacteria) were the most reported agents among MDR bacteria reported to Rio de Janeiro surveillance system. Except for CLABSI in children, they caused all device-associated infections in NICUs and PICUs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522665

RESUMO

From 1 January to 31 December 2017, 36 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2017 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 2,515 S. aureus bacteraemia episodes were reported, of which 77% were community-onset. Approximately one in five S. aureus (19.0%) were methicillin resistant. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 18.7% which was significantly higher than the 14.0% mortality associated with methicillin-susceptible SAB. With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was rare. However in addition to the ß-lactams approximately 42% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 14% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the EUCAST breakpoints teicoplanin resistance was detected in five S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to two healthcare-associated MRSA clones: ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Australia. Seventy-five percent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated clones. Although polyclonal approximately 74% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA), ST5-IV [2B], ST45-VT [5C2&5] and ST1-IV [2B]. CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. ST45-VT [5C2&5] accounted for 12.8% of CA-MRSA. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important antimicrobial resistance patterns in community- and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1540-1543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483245

RESUMO

Four group A streptococcus (GAS) bacteraemia occurred in a small burn unit within 2 weeks. The GAS patient isolates, characterized as emm89, shared the same PFGE pulsotype with two other strains isolated 2 months later. The outbreak investigation revealed that a nurse was the most likely source of GAS transmission, as she was confirmed to carry the same outbreak strain in her throat and had direct and regular contact with the six outbreak patients in the unit. The outbreak was controlled after the nurse had undergone eradication treatment. This report highlights the emergence of the emm89 clone and its capacity to elicit invasive GAS outbreaks.


Assuntos
Unidades de Queimados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/classificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Life ; 12(2): 128-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406513

RESUMO

Aspergillus species (sp.) that causes opportunistic infections have been increasingly found in human mainly immunosuppressive patients around the world every year. The main objective was to use a rapid and cheap molecular method for monitoring Aspergillus infections and epidemiological approaches. In order to identity Aspergilli species (spp.), a number of molecular methods including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) have been employed in accordance with ribosomal RNA amplification. The focus of this study - a group of hospitalized patients with clinical and subclinical signs of infection. All of the collected clinical specimens were transported to the medical mycology lab and examined for Aspergillus identification. The environmental specimens were collected from air and surfaces inspected for the Aspergillus within the hospital sources. At first, growth characteristics and microscopic features on mycological media for the identification of Aspergillus sp. were performed. For the confirmation of Aspergillus isolates which similarly found in clinical and environmental sources, molecular method polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism was carried out. From the mentioned specimens, 102 fungal isolates included Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. and other fungi. Aspergillus flavus (47%), Aspergillus fumigatus (29.4%) and Aspergillus niger (23.5%) all were found as the most common clinical isolates. In addition, Aspergillus isolates from environmental were Aspergillus niger (43.7%), Aspergillus flavus (41.7%), Aspergillus fumigatus (14.6%). Therefore, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism with a single restriction enzyme can be very useful in the identification of Aspergillus spp., because of its facility in use, speed, robust, and high sensitivity of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus/fisiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Hospitais Universitários , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
9.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 68(2): 99-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398983

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of multiresistant bacterial strains is currently a serious health concern. These pathogens are often the cause of nosocomial infections with limited treatment options and high fatality rates. A case report is presented of an uncommon detection of four different species (Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Morganella morganii) producing the same type of carbapenemase, KPC-2, in a female patient during her complicated long-term hospital stay. Resistance was probably spread to other species by horizontal transmission of plasmids carrying the blaKPC-2 genes. The implementation of strict anti-epidemic measures prevented further spread of these carbapenem-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas , Infecção Hospitalar , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303935

