Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.137
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22481, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019441

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Exposure keratopathy (EK) is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, especially those under sedation and with incomplete eyelid closure. EK can be mild punctate epithelial erosions exhibiting spontaneous recovery; rarely, severe complications including bacterial ulcers causing corneal perforation or opacity could occur. We describe a patient with pre-existing Graves' orbitopathy (GO) who developed bilateral, rapidly progressing bacterial keratitis due to EK with secondary aerosol inoculation from respiratory pathogens in ICU. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 49-year-old intubated and sedated woman who underwent urgent craniotomy was admitted to ICU. The ophthalmology department was consulted for progressive chemosis. History of poorly controlled GO was revealed based on external ocular signs, including proptosis with lid retraction, and careful ophthalmological history taking. After 2 days of ICU admission, slit lamp examination revealed large inferior corneal epithelial defects and dellen (OU). Despite prescribing gentamicin ointment and lubricants, purulent discharge with corneal infiltration and thinning (OU) was observed 2 days later. Owing to a characteristic Pseudomonas odor from her endotracheal tube, corneal and endotracheal sputum cultures were obtained, which revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. DIAGNOSIS: Pseudomonas keratitis secondary to EK INTERVENTIONS:: Topical fortified anti-Pseudomonas antibiotic eye drops with temporary tarsorrhaphy and lubricants OUTCOMES:: Despite multiple treatments, she developed enlarging descemetocele in the left eye with severe corneal stromal destruction and severe visual impairment due to central corneal scar formation in the right eye. After 2 months, the descemetocele ruptured owing to generalized tonic-clonic seizures after cranioplasty. Therefore, she underwent urgent penetrating keratoplasty in the left eye. LESSONS: GO increases ocular surface inflammation and exposure, which may exacerbate EK and subsequent complication risks. Careful monitoring and aggressive treatment through appropriate eye care regimen are required in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/etiologia , Oftalmopatia de Graves/complicações , Ceratite/etiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda
2.
Rozhl Chir ; 99(7): 293-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972146

RESUMO

The paper provides clear definitions of the basic concepts of nosocomial pneumonias. Specifically, definitions and classifications of HAP and VAP, general treatment principles and specific recommended procedures for antibiotic therapy are given as applicable in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , República Tcheca , Humanos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4522, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908144

RESUMO

A unique, protective cell envelope contributes to the broad drug resistance of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Here we use transposon insertion sequencing to identify A. baumannii mutants displaying altered susceptibility to a panel of diverse antibiotics. By examining mutants with antibiotic susceptibility profiles that parallel mutations in characterized genes, we infer the function of multiple uncharacterized envelope proteins, some of which have roles in cell division or cell elongation. Remarkably, mutations affecting a predicted cell wall hydrolase lead to alterations in lipooligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the analysis of altered susceptibility signatures and antibiotic-induced morphology patterns allows us to predict drug synergies; for example, certain beta-lactams appear to work cooperatively due to their preferential targeting of specific cell wall assembly machineries. Our results indicate that the pathogen may be effectively inhibited by the combined targeting of multiple pathways critical for envelope growth.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação
4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020017, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921713

