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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 837, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183253

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery is a frequent complication associated with the increase in morbidity, medical expenses, and mortality. To date, there is no nationwide large-scale database of SSI after colorectal surgery in China. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of SSI after colorectal surgery in China and to further evaluate the related risk factors. METHODS: Two multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional studies covering 55 hospitals in China and enrolling adult patients undergoing colorectal surgery were conducted from May 1 to June 30 of 2018 and the same time of 2019. The demographic and perioperative characteristics were collected, and the main outcome was SSI within postoperative 30 days. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to predict risk factors of SSI after colorectal surgery. RESULTS: In total, 1046 patients were enrolled and SSI occurred in 74 patients (7.1%). In the multivariate analysis with adjustments, significant factors associated with SSI were the prior diagnosis of hypertension (OR, 1.903; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.088-3.327, P = 0.025), national nosocomial infection surveillance risk index score of 2 or 3 (OR, 3.840; 95% CI, 1.926-7.658, P < 0.001), laparoscopic or robotic surgery (OR, 0.363; 95% CI, 0.200-0.659, P < 0.001), and adhesive incise drapes (OR, 0.400; 95% CI, 0.187-0.855, P = 0.018). In addition, SSI group had remarkably increased length of postoperative stays (median, 15.0 d versus 9.0d, P < 0.001), medical expenses (median, 74,620 yuan versus 57,827 yuan, P < 0.001), and the mortality (4.1% versus 0.3%, P = 0.006), compared with those of non-SSI group. CONCLUSION: This study provides the newest data of SSI after colorectal surgery in China and finds some predictors of SSI. The data presented in our study can be a tool to develop optimal preventive measures and improve surgical quality in China.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013256, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have significantly improved patient outcomes and delayed time to surgery. However, some of these therapies are recognized to increase the general risk of infection and have an unclear impact on postoperative infection risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of perioperative IBD medications on the risk of postoperative infections within 30 days of surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group's Specialized Register (29 October 2019), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2019), Embase (January 1985 to October 2019), the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception up to October 2019, and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies comparing participants treated with an IBD medication preoperatively or within 30 days postoperatively to those who were not taking that medication (either another active medication, placebo, or no treatment). We included published study reports and abstracts. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data. The primary outcome was postoperative infection within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included incisional infections and wound dehiscence, intra-abdominal infectious complications and extra-abdominal infections. Three review authors assessed risks of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We contacted authors for additional information when data were missing. For the primary and secondary outcomes, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the generic inverse variance method. When applicable, we analyzed adjusted and unadjusted data separately. We evaluated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 68 observational cohort studies (total number of participants unknown because some studies did not report the number of participants). Of these, 48 studies reported including participants with Crohn's disease, 36 reported including participants with ulcerative colitis and five reported including participants with indeterminate colitis. All 42 studies that reported urgency of surgery included elective surgeries, with 31 (74%) of those also including emergency surgeries. Twenty-four studies had low risk of bias while the rest had very high risk. Based on pooling of adjusted data, we calculated ORs for postoperative total infection rates in participants who received corticosteroids (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.09; low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.76; low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.13; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.36; low-certainty evidence). We pooled unadjusted data to assess postoperative total infection rates for the use of aminosalicylates (5-ASA) (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.14; very low-certainty evidence). One secondary outcome examined was wound-related complications in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.74; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.89; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.68; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.50; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Another secondary outcome examined the odds of postoperative intra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84; very low-certainty evidence), 5-ASA (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.33; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.12; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.82; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.20; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Lastly we checked the odds for extra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.55; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.71; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.87; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.43 to 3.08; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for corticosteroids, 5-ASA, immunomodulators, anti-TNF medications and anti-integrin medications was of low or very low certainty. The impact of these medications on postoperative infectious complications is uncertain and we can draw no firm conclusions about their safety in the perioperative period. Decisions on preoperative IBD medications should be tailored to each person's unique circumstances. Future studies should focus on controlling for potential confounding factors to generate higher-quality evidence.


Assuntos
Infecções/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/efeitos adversos , Viés , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Integrinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/induzido quimicamente , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012826, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are the fourth most common traumatic injury, causing an estimated 180,000 deaths annually worldwide. Superficial burns can be managed with dressings alone, but deeper burns or those that fail to heal promptly are usually treated surgically. Acute burns surgery aims to debride burnt skin until healthy tissue is reached, at which point skin grafts or temporising dressings are applied. Conventional debridement is performed with an angled blade, tangentially shaving burned tissue until healthy tissue is encountered. Hydrosurgery, an alternative to conventional blade debridement, simultaneously debrides, irrigates, and removes tissue with the aim of minimising damage to uninjured tissue. Despite the increasing use of hydrosurgery, its efficacy and the risk of adverse events following surgery for burns is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydrosurgical debridement and skin grafting versus conventional surgical debridement and skin grafting for the treatment of acute partial-thickness burns. SEARCH METHODS: In December 2019 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people of any age with acute partial-thickness burn injury and assessed the use of hydrosurgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and GRADE assessment of the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: One RCT met the inclusion criteria of this review. The study sample size was 61 paediatric participants with acute partial-thickness burns of 3% to 4% total burn surface area. Participants were randomised to hydrosurgery or conventional debridement. There may be little or no difference in mean time to complete healing (mean difference (MD) 0.00 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.25 to 6.25) or postoperative infection risk (risk ratio 1.33, 95% CI 0.57 to 3.11). These results are based on very low-certainty evidence, which was downgraded twice for risk of bias, once for indirectness, and once for imprecision. There may be little or no difference in operative time between hydrosurgery and conventional debridement (MD 0.2 minutes, 95% CI -12.2 to 12.6); again, the certainty of the evidence is very low, downgraded once for risk of bias, once for indirectness, and once for imprecision. There may be little or no difference in scar outcomes at six months. Health-related quality of life, resource use, and other adverse outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review contains one randomised trial of hydrosurgery versus conventional debridement in a paediatric population with low percentage of total body surface area burn injuries. Based on the available trial data, there may be little or no difference between hydrosurgery and conventional debridement in terms of time to complete healing, postoperative infection, operative time, and scar outcomes at six months. These results are based on very low-certainty evidence. Further research evaluating these outcomes as well as health-related quality of life, resource use, and other adverse event outcomes is required.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Desbridamento/métodos , Hidroterapia/métodos , Viés , Queimaduras/patologia , Criança , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Transplante de Pele , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1318-1323, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913174

RESUMO

Background: Preparation for surgery has traditionally included the removal of body hair from the intended surgical wound site. The effect of this practice on postoperative wound infection is yet to be fully elucidated. Aims: This study sought to determine if preoperative chemical depilation reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Methodology: Two methods of preoperative hair removal: razor shaving and depilatory cream were compared. The eligible patients were randomized into two groups and the presence of postoperative wound infection was evaluated using the Southampton wound grading system. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 Chicago-Illinois, statistical significance was inferred at Pvalue ≤ 0.05. Results: In total 100 patients were analyzed with 20 patients excluded due to co-morbidities and noncompletion of the study. The overall prevalence of SSI was 18.0% (7 (14.0%) and 11 (22.0%) in the depilatory cream and razor shaving groups, respectively). The difference in the rate of SSI was not statistically significant (P = 0.436). Hair was completely removed in 47 (94.0%) compared to 38 (76.0%) patients in the razor shaving group (P = 0.012) while skin injuries were noted in 21 (42.0%) vs 1 (2.0%) patients who had razor shaving and chemical depilation(P = <0.0001), respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in SSI rates in patients that had preoperative chemical depilation when compared with razor shaving.


Assuntos
Remoção de Cabelo/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Remoção de Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Restrição Física , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 390-397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panniculectomies are associated with high complication rates (43 to 70 percent), particularly in patients with obesity, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Closed-incision negative-pressure therapy can be used postoperatively to support healing by promoting angiogenesis and decreasing tension. The authors hypothesized that using it with panniculectomies would minimize complications, and that a longer duration of therapy would not increase the incidence of complications. The authors also evaluated whether closed-incision negative-pressure therapy malfunction was associated with complications. METHODS: This retrospective, uncontrolled case series analyzed 91 patients who underwent panniculectomies managed with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy performed by a single surgeon from 2014 to 2018. Patients were followed for 6 months; therapy duration and malfunction were recorded. Patients were placed into therapy duration groups (2 to 7, 8 to 10, or >10 days). Complications managed conservatively were minor and major if they required intervention. Odds ratios were performed with 95 percent confidence intervals and p values. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 225.1 days and mean closed-incision negative-pressure therapy duration was 10.5 days. Major complications were reported in five patients (5.5 percent), infections in four (4.4 percent), dehiscence in two (2.2 percent), and seroma in four (4.4 percent). Patients with malfunction [n = 16 (17.6 percent)] were more likely to experience complications (OR, 3.3; p = 0.043). No significant increase in complications was found with therapy duration longer than 10 days, but potentially there is an increased risk of infection (OR, 4.0; p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: Although high complication rates have been associated with panniculectomies, the authors' results show that low complication rates can be achieved with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy. Randomized controlled trials need to be conducted evaluating different therapy systems and the optimal duration of therapy with panniculectomies. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Abdominoplastia/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Adulto , Bandagens , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seroma/epidemiologia , Seroma/etiologia , Seroma/prevenção & controle , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/etiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21947, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846864

RESUMO

An intermittent closure with silk suture is routinely used for closing different surgical wounds. However, subcuticular closure with absorbable sutures has gained considerable attention due to convenience and better cosmetic appearance.To compare the clinical outcomes and risk of surgical-site infection of subcuticular and intermittent closure after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA), 106 patients that underwent TKA between January 2017 to June 2019 at the Department of Orthopedics in Xiangya Hospital of Centre South University were retrospectively assessed. Forty-three had received running subcuticular closure (group A) and 58 underwent intermittent closure (group B). The Knee Society score was measured before and 6 months after operation. Inflammation markers including the serum levels of procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were evaluated before operation, 1 day after and 1 month after operation. Patient satisfaction with the closure was evaluated using the Likert scale at the last follow-up.No significant difference was seen in the 6-month postoperative Knee Society score, or in the 1-day and 6-month postoperative inflammation marker levels between both groups (P > .05). Likert scores were higher in group A compared to group B (4.0 ±â€Š1.0 vs 3.6 ±â€Š1.2, P < .05).Running subcuticular closure after TKA results in a better appearance compared to intermittent closure, although neither method has an advantage in terms of efficacy and risk of infection.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Pele/patologia , Suturas/tendências , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/tendências , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(16): 678-683, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769723

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of geriatric ankle fractures is rising. With the substantial variation in the physiologic and functional status within this age group, our null hypothesis was that mortality and complications of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) between patients who are aged 65 to 79 are equivalent to ORIF in patients who are aged 80 to 89. METHODS: Patients with ankle fracture were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Patients treated with ORIF were identified using the Current Procedural Terminology codes. Patients were divided into two age cohorts: 65 to 79 years of age and 80 to 89 years of age. The primary outcome studied was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmission, revision surgery, surgical site infection, sepsis, wound dehiscence, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, blood transfusion, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency or failure, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Our cohort included 2,353 ankle fractures: 1,877 were among 65 to 79 years of age and 476 were among 80 or older. Thirty-day mortality was 3.2-fold higher in the 80 to 89 years of age group compared with the 65 to 79 years of age group (1.47% versus 0.48%, P = 0.019). However, after controlling for the ASA class, 80 to 89 years of age patients no longer had a significantly higher mortality (P = 0.0647). Similarly, revision surgery rate (3.36% versus 1.81%, P = 0.036), transfusion requirement (2.94% versus 1.49%, P = 0.033), urinary tract infection (1.89% versus 0.75%, P = 0.023), and hospital length of stay (4.9 versus 2.9 days, P < 0.0001) were all significantly higher in the 80 to 90 years of age group compared with the 65 to 79 years old group. However, after controlling for the ASA class, 80 to 89 years old patients no longer had a rate of complications in comparison to the 65 to 79 years old age group. DISCUSSION: After controlling for comorbidities (ie, the ASA class), no increased risk is observed for the 30-day mortality or complication rate between geriatric ankle fracture in the 65 to 79 years old and the 80 to 99 years old age groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic level III, retrospective study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/mortalidade , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/mortalidade , Redução Aberta/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Redução Aberta/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
9.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 971-975, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine drain placement is still widely used in both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux en Y gastric bypass (REYGB). There is mounting evidence that drains may increase complication risk without preventing reoperation or other complications. METHODS: Data from 2017 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant Use File was evaluated for drain use during laparoscopic REYGB and SG. Primary outcomes were superficial and deep surgical site infections (SSI), reintervention/reoperation, and readmission. Preoperative patient risk factors were also compared to evaluate for association with drain placement. RESULTS: A total of 148 260 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Drains were used in 23 190 (15.6%) cases and not used in 125 070 (84.4%). Drain placement during surgery was associated with increased odds of superficial SSI, deep incisional SSI, and organ space SSI. Patients with drains were found to have increased odds of requiring at least 1 reoperation or intervention within 30 days of surgery. Preoperative risk factors associated with drain placement included diabetes mellitus, a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and oxygen dependence. Smokers were slightly less likely to have a drain placed. There was no significant association with chronic steroid and immunosuppressant usage. CONCLUSION: There is mounting data against drain placement during bariatric surgery. Prior studies using MBSAQIP data have shown an increased complication rate with drains, and our data set supports the idea that drains may increase complications after surgery. While no randomized prospective trials have been performed looking at drain usage in bariatric surgery, the growing retrospective data certainly inform against the regular use of drains.


Assuntos
Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(4): 632-638, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aggressive resection of buccal cancer simultaneously leaves both oral and lateral facial defects. It is unknown whether a perforator-based chimeric anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, with a muscular component, is suitable for the reconstruction of these complicated defects. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 48 patients with a buccal carcinoma (T2 N0-1 M0), who underwent extensive surgical resection, were enrolled. Twenty-seven cases underwent reconstruction using the classical ALT perforator flap (classical group), and 21 cases used the chimeric ALT perforator flap with vastus lateralis muscle mass (chimeric group). The incidence of wound infection, lower limb extremity function, facial appearance, survival curves, and quality of life were compared between groups. RESULTS: The incidence of wound infection or effusion was lower in the chimeric group than in the classical group. The aesthetic result achieved in the chimeric group was better than in the classical group. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the function of the donor site between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The chimeric ALT perforator flap, with a muscular component, can reconstruct both the oral and lateral face defects accurately. It sustains the profile of the lateral face and decreases the incidence of wound infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Retalho Perfurante , Músculo Quadríceps/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Coxa da Perna/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Surgery ; 168(5): 921-925, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative opioid use is a risk factor for complications after some surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of preoperative opiates on outcomes after ventral hernia repair. METHODS: With institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective review of consecutive ventral hernia repair cases during a 4-y period. RESULTS: A striking 48% of the total 234 patients met criteria for preoperative opioid use. Preoperative characteristics and operative details were similar between patient groups (preoperative opioid use versus no preoperative opioid use). Median duration of hospital stay trended toward an increase for opioid users versus nonopioid users (P = .06). Return of bowel function was delayed in opioid users compared with nonopioid users (P = .018). Incidence of superficial surgical site infection was increased among patients who used opioids preoperatively (27% vs 8.3%; P <.001) and remained so after multivariable logistic regression, (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.7; P = .013). CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing ventral hernia repair, those with preoperative opioid use experienced an increased incidence of superficial surgical site infection compared with patients without preoperative opioid use. Further study is needed to understand the relationship between opioid use and surgical site infection after ventral hernia repair.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Hérnia Incisional/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
12.
Surgery ; 168(4): 753-759, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of several measures to reduce incidence, postoperative infections have been reported to increase. We aimed to assess trends in the incidence and impact of postoperative infections using a recent national cohort. METHODS: Patients undergoing the most commonly performed elective inpatient procedures in 9 surgical specialties were identified from the 2006 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample. Diagnostic coding was utilized to identify patients with postoperative infections. To adjust for patient and operative differences in assessing outcomes, an inverse probability of treatment weighing protocol was used. RESULTS: Of an estimated 23,696,588 patients, 1,213,182 (5.1%) developed postoperative infections. Skin and soft tissue operations had the highest burden (12.9%) and endocrine the lowest (1.3%). During the study period, we found decreasing incidence, case fatality, and incremental cost of postoperative infections. Infection was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (1.4 vs 0.4%, P < .001), duration of stay (7.6 vs 3.7 days, P < .001), and costs ($27,597 vs $17,985, P < .001). Annually, postoperative infections led to an average incremental cost burden exceeding $700 million in the United States alone. CONCLUSION: During the study period there was a substantial decrease in the burden of postoperative infections. Despite encouraging trends, postoperative infections continue to serve as a suitable quality improvement target, particularly in specialties with a high burden of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Surgery ; 168(3): 457-461, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy remain a significant cause of morbidity. Studies have demonstrated that a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications. Few studies have investigated the specific preoperative biliary stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and the effect on infectious complications. The goal of this study was to investigate if the presence of a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Additionally, we aimed to investigate biliary stent culture sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and determine if those sensitivities impacted postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy at a single institution tertiary care center from 2007 to 2018 was performed. Perioperative variables including microbiology cultures from biliary stents were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 244 patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. A preoperative biliary stent was present in 45 (18%) patients. Infectious complications occurred in 25% of those patients with a preoperative biliary stent, and 19% of those without (P = .37). Of those patients with a stent that was cultured intraoperatively, 92% grew bacteria and 61% of those were resistant to the preoperative antibiotics administered. Of the patients with a preoperative biliary stent and bacteria resistant to the preoperative antibiotics, 17% developed a postoperative infectious complication, compared with 20% if the bacteria cultured was susceptible to the preoperative antibiotics (P = .64). CONCLUSION: Infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy are a significant cause of morbidity. Stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics did not reduce the postoperative infectious complications in the preoperative biliary stent group suggesting a multifactorial cause of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Biliar/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Drenagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/instrumentação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e147, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605670

RESUMO

Major surgery carried out in low- and middle-income countries is associated with a high risk of surgical site infections (SSI), but knowledge is limited regarding contributory factors to such infections. This study explores factors related to patients developing an SSI in a teaching hospital in Ghana. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing abdominal surgical procedures was conducted at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Patient characteristics, procedures and environmental characteristics were recorded. A 30-day daily surveillance was used to diagnose SSI, and Poisson regression analysis was used to test for association of SSI and risk factors; survival was determined by proportional hazard regression methods. We included 358 patients of which 58 (16.2%; 95% CI 12.7-20.4%) developed an SSI. The median number of door openings during an operation was 79, with 81% being unnecessary. Door openings greater than 100 during an operation (P = 0.028) significantly increased a patient's risk of developing an SSI. Such patients tended to have an elevated mortality risk (hazard ratio 2.67; 95% CI 0.75-9.45, P = 0.128). We conclude that changing behaviour and practices in operating rooms is a key strategy to reduce SSI risk.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Salas Cirúrgicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Card Surg ; 35(7): 1570-1582, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While minimally invasive techniques for aortic valve replacement (AVR) have been shown to be safe, limited data exist comparing the varying approaches. This study aimed to compare the outcomes between two minimally invasive approaches for AVR: mini-sternotomy (MS) and right anterior thoracotomy (RAT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID was conducted for the period 1990-2019. Nine observational studies (n = 2926 patients) met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: There was no difference in operative mortality between MS and RAT (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-1.85; P = .709). Meta-analyses favored MS over RAT in reoperation for bleeding (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28-0.63; P < .001), aortic cross-clamp time (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.12, 95% CI: -0.20 to 0.029; P = .009), and the rate of conversion to sternotomy (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.11-0.93; P = .036). The rate of permanent pacemaker insertion approached borderline significance in favor of MS (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.26-1.12; P = .097). In-hospital outcomes of stroke, atrial fibrillation, and surgical site infection were similar between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was shorter for RAT (SMD: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.027-0.22; P = .012) and the length of postoperative ventilation was borderline significant in favor of RAT (SMD: 0.16, 95% CI: -0.027 to 0.34; P = .095). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights important differences in short-term outcomes between MS and RAT as approaches for AVR. This has important implications for patient selection, especially in the elderly, where such approaches are becoming more common-place.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Esternotomia/métodos , Toracotomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 123-125, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are reported to range from 2.5% to 41%. HAI increases the risk of death by 2 - 11%, and three-quarters of these deaths are directly attributable to SSIs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of HAI and to identify risk factors amenable to modification with a resultant reduction in infection rates. METHODS: An analysis of HAIs was performed between January and April 2018 in the trauma centre surgical wards at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. RESULTS: There were 769 admissions during the study period. Twenty-two patients (0.03%) developed an HAI. The majority were men, and the mean age was 32 years (range 18 - 57). The mean length of hospital stay (LoS) was 9 days, higher than the mean LoS for the hospital of 6 days. Fourteen patients underwent emergency surgery, 3 patients underwent abbreviated damage control surgery, and 9 patients were admitted to the critical care unit. Most patients with nosocomial sepsis were treated with appropriate culture-based antibiotics (82%). Four patients were treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid presumptively prior to culture and sensitivity results, after which antibiotic therapy was tailored. All but 1 patient received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of measures is required to prevent trauma-related infections. By determining the incidence of nosocomial infections in our trauma patients, uniform policies to reduce infection rates further could be determined. Our low incidence of infection may be explained by established preventive care bundles already in place.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
17.
Med Glas (Zenica) ; 17(2): 275-278, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662615

RESUMO

Aim The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the delivery of elective, as well as emergency surgery on a world-wide scale. Up to date few studies have actually assessed the impact of COVID-19 on the postoperative morbidity and mortality following emergency gastrointestinal surgery. Herein, we present our relevant experience over a 3-month period of uninterrupted provision of emergency general surgery services in George Eliot Hospital NHS Trust, the United Kingdom. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective institutional database, which included the operation types, paraclinical investigations and postoperative complications of all patients undergoing emergency general surgery operations between March - May 2020. Results The occurrence of a 5% overall respiratory complication rate postoperatively, with 3% infection rate for COVID-19 was found; no patient had unplanned return to intensive care for ventilator support and there was no mortality related to COVID-19 infection. Conclusion When indicated, emergency surgery should not be delayed in favour of expectant/conservative management in fear of COVID-19-related morbidity or mortality risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Emergências , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apendicectomia , Betacoronavirus , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Drenagem , Feminino , Herniorrafia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(7): 618-624, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) are frequently seen after aortoiliac vascular surgery (2%-14%). Deep SSIs are associated with graft infection, sepsis, and mortality. This study evaluates the difference in incidence and nature of SSI following open aortoiliac surgery for aneurysmal disease compared to occlusive arterial disease. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including all consecutive patients who underwent open aortoiliac vascular surgery between January 2005 and December 2016 in the Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands. Patients were grouped by disease type, either aneurysmal or occlusive arterial disease. Data were gathered, including patient characteristics, potential risk factors, and development of SSI. Surgical site infections were defined in accordance with the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control. RESULTS: Between January 2005 and December 2016, a total of 756 patients underwent open aortoiliac surgery of which 517 had aortoiliac aneurysms and 225 had aortoiliac occlusive disease. The group with occlusive disease was younger, predominantly male, and had more smokers. After exclusion of 228 patients undergoing acute surgery, the SSI rate after elective surgery was 6.2%, with 10 of 301 SSIs in the aneurysmal group (3.0%) and 22 of 213 SSIs in the group with occlusive disease (10.3%, P < .001). Also, infection-related readmission and reintervention were higher after occlusive surgery, 6.6% versus 0.9% (P < .001) and 4.2% versus 0.9% (P = .003), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found as the most common pathogen, causing 64% of SSI in occlusive disease versus 10% in aneurysmal disease (P = .005). Logistic regression showed occlusive arterial disease and chronic renal disease were associated with SSI. CONCLUSION: Our study presents evidence for a higher rate of SSI in patients with aortoiliac occlusive disease compared to aortoiliac aneurysmal disease, in part due to inherent use of inguinal incision in patients with occlusive disease. All precautions to prevent SSI should be taken in patients undergoing vascular surgery for arterial occlusive disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Aneurisma Ilíaco/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/mortalidade , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/epidemiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Ilíaco/etiologia , Aneurisma Ilíaco/mortalidade , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
19.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 848-855, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Colorectal care bundles for surgical site infections (CRCB-SSIs) have been shown to reduce SSIs following elective colorectal surgery (CRS). There are limited data evaluating the effect of CRCB-SSI at Academic Disproportionate Share Hospitals (ADSH) with significant rates of urgent and emergent cases. METHODS: A CRCB-SSI was implemented in April 2016. We reviewed medical records of all patients undergoing colon resections between August 2015 and December 2017. Patients were divided into preimplementation and postimplementation groups. The primary endpoint was the SSI rate, and the secondary endpoint included types of SSI (superficial, deep, organ space). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. A subset analysis was performed in elective cases. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 417 patients. Of these, 116 (28%) and 301 (72%) patients were in the preimplementation and postimplementation groups, respectively. The rate of SSI decreased from 30.1% to 15.9% in the postimplementation group (P = .0012); however, it was not statistically significant after adjusting for baseline differences (relative risk [RR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.41-1.02).The elective subset included 219 patients. The rate of SSI in this cohort decreased from 25% to 10.5% in the postimplementation group (P = .0012) and remained significant following multivariable analysis (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19- 0.88). There were no differences in the subtypes of SSI. DISCUSSION: While the CRCB-SSI was effective in decreasing the postoperative SSI rate for elective cases, its effect on the overall patient population was limited. CRCB-SSIs are not enough to bring SSI rates to accepted rates in high-risk patients such as those seen at ADSH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Custos Hospitalares , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Cirurgia Colorretal/economia , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Estados Unidos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21053, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629731

RESUMO

Internal fixation such as elastic stable intramedullary(ESIN) nail and submuscular plate (SMP) is gaining popularity for femoral shaft fractures in school-aged children. However, external fixation (ExFix) might be a valuable option for the distal third femoral shaft fractures, where the fracture heals rapidly, but it is crucial to avoid angular malunion. This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes, postoperative complications of distal third femoral shaft fractures in school-aged children treated by ESIN versus ExFix.Patients aged 5 to 11 years with distal third femoral shaft fractures treated at our institute from January 2014 to January 2016 were included and categorized into ESIN (n = 33) and ExFix (n = 38) group. The preoperative data, including baseline information of the patients, radiographic parameters, and type of surgical procedure, were collected from the hospital database, and postoperative data, including complications, were collected during the follow-up visit.In all, 33 patients (average, 8.0 ±â€Š2.1 years, male 20, female 13) in the ESIN group and 38 patients (average, 8.3 ±â€Š2.3 years, male 23, female 15) in the ExFix group were included in this study. There was significantly less operative time for the ExFix group (45.4 ±â€Š7.8 min) as compared to the ESIN group (57.8 ±â€Š11.3 min) (P < .01), reduced estimated blood loss (EBL) in the ExFix group (9.9 ±â€Š3.5) as compared to the ESIN group (16.4 ±â€Š6.5) (P < .01). As for the frequency of fluoroscopy, there was a significant difference between the ExFix group (13.9 ±â€Š2.4) and the ESIN group (15.5 ±â€Š3.2) (P = .02). The rate of major complications was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .19). The rate of implant irritation was significantly higher in the ExFix group (28/38, 73.7%) than the ESIN group (12/33, 36.4%) (P < .01). The rate of surgical site infection (SSI) is significantly higher in the ExFix group (18/38, 47.4%)) than the ESIN group (1/33, 3%) (P < .01). The rate of scar concern was significantly higher in the ExFix (9/38, 23.7%) than the ESIN (2/33, 6.1%), (P = .04). According to the Flynn scoring system, 30(90.9%) patients in the ESIN group and 24(89.5%) patients in the ExFix group were rated as excellent. None of the patients had poor outcomes.Both ESIN and ExFix produced satisfactory outcomes in distal third femoral shaft fractures. ExFix remains a viable choice for selected cases, especially in resource-challenged and austere settings.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Placas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Fixadores Externos/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pinos Ortopédicos/normas , Placas Ósseas/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diáfises/diagnóstico por imagem , Diáfises/patologia , Fixadores Externos/normas , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/tendências , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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