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1.
J Card Surg ; 35(11): 2995-3003, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative dental screening before cardiac valve surgery is widely accepted but its required scope remains unclear. This study evaluates two preoperative dental screening (PDS) approaches, a focused approach (FocA) and a comprehensive approach (CompA), to compare postsurgical 90-day mortality. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis was performed on all patients who underwent valve surgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital with FocA and Massachusetts General Hospital with CompA of PDS approach from January 2009 to December 2016. Patients with intravenous drug abuse and systemic infections were excluded. Univariate, multivariable, and subgroup analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 1835 patients were included in the study. With FocA 96% of patients (1097/1143) received dental clearance in a single encounter with 3.3% receiving radiographs and undergoing dental extractions. With CompA 35.5% of patients (245/692) received dental clearance in a single encounter, 94.2% received radiographs, and 21.8% underwent dental extractions. There was no significant difference in 90-day mortality when comparing both PDS approach (10% vs 8.4%, P = .257). This remained unchanged in a multivariable model after adjusting for risk factors (odds ratio:1.32 [95%CI:0.91-1.93] [P = .14]). Reoperation due to infection was less in FocA (0.5%) vs CompA (2.6) (P < .001) and postoperative septicemia was increased in the FocA (1.7%) cohort when compared to the CompA (0.7%) (P < .001) patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in post valve surgery 90-day mortality between patients who underwent a FocA vs CompA of PDS.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Resultados Negativos , Higiene Bucal , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Doenças Estomatognáticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Estomatognáticas/terapia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (10): 49-59, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of mesoappendixectomy in the development of intra-abdominal surgical site infection (IAB SSI) after LAE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective randomized non-blind multiple-center registered (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03754777) study has been performed for the period from 2016 to 2018. The study was devoted to effectiveness and safety of the modified enhanced recovery protocol in LAE. In the main group, this protocol (n=56) included routine mesoappendixectomy, restrictive strategy for abdominal drainage and postoperative antibiotic prevention. In the control group (n=71), mesoappendixectomy was performed only in case of necrotic changes. Both groups were comparable by demographic parameters and severity of comorbidities. RESULTS: In the main group, significant decrease in the incidence of IAB SSI was found (0% versus 9.8%). Moreover, the main group was characterized by reduced length of hospital-stay (1.43±1.34 d versus 2.94±2, 43 days). CONCLUSION: Mesoappendixectomy should be evaluated in further research as a potential factor in prevention of IAB SSI.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Mesocolo/cirurgia , Peritonite/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Drenagem , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Humanos , Peritonite/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
3.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(9): e202000907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) rates in women undergoing breast cancer surgery in two tertiary hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. A total of 124 women without independent risk factors for SSI were randomly assigned to receive either cefazolin (antibiotic group, n = 62) or placebo (control group, n = 62) as preoperative prophylaxis. After surgery, all surgical wounds were examined once a week, for four weeks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions and classifications for SSI. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. Only one patient in the antibiotic group developed SSI, which was classified as superficial incisional. The overall SSI rate was low, with no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis had no significant effect on reducing SSI rates in women without independent risk factors for SSI undergoing breast cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Neoplasias da Mama , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
4.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 342-348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072206

RESUMO

Surgery site infection is one of the most common postoperative complications which is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and admission costs. It is considered a priority to determine the level of nosocomial infection and its control in reflecting the quality of care. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial contamination after cardiac surgery at a hospital cardiac surgery ward of Besat Hospital, Tehran. In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study (2013-2017), 610 patients underwent surgery at the Department of Cardiac Surgery of Besat Hospital. All necessary information such as urine culture, surgical site, histopathologic examination for the diagnosis of microbial contamination and microorganisms were collected from the patient records and inserted in the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 25). The incidence of nosocomial infections following cardiac surgery reportedly ranged from 17% to 23%. Accordingly, pneumonia (51.2%) and local infections (22%) were the most common infections in the studied population. The mortality rate in our population was 11.4%. Moreover, 64.3% of the total mortality cases were reported in patients with sepsis. The mean age and duration of admission of patients with catheter infection were significantly higher than other subjects. Given the relatively high prevalence of the infection and its importance, it is necessary to take more serious measures to prevent and control these infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Hospitais , Cirurgia Torácica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
5.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1341-1348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993339