RESUMO

Introduction: Superbugs are pathogenic micro-organism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: One hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (NIs) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that acinetobacter were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem. Conclusion: Superbugs (Acinetobacter species) significantly contributed to delayed hospital admissions through observed 100% resistance to used antibiotics. The healthcare managers of these hospitals and the ministry of health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 603, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection. METHODS: From August 2015 to December 2017, 172 pathogenic bacterial strains from patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection in our hospital were identified, and the drug sensitivity was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 172 strains of pathogenic bacteria, gram negative bacteria was the main cause of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with acute cerebral infarction, accounting for 75.6% of all pathogens. Furthermore, 80% of diabetic patients with cerebral infarction had lung infection induced by gram negative bacteria, which was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic patients (72.2%). Moreover, the drug resistance rate in the diabetic group (68.3%) was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group (54.3%). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 19.1% of all pathogenic bacteria. The infection rate of gram-positive bacteria in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction was 14.7%, which was lower than that in the non-diabetic group (22.6%). The drug-resistance rate was higher in the diabetic group (45.5%) than in the non-diabetic group (28.2%). Furthermore, the fungal infection rate in patients with lung infection in these two groups was 5.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and fungi presented with high sensitivity to commonly used antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection, the majority of pathogens are multidrug-resistant gram negative bacilli. Pathogen culture should be conducted as soon as possible before using antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents should be reasonably used according to drug sensitivity test results.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 629, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections and persistence of multidrug resistant biofilm forming Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals has made it as a serious problem in healthcare settings worldwide. METHODS: A total of 100 A. baumannii clinical isolates from immunocompromised patients hospitalized in ICU were investigated for biofilm formation, the presence of biofilm related genes (bap, ompA, csuE, fimH, epsA, blaPER-1, bfmS, ptk, pgaB, csgA, kpsMII), integron characterization and molecular typing based on REP-PCR. RESULTS: All isolates were resistant to three or more categories of antibiotics and considered as multidrug resistant (MDR). A total of 32 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics and 91% were extensively drug-resistance (XDR). All isolates were able to produce biofilm and 58% of isolates showed strong ability to biofilm formation. All strong biofilm forming A. baumannii isolates were XDR. All A. baumannii isolates carried at least one biofilm related gene. The most prevalent gene was csuE (100%), followed by pgaB (98%), epsA and ptk (95%), bfmS (92%) and ompA (81%). 98% of isolates carried more than 4 biofilm related genes, simultaneously. Class I integron (67%) was more frequent in comparison with class II (10%) (P < 0.05). The REP-PCR patterns were classified as 8 types (A-H) and 21 subtypes. The A1 (23%) and C1 (15%) clusters were the most prevalent among A. baumannii isolates (P < 0.05). According to the REP-PCR patterns, 23% of all isolates had a clonal relatedness. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the high frequency of biofilm forming XDR A. baumannii in ICU patients, with a high prevalence of biofilm related genes of csuE and pgaB. It seems that the appropriate surveillance and control measures are essential to prevent the emergence and transmission of XDR A. baumannii in our country.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Irã (Geográfico) , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Virulência
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15801, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169679

RESUMO

To evaluate 30-day mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and non-HIV patients who acquired a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) while in an intensive care unit (ICU), and to describe the epidemiological and microbiological features of HAI in a population with HIV.This was a retrospective cohort study that evaluated patients who acquired HAI during their stay in an Infectious Diseases ICU from July 2013 to December 2017 at a teaching hospital in Brazil.Data were obtained from hospital infection control committee reports and medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and a multivariate model was used to evaluate risk factors associated with 30-day mortality. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of HAI in HIV and non-HIV patients and 30-day mortality were also evaluated.Among 1045 patients, 77 (25 HIV, 52 non-HIV) patients acquired 106 HAI (31 HIV, 75 non-HIV patients). HIV patients were younger (45 vs 58 years, P = .002) and had more respiratory distress than non-HIV patients (60.0% vs 34.6%, P = .035). A high 30-day mortality was observed and there was no difference between groups (HIV, 52.0% vs non-HIV, 54.9%; P = .812). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was more frequent in the HIV group compared with the non-HIV group (45.2% vs 26.7%, P = .063), with a predominance of Gram-negative organisms. Gram-positive agents were the most frequent cause of catheter associated-bloodstream infections in HIV patients. Although there was a high frequency of HAI caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), no difference was observed between the groups (HIV, 77.8% vs non-HIV, 64.3%; P = .214). Age was the only independent factor associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.1, P = .017), while diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 0.84-15.8, P = .085) and the Sequential Organ-Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37, P = .071) had a tendency to be associated with death.HIV infection was not associated with a higher 30-day mortality in critical care patients with a HAI. Age was the only independent risk factor associated with death. VAP was more frequent in HIV patients, probably because of the higher frequency of respiratory conditions at admission, with a predominance of Gram-negative organisms.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 85: 195-202, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) usually has its onset in the community (CO-IPD), but it can commence following hospitalization (HO-IPD). This study compared HO-IPD and CO-IPD cases during the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) program for children in Israel. METHODS: This was a nationwide retrospective cohort study of adult (age >18 years) IPD patients covering the period from the implementation of the PCV7/13 program in 2009/2010 through 2015. HO-IPD and CO-IPD were defined as IPD with onset ≥4 and ≤2 days from admission, respectively. Patient characteristics, outcome measures, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility were compared for the entire cohort, followed by a matched case-control analysis. RESULTS: The study included 114 patients with HO-IPD and 2180 with CO-IPD. After matching HO-IPD to CO-IPD patients by age, sex, and comorbidities, the mortality rate and discharge to long-term care facility rate were significantly higher for HO-IPD patients than for CO-IPD patients (44.6% vs. 26.3% and 26.5% vs. 8.2%, respectively). HO-IPD isolates were less often covered by PCV13 (39.6% vs. 49.0%) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine PPSV23 (56.6% vs. 71.3%) and more often resistant to penicillin (9.3% vs. 3.6%), ceftriaxone (3.8% vs. 0.75%), and levofloxacin (9.3% vs. 0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: HO-IPD was associated with higher morbidity and mortality than CO-IPD and was more often caused by non-vaccine serotypes (primarily non-PCV13 types) and antibiotic-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Vacina Pneumocócica Conjugada Heptavalente , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
15.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 198-203, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236975

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is related to nosocomial infections, and it tends to become resistant during or after antimicrobial treatment. The ability to develop carbapenems resistance makes it difficult to treat. P. aeruginosa infections are often associated with high mortality, morbidity and treatment costs. A group of Chinese experts drafted a consensus for treatment of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) including extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDR-PA). In this study, we studied the antibacterial activities of different antibiotic combinations against six carbapenems-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) strains in vitro, and the results indicated that the combination of ceftazidime with cefoperazone-sulbatam was the best combination with excellent synergistic rate (100%). Besides, some combinations exhibited better effects than using antibiotics alone, reducing the MICs of both drugs significantly, such as ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and ceftazidime/aztreonam etc. However, there are also some combinations that showed no additional or synergistic effects, suggesting that not all combinations recommended by the guideline have the same effect against resistant P. aeruginosa. Our study screened out some effective combinations against six CRPA strains which might help to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through improving antibiotic effectiveness. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study measured the synergistic interactions between various antibiotics in vitro recommended by Chinese consensus statement against carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of this study provide valuable evidence that some combinations may be a promising option for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Aztreonam/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Cefoperazona/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , China , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico
16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(2): 134-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103436

RESUMO

This study characterized 30 MRSA isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) environment and equipment surfaces and healthy children. The SCCmec types I, IVa and V were detected in HA-MRSA isolates while CA-MRSA showed the SCCmec type IVa and V. Most isolates were classified as agr group II. All isolates presented the sei gene, and only HA-MRSA were positive for etb e tst genes. Three genotypes were related to Pediatric (ST5/SCCmecIV) and Berlin (ST45/SCCmecIV) clones. The present study showed molecular similarity between CA- and HA-MRSA isolates in hospital and community settings in a Brazilian region.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/isolamento & purificação
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 5(21): 303-307, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the widespread use of antifungal agents, the frequency of non-albicans Candida (NAC) blood-stream infections (BSI) is increasing. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for NAC BSI, focusing on prior antifungal and immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: The authors conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study among adult patients with candidemia at the Rambam Health Care Campus, a tertiary medical center in Israel, between 2009 and 2015. Comparisons between patients with Candidemia albicans and NAC candidemia were performed. Regression analysis, with NAC BSI as the dependent variable and significant risk factors for NAC as independent variables, was performed. RESULTS: A total of 308 episodes of candidemia were included. C. albicans was isolated in 30.8% of patients (95/308), while NAC spp. were isolated in the rest. Significant independent risk factors for NAC included immunosuppression therapy (odds ratio [OR] 0.38, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.19-0.76) and previous azole use (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.06-0.710). The interaction between prior azole and immunosuppression therapy in the model was not significant, and after its inclusion in the model only immunosuppression remained significantly associated with NAC. In the subgroup of patients who did not receive prior azoles, immunosuppression therapy, neutropenia, and bone marrow transplantation were significantly associated with NAC. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of previous azole treatment, immunosuppressive therapy was a significant risk factor for NAC in our cohort.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Candida , Candidemia , Candidíase , Infecção Hospitalar , Idoso , Antifúngicos/classificação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/microbiologia , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 416, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of hospitalized patients may have benefit in reducing hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSIs). However, the magnitude of effect, implementation fidelity, and patient-centered outcomes are unclear. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of CHG bathing on prevention of HABSIs and assessed fidelity to implementation of this behavioral intervention. METHODS: We undertook a meta-analysis by searching Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane's CENTRAL registry from database inception through January 4, 2019 without language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized trials and quasi-experimental studies that evaluated the effect of CHG bathing versus a non-CHG comparator for prevention of HABSIs in any adult healthcare setting. Studies of pediatric patients, of pre-surgical CHG use, or without a non-CHG comparison arm were excluded. Outcomes of this study were HABSIs, patient-centered outcomes, such as patient comfort during the bath, and implementation fidelity assessed through five elements: adherence, exposure or dose, quality of the delivery, participant responsiveness, and program differentiation. Three authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality; a random-effects model was used. RESULTS: We included 26 studies with 861,546 patient-days and 5259 HABSIs. CHG bathing markedly reduced the risk of HABSIs (IRR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.68). The effect of CHG bathing was consistent within subgroups: randomized (0.67, 95% CI: 0.53-0.85) vs. non-randomized studies (0.54, 95% CI: 0.44-0.65), bundled (0.66, 95% CI: 0.62-0.70) vs. non-bundled interventions (0.51, 95% CI: 0.39-0.68), CHG impregnated wipes (0.63, 95% CI: 0.55-0.73) vs. CHG solution (0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.64), and intensive care unit (ICU) (0.58, 95% CI: 0.49-0.68) vs. non-ICU settings (0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.83). Only three studies reported all five measures of fidelity, and ten studies did not report any patient-centered outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patient bathing with CHG significantly reduced the incidence of HABSIs in both ICU and non-ICU settings. Many studies did not report fidelity to the intervention or patient-centered outcomes. For sustainability and replicability essential for effective implementation, fidelity assessment that goes beyond whether a patient received an intervention or not should be standard practice particularly for complex behavioral interventions such as CHG bathing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study registration with PROSPERO CRD42015032523 .