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to assess the association among species of bacteria and to identify the presence of clusters of patients in sub intensive care unit with different profiles of infection, and to study the relationship between such profiles and patient demographics (gender, age), kind of investigations and  material used to detect the infection. The findings need to analyse a bigger amount of data in the same setting to make evident that it is constant the infection only with Escherichia coli and Staphylocossus epidemidis and a third case in which more bacteria are inlvolved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 154, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, hospitals have been forced to divert substantial resources to cope with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is unclear if this situation will affect long-standing infection prevention practices and impact on healthcare associated infections. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that occurred on a COVID-19 dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) despite intensified contact precautions during the current pandemic. Whole genome sequence-based typing (WGS) was used to investigate genetic relatedness of VRE isolates collected from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the outbreak and to compare them to environmental VRE samples. METHODS: Five VRE isolated from patients (three clinical and two screening samples) as well as 11 VRE and six vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) samples from environmental sites underwent WGS during the outbreak investigation. Isolate relatedness was determined using core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). RESULTS: WGS revealed two genotypic distinct VRE clusters with genetically closely related patient and environmental isolates. The cluster was terminated by enhanced infection control bundle strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the importance of continued adherence to infection prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent VRE transmission and healthcare associated infections.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prevenção Primária , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 597, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii presents challenges for clinical treatment and causes high mortality in children. We aimed to assess the risk factors and overall mortality for MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infected pediatric patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included 102 pediatric patients who developed MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infection in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shanghai Children's Hospital in China from December 2014 to May 2018. Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates were recovered from different specimens including blood, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, hydrothorax, and urine. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria. Clinical and biological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: 102 patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection were enrolled. The median age was 36 (9.6, 98.8) months, and there were 63 male in the case group. The overall mortality rate was 29.4%, while the Acinetobacter baumannii-associated mortality rate was 16.7% (17/102, 12 bloodstream infections, 4 meningitis and 1 intra-abdominal infection). Bloodstream infections occurred in 28 patients (27.5%), and 10 patients (9.8%) among them had central line-associated bloodstream infections (6 central venous catheters, 2 PICCs, 1 venous infusion port and 1 arterial catheter). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive in 4(3.9%) patients. 14(13.7%) patients got positive cultures in ascites and hydrothorax. Lower respiratory isolates (56/102) accounted for 54.9% of all patients. Non-survival patients appeared to have a lower NK cell activity (6.2% ± 3.61% vs. 9.15% ± 6.21%, P = 0.029), higher CD4+ T cell ratio (39.67% ± 12.18% vs. 32.66% ± 11.44%, P = 0.039),and a higher serum level of interlukin-8 (IL-8, 15.25 (1.62, 47.22)pg/mL vs. 0.1 (0.1, 22.99)pg/mL, P = 0.01) when Acinetobacter baumannii infection developed. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that high serum level of Cr (RR, 0.934, 95%CI, 0.890-0.981; P = 0.007) and high BUN/ALB level (RR, 107.893, 95%CI, 1.425-870.574; p = 0.005) were associated with high risk of mortality in MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infected patients. CONCLUSION: MDR/XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infection is a serious concern in pediatric patients with high mortality. Bloodstream and central nervous system infection accounted for high risk of death. Acute kidney injury is associated with high risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/mortalidade , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(7): e176-e179, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803988

RESUMO

Spain has been one of the most affected countries by the COVID-19 outbreak. After the high impact of the pandemic, a wide clinical spectrum of late complications associated with COVID-19 are being observed. We report a case of a severe Clostridium difficile colitis in a post-treatment and recovered COVID-19 patient. A 64-year-woman with a one-month hospital admission for severe bilateral pneumonia associated with COVID-19 and 10 days after discharge presented with diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Severe C. difficile-associated colitis is diagnosed according to clinical features and CT findings. An urgent pancolectomy was performed due to her bad response to conservative treatment. Later evolution slowly improved to recovery. C. difficile-associated colitis is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. Significant patient-related risk factors for C. difficile infection are antibiotic exposure, older age, and hospitalisation. Initial therapeutic recommendations in our country included administration broad-spectrum antibiotics to all patients with bilateral pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2. These antibiotics are strongly associated with C. difficile infection. Our patient developed a serious complication of C. difficile due to the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The appearance of late digestive symptoms in patients diagnosed and treated for COVID-19 should alert clinicians to the possibility of C. difficile infection. The updated criteria for severe colitis and severe C. difficile infection should be considered to ensure an early effective treatment for the complication.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Colite/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 539, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports have described deep-seated infections. Virulence factors remain poorly known, although, genomic analysis highlights pathogenic potential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus spondylodiscitis that followed kyphoplasty, a procedure associated with a low rate but possible severe infectious complication (0.46%), and have reviewed the literature. This case specifically stresses the risk of healthcare-associated S. saccharolyticus infection in high-risk patients (those with a history of alcoholism and heavy smoking). CONCLUSION: S. saccharolyticus infection is difficult to diagnose due to microbiological characteristics of this bacterium; it requires timely treatment, and improved infection control procedure should be encouraged for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Torácicas/microbiologia , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors for mortality in adult patients with candidemia by investigating the causative agents, underlying conditions and predisposing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data including causative Candida species, predisposing factors, and underlying conditions of candidemia patients between the years 2015-2017 were collected and the impact of these factors on mortality was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as died (died patients within 30 days of the onset of candidemia) and survived and risk factors were evaluated for each group. RESULTS: We found 163 adult candidemia cases during the study period. Overall 30-day mortality was 40.5%. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequent causative agent (49.1%). C. parapsilosis candidemia was more common in the survived group compared with the died group (n: 49 (61.3%) vs. n: 31 (38.8%), P=0.888). Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with dialysis (n: 27 (69.2%) vs. n: 12 (30.8%), P<0.00) and concurrent bacteremia (n: 20 (57.1%) vs. n: 15 (42.9%), P=0.024). Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with follow-up blood cultures (n: 75 (65.8%) vs. n: 39 (34.2%), P=0.013). The most important source of candidemia was catheter (49.7%), and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent (58%). The catheter was removed in 96.3% of these patients and the mortality rate was 38.5%. All of the patients received antifungal therapy and there was no significant difference between the effects of antifungals on mortality (n: 65 (39.9%) vs. 98 (60.1%), P=0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis and concurrent bacteremia are strong predictors of mortality in 30 days within patients with candidemia, whereas follow-up blood cultures have a protective role with lower mortality rates. In our study, the most important source of candidemia was catheter, and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent. The catheter was removed in almost all patients and the mortality rate was almost one third among these patients.