RESUMO

AIMS: Preoperative nasal Staphylococcus aureus screening and eradication reduces surgical site infections (SSIs) but its impact on reducing early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains controversial. This study aims to assess the effect of preoperative nasal S. aureus screening and eradication on the incidence of early PJI in general and S. aureus-induced early PJI. METHODS: All primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) and total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed from January 2006 to April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of early PJI. Demographic parameters, risk factors for PJI (American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, body mass index, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus) and implant types were collected. A preoperative screening and eradication protocol for nasal colonization of S. aureus was introduced in October 2010. The incidence of early PJI was compared before and after the implementation of the protocol. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation by chained equations. Inverse probability weighting was used to account for differences between patients in both groups. Weighted univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the incidence of early PJI for both groups. RESULTS: In total, 10,486 THAs and TKAs were performed in the research period. After exclusion, a cohort of 5,499 screened cases and 3,563 non-screened cases were available for analysis. Overall, no significant reduction in early PJI was found in the screened group (odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.11; p = 0.173). However, the incidence of S. aureus-induced PJI was significantly reduced (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.92; p = 0.027) in the screened group. CONCLUSION: A preoperative nasal S. aureus screening and eradication protocol did not significantly reduce the overall incidence of early PJI after THA or TKA. However, a decreased incidence of S. aureus-induced early PJI was established. These findings can help to establish better consensus around the value of these screening protocols. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1341-1348.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Programas de Rastreamento , Período Pré-Operatório , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
6.
JAMA ; 324(12): 1180-1189, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960242

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity increases the risk of both cesarean delivery and surgical-site infection. Despite widespread use, it is unclear whether prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy reduces surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery in obese women. Objective: To evaluate whether prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, initiated immediately after cesarean delivery, lowers the risk of surgical-site infections compared with standard wound dressing in obese women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized trial conducted from February 8, 2017, through November 13, 2019, at 4 academic and 2 community hospitals across the United States. Obese women undergoing planned or unplanned cesarean delivery were eligible. The study was terminated after 1624 of 2850 participants were recruited when a planned interim analysis showed increased adverse events in the negative pressure group and futility for the primary outcome. Final follow-up was December 18, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to either undergo prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, with application of the negative pressure device immediately after repair of the surgical incision (n = 816), or receive standard wound dressing (n = 808). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was superficial or deep surgical-site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. Secondary outcomes included other wound complications, composite of surgical-site infections and other wound complications, and adverse skin reactions. Results: Of the 1624 women randomized (mean age, 30.4 years, mean body mass index, 39.5), 1608 (99%) completed the study: 806 in the negative pressure group (median duration of negative pressure, 4 days) and 802 in the standard dressing group. Superficial or deep surgical-site infection was diagnosed in 29 participants (3.6%) in the negative pressure group and 27 (3.4%) in the standard dressing group (difference, 0.36%; 95% CI, -1.46% to 2.19%, P = .70). Of 30 prespecified secondary end points, 25 showed no significant differences, including other wound complications (2.6% vs 3.1%; difference, -0.53%; 95% CI, -1.93% to 0.88%; P = .46) and composite of surgical-site infections and other wound complications (6.5% vs 6.7%; difference, -0.27%; 95% CI, -2.71% to 2.25%; P = .83). Adverse skin reactions were significantly more frequent in the negative pressure group (7.0% vs 0.6%; difference, 6.95%; 95% CI, 1.86% to 12.03%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among obese women undergoing cesarean delivery, prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy, compared with standard wound dressing, did not significantly reduce the risk of surgical-site infection. These findings do not support routine use of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy in obese women after cesarean delivery. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03009110.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Obesidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bandagens/efeitos adversos , Vesícula/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1318-1323, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913174

RESUMO

Background: Preparation for surgery has traditionally included the removal of body hair from the intended surgical wound site. The effect of this practice on postoperative wound infection is yet to be fully elucidated. Aims: This study sought to determine if preoperative chemical depilation reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Methodology: Two methods of preoperative hair removal: razor shaving and depilatory cream were compared. The eligible patients were randomized into two groups and the presence of postoperative wound infection was evaluated using the Southampton wound grading system. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 Chicago-Illinois, statistical significance was inferred at Pvalue ≤ 0.05. Results: In total 100 patients were analyzed with 20 patients excluded due to co-morbidities and noncompletion of the study. The overall prevalence of SSI was 18.0% (7 (14.0%) and 11 (22.0%) in the depilatory cream and razor shaving groups, respectively). The difference in the rate of SSI was not statistically significant (P = 0.436). Hair was completely removed in 47 (94.0%) compared to 38 (76.0%) patients in the razor shaving group (P = 0.012) while skin injuries were noted in 21 (42.0%) vs 1 (2.0%) patients who had razor shaving and chemical depilation(P = <0.0001), respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in SSI rates in patients that had preoperative chemical depilation when compared with razor shaving.


Assuntos
Remoção de Cabelo/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Remoção de Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Restrição Física , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(3 Suppl. 2): 57-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856441

RESUMO

Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) of the Hip and of the Knee is a tremendous complication associated with high patient morbidity, cost, and increased health care resource utilization. Over the last few years, several perioperative strategies have been developed in the hopes of reducing the risk of early superficial and deep surgical site infection (SSI). One of the most performed intraoperative treatments to reduce the risk of SSI in total joint arthroplasty is the use of dilute povidone-iodine (DPI) irrigation prior to wound closure. For this reason, we believed a systematic review of the literature was needed to better understand the current literature on the efficacy of dilute betadine in reducing PJI. The search terms for this systematic review was performed for keywords "betadine", "povidone-iodine", "lavage", "irrigation" and "arthroplasty". A total of six studies were included, four of these reported the outcome of primary total joint arthroplasty, and two of these reported the outcome of revision total joint arthroplasty. Some studies reported that the use of DPI is effective to reduce the incidence of infective complications, meanwhile other studies did not find differences when DPI was used. More studies must be addressed to provide the efficacy of DPI irrigation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Humanos , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Irrigação Terapêutica
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 390-397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panniculectomies are associated with high complication rates (43 to 70 percent), particularly in patients with obesity, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Closed-incision negative-pressure therapy can be used postoperatively to support healing by promoting angiogenesis and decreasing tension. The authors hypothesized that using it with panniculectomies would minimize complications, and that a longer duration of therapy would not increase the incidence of complications. The authors also evaluated whether closed-incision negative-pressure therapy malfunction was associated with complications. METHODS: This retrospective, uncontrolled case series analyzed 91 patients who underwent panniculectomies managed with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy performed by a single surgeon from 2014 to 2018. Patients were followed for 6 months; therapy duration and malfunction were recorded. Patients were placed into therapy duration groups (2 to 7, 8 to 10, or >10 days). Complications managed conservatively were minor and major if they required intervention. Odds ratios were performed with 95 percent confidence intervals and p values. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 225.1 days and mean closed-incision negative-pressure therapy duration was 10.5 days. Major complications were reported in five patients (5.5 percent), infections in four (4.4 percent), dehiscence in two (2.2 percent), and seroma in four (4.4 percent). Patients with malfunction [n = 16 (17.6 percent)] were more likely to experience complications (OR, 3.3; p = 0.043). No significant increase in complications was found with therapy duration longer than 10 days, but potentially there is an increased risk of infection (OR, 4.0; p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: Although high complication rates have been associated with panniculectomies, the authors' results show that low complication rates can be achieved with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy. Randomized controlled trials need to be conducted evaluating different therapy systems and the optimal duration of therapy with panniculectomies. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Abdominoplastia/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Adulto , Bandagens , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seroma/epidemiologia , Seroma/etiologia , Seroma/prevenção & controle , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/etiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21947, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846864

RESUMO

An intermittent closure with silk suture is routinely used for closing different surgical wounds. However, subcuticular closure with absorbable sutures has gained considerable attention due to convenience and better cosmetic appearance.To compare the clinical outcomes and risk of surgical-site infection of subcuticular and intermittent closure after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA), 106 patients that underwent TKA between January 2017 to June 2019 at the Department of Orthopedics in Xiangya Hospital of Centre South University were retrospectively assessed. Forty-three had received running subcuticular closure (group A) and 58 underwent intermittent closure (group B). The Knee Society score was measured before and 6 months after operation. Inflammation markers including the serum levels of procalcitonin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were evaluated before operation, 1 day after and 1 month after operation. Patient satisfaction with the closure was evaluated using the Likert scale at the last follow-up.No significant difference was seen in the 6-month postoperative Knee Society score, or in the 1-day and 6-month postoperative inflammation marker levels between both groups (P > .05). Likert scores were higher in group A compared to group B (4.0 ±â