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 463, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication and common cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study was conducted to compare the microbiological characteristics, drug resistance, and treatment outcomes for nosocomial SBP and community-acquired SBP. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 334 patients with culture-positive SBP at Beijing Youan Hospital, China, between January 2012 and December 2016. The medical records for these patients were reviewed, and their clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 155 (46.4%) patients with nosocomial SBP and 179 (53.6%) with community-acquired SBP were included in this study. From the patients' ascitic fluids, 334 pathogenic strains, including 178 Gram-negative bacterial strains, 138 Gram-positive bacterial strains and 18 other microbial strains were isolated. E. coli was the major pathogen (24.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.0%) and Enterococcus faecium (10.5%). The proportion of Enterococcus was significantly higher in the patients with nosocomial SBP (6.1% vs. 27.7%, P < 0.001) than in the patients with community-acquired SBP. The main pathogens isolated from the nosocomial infections were significantly more resistant to the first-line recommended drug. Compared with community-acquired SBP, nosocomial SBP had a poorer outcome (36.8% vs. 24.6%; P = 0.016). The independent predictors for 30-day mortality included nosocomial infection, Child-Pugh classification, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal failure and hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens involved in SBP in the cirrhotic patients. The strains isolated from the patients with nosocomial SBP displayed higher drug resistance than those isolated from patients with community-acquired SBP. Compared with community-acquired SBP, nosocomial SBP had a poorer outcome. When choosing drug treatments, the acquisition site of infection and the local epidemiological situation should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Peritonite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 402, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been no reports regarding clinical features and molecular characteristics of childhood methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections in Taiwan. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical S. aureus isolates from patients aged < 18 years in a university-affiliated hospital in 2015. Only the first isolate from each patient was included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as community-associated (CA) or healthcare-associated (HA) by the epidemiologic criteria. All MSSA isolates were molecularly characterized. RESULTS: A total of 495 S. aureus isolates were identified, and 178 (36.0%) were MSSA. Among the 131 MSSA-infected patients enrolled, 94 (71.8%) were community-associated and 60 (45.8%) were inpatients. Patients with HA infections was significantly younger than those with CA infections (median, 15 vs. 67.5 months). The most common specimen of MSSA identified was pus or wound (73.3%). Compared to HA-MSSA, CA-MSSA isolates were significantly less frequently from sputum (6.4% vs. 27%, p = 0.001). Nineteen pulsotypes were identified. Four pulsotypes accounted for 60% of the isolates. Isolates of ST15/pulsotype F were more frequently seen in CA than in HA (p = 0.064) while isolates of ST188/pulsotype AX frequently seen in HA (p = 0.049). PVL genes were identified in 11 isolates (8.4%), nine of which were characterized as ST59/pulsotype D, same as the local endemic CA-MRSA clone. CONCLUSIONS: MSSA accounted for around one-third of childhood S. aureus infections in northern Taiwan. SSTI was the most common manifestation. The molecular characteristics of these clinical MSSA isolates were relatively diverse and had certain significant differences between CA and HA isolates.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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