Assuntos
Candidemia/etiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 452, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are the most frequent complications in patients with malignancy, and the epidemiology of nosocomial infections among cancer patients has changed over time. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics, antibiotic resistance patterns, and prognosis of nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed cancer patients with nosocomial infections caused by MDR from August 2013 to May 2019. The extracted clinical data were recorded in a standardized form and compared based on the survival status of the patients after infection and during hospitalization. The data were analyzed using independent samples t-test, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: One thousand eight patients developed nosocomial infections during hospitalization, with MDR strains detected in 257 patients. Urinary tract infection (38.1%), respiratory tract infection (26.8%), and bloodstream infection (BSI) (12.5%) were the most common infection types. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) (72.8%) members were the most frequently isolated MDR strains, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (11.7%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6.2%). The results of multivariate regression analysis revealed that smoking history, intrapleural/abdominal infusion history within 30 days, the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter, length of hospitalization, and hemoglobin were independent factors for in-hospital mortality in the study population. The isolated MDR bacteria exhibited high rates of sensitivity to amikacin, meropenem, and imipenem. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of nosocomial infections due to MDR bacteria is considerably high in oncological patients, with ESBL-PE being the most predominant causative pathogen. Our findings suggest that amikacin and carbapenems actively against more than 89.7% of MDR isolates. The precise management of MDR bacterial infections in cancer patients may improve the prognosis of these individuals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide long term hemodialysis. The commonest and the severe complication of CVC is the central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). This study was done to assess the etiology and infectious complications of CVC in children on long term hemodialysis. METHODS: Children newly undergoing hemodialysis and having indwelling CVC were included. They were followed up to a period of 2-years to assess infectious complications. Catheter bundle care approach was employed to prevent infections and other complications. Automated culture from the central catheter and peripheral vein and 2D echocardiography were done in each hemodialysis. Serial procalcitonin (PCT) was measured. Differential time of positivity (DTP) was used to detect CLABSI. During homestay in weekly telephone conversations were done to assess features of infection, and whenever having, we have asked to admit to the tertiary care unit. Logistic regression was performed, and the significant outcome variable was considered following multivariable analysis as a risk factor. RESULTS: Blood cultures were positive in 1090 (74.5%) out of 1462 children. According to DTP, 410 (28%) were having CLABSI, while 520 (35.6%) were having bacteremia without CLABSI. Out of 410 CLABSI patients, 79 (19.2%) were asymptomatic. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) bacteremia was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI. Right-sided infective endocarditis (RS-IE) was significantly associated with asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia without CLABSI. CoNS was associated significantly in RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI and asymptomatic bacteremia. PCT was in asymptomatic CLABSI was 1.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL while in symptomatic CLABSI was 11.3 ± 2.5 ng/ml (P = 0.02). CoNS bloodstream infection, tunneled CVC, peripherally inserted central catheter, femoral site, the number of line days > 90, receipt of vancomycin, meropenem, or linezolid in the 5 days before CLABSI diagnosis and recurrent bacteremia were risk factors for asymptomatic CLABSI. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic CLABSI could be a rare occurrence. CoNS was predominantly isolated in patients with asymptomatic CLABSI. RS- IE is a well-known complication in long term indwelling CVC. CoNS was significantly associated with RS-IE following asymptomatic CLABSI. Regular procalcitonin, microbiological, and imaging studies would be essential to detect infectious complications in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients implanted with long term indwelling CVCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia
13.
Respir Investig ; 58(5): 403-408, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) influenza A virus infection is a very important clinical issue. The objective of this study is to describe the effect of baloxavir marboxil in controlling an outbreak of this infection. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to assess the effectiveness of baloxavir marboxil in the treatment of nosocomial infections caused by oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus A. RESULTS: In September 2019, there was an outbreak of nosocomial influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral infection in one out of three facility wards for inpatients at the Okinawa Nanbu Regional Center for Children with Special Needs. Symptomatic staff members were kept off duty until they remained afebrile for 2 days. Prophylactic oseltamivir was administered to inpatients (n = 37) and to staff members (n = 16) who voluntarily requested the drug. However, both inpatients and staff members showed influenza A infection during prophylactic use of oseltamivir. The A(H1N1)pdm09 virus sample obtained from one patient was shown to be oseltamivir-resistant. After administration of baloxavir marboxil, the nosocomial outbreak gradually ceased. Moreover, the time (hours) to alleviation of fever in the oseltamivir group (n = 11) and baloxavir marboxil group (n = 13) was significantly different (p = 0.0034). CONCLUSION: Our report provides evidence for the usefulness of baloxavir marboxil in treating influenza A patients who have received prophylactic doses of oseltamivir. This is the first report describing the successful use of baloxavir marboxil for of a nosocomial outbreak caused by oseltamivir-resistant influenza A virus.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Oseltamivir , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiepinas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Lung Cancer ; 146: 19-22, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there are no reported series determining the Covid-19 infected lung cancer patient´s characteristics and outcome that allow us to clarify strategies to protect our patients. In our study we determine whether exists differences in cumulative incidence and severity of Covid-19 infection between lung cancer patients visiting our Medical Oncology department and the reference population of our center (320,000 people), in the current epicenter of the pandemic in Europe (Madrid, Spain). We also describe clinical and demographic factors associated with poor prognosis and Covid-19 treatment outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1878 medical records of all Covid-19 patients who were admitted at Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor of Madrid between March 5, 2020 and April 7, 2020, in order to detect cumulative incidence of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients. We also described Covid-19 treatment outcome, mortality and associated risk factors using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 17/1878 total diagnosis in our center had lung cancer (0.9 %) versus 1878/320,000 of the total reference population (p = 0.09). 9/17 lung cancer patients with Covid-19 diagnosis died (52.3 %) versus 192/1878 Covid-19 patients in our center (p < 0.0001). Dead lung cancer patients were elderly compared to survivors: 72 versus 64.5 years old (p = 0.12). Combined treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin improves the outcome of Covid-19 in lung cancer patients, detecting only 1/6 deaths between patients under this treatment versus others treatment, with statistical significance in the univariate and multivariate logistic regression (OR 0.04, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer patients have a higher mortality rate than general population. Combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment seems like a good treatment option. It is important to try to minimize visits to hospitals (without removing their active treatments) in order to decrease nosocomial transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 941-951, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514171

RESUMO

Although disinfection is key to infection control, the colonization patterns and resistomes of hospital-environment microbes remain underexplored. We report the first extensive genomic characterization of microbiomes, pathogens and antibiotic resistance cassettes in a tertiary-care hospital, from repeated sampling (up to 1.5 years apart) of 179 sites associated with 45 beds. Deep shotgun metagenomics unveiled distinct ecological niches of microbes and antibiotic resistance genes characterized by biofilm-forming and human-microbiome-influenced environments with corresponding patterns of spatiotemporal divergence. Quasi-metagenomics with nanopore sequencing provided thousands of high-contiguity genomes, phage and plasmid sequences (>60% novel), enabling characterization of resistome and mobilome diversity and dynamic architectures in hospital environments. Phylogenetics identified multidrug-resistant strains as being widely distributed and stably colonizing across sites. Comparisons with clinical isolates indicated that such microbes can persist in hospitals for extended periods (>8 years), to opportunistically infect patients. These findings highlight the importance of characterizing antibiotic resistance reservoirs in hospitals and establish the feasibility of systematic surveys to target resources for preventing infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/microbiologia , Controle de Infecções , Microbiota/genética , Leitos/microbiologia , Biofilmes , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Desinfecção , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Metagenômica , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/transmissão , Quartos de Pacientes , Singapura , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 377, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida diddensiae, a yeast found in olive oil, is considered non-pathogenic to humans. Here, we describe the first case of fungemia caused by C. diddensiae in a hospitalized patient with underlying diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman was admitted because of multiple contusions due to repeated falls and generalized weakness. She presented with chronic leukopenia due to systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple cranial nerve neuropathies due to a recurring chordoma. She was given a lipid emulsion containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting on the day of admission. Broad-spectrum antibiotics had been administered during her last hospital stay and from day 8 of this hospitalization. However, no central venous catheter was used during this hospital stay. Blood cultures obtained on hospital days 17, 23, and 24 yielded the same yeast, which was identified as C. diddensiae via sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA of the rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility testing showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of fluconazole for all isolates was 8 µg/mL. On day 23, TPN was discontinued and fluconazole therapy was started. Blood cultures obtained on day 26 were negative. The fluconazole therapy was replaced with micafungin on day 26 and the patient exhibited improvements. CONCLUSION: The use of lipid TPN may potentially contribute to the occurrence of nosocomial fungemia by C. diddensiae, an unusual Candida species.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Fluconazol/administração & dosagem , Fungemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral Total
18.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(4): 299-306, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Urological patients usually come up with risk factors for developing infections. Some of these are caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whose notable resistance rates to antibiotics and aggressiveness make its treatment a challenge in clinical practice. Our objective was to analyze Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections incidence, risk factors and features in patients admitted to a Urology Ward in a tertiary care university hospital in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study from 2012 to 2017, to review all infections in our Ward with a special focus on those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, performing a descriptive analysis and a comparison with other causative agents. RESULTS: 78 Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation were registered during this period. Having a catheter of the upper urinary tract (CUUT) or comorbidities and undergoing surgery, were frequently observed among these patients although the results did not reach statistically significant differences for more frequent isolation compared to other pathogens. Antibiotic resistance rates were high for cephalosporins (33.3%) and quinolones (50%), while carbapenems (24.4%), aztreonam (10.3%) and amikacin (23.1%) exhibited the best activity. No deaths related to the infection were registered. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly isolated in patients carrying a CUUT. An early suspicion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and knowledge of local antibiotic resistance pattern are of paramount importance for improving the outcomes and handling this worldwide problem.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Urologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serratia marcescens is an emerging pathogen that causes a variety of health care associated infections. S. marcescens is equipped with an arsenal of virulence factors such as biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities, prodigiosin, protease and others which enable it to initiate and cause the infection. These virulence factors are orchestrated under the umbrella of an intercellular communication system named Quorum sensing (QS). QS allows bacterial population to synchronize the expression of virulence genes upon detection of a chemical signaling molecule. Targeting bacterial virulence is a promising approach to attenuate bacteria and enhances the ability of immune system to eradicate the bacterial infection. Drug repurposing is an advantageous strategy that confers new applications for drugs outside the scope of their original medical use. This promising strategy offers the use of safe approved compounds, which potentially lowers the costs and shortens the time than that needed for development of new drugs. Sitagliptin is dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, is used to treat diabetes mellitus type II as it increases the production of insulin and decreasing the production of glucagon by the pancreas. We aimed in this study to repurpose sitagliptin, investigating the anti-virulence activities of sitagliptin on S. marcescens. METHODS: The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of sitagliptin on virulence factors; protease, prodigiosin, biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities was estimated phenotypically. The qRT-PCR was used to show the effect of sitagliptin on the expression of QS-regulated virulence genes. The in-vivo protective activity of sitagliptin on S. marcescens pathogenesis was evaluated on mice. RESULTS: Sitagliptin (1 mg/ml) significantly reduced the biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities, prodigiosin and protease. The qRT-PCR confirmed the effect on virulence as shown by down regulating the expression of fimA, fimC, flhC, flhD, bsmB, rssB, rsmA, pigP, and shlA genes. Moreover, the in-vivo findings showed the efficient ability of sitagliptin to weaken S. marcescens pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Sitagliptin is a promising anti-virulence agent against S. marcescens that may be beneficial in the control of healthcare associated infections caused by S. marcescens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Serratia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Serratia marcescens/patogenicidade , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 38-43, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of standard-dose (SD) daptomycin with those of high-dose (HD) daptomycin in complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) in an Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from three medical centers diagnosed with cSSTIs were screened in the clinical information system. Patients included in the analysis were divided into two groups: those who received daptomycin at doses ≥ 6 mg/kg (HD group) and those receiving 4 mg/kg (SD group). The demographics and clinical treatment information were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 155 patients were recruited, including 108 patients in the SD group and 47 patients in the HD group. The rate of healthcare-associated infections was higher in the HD group (61.70% vs. 37.04%), demonstrating a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005). Compared with the SD group, the HD group had statistically significant early clinical stabilization (72.34% vs 52.78%, P = 0.023). The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that HD daptomycin was an independent effector for early clinical stabilization (HR=0.394, P < 0.001). The rate of drug-related adverse events was equally distributed in the HD and SD groups (36.17% vs. 26.85%, P = 0.243). CONCLUSION: Compared with SD daptomycin, HD daptomycin increased the rate of early clinical stabilization in Asian patients with cSSTIs, whereas the incidence of adverse events did not increase.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Daptomicina/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Daptomicina/efeitos adversos , Daptomicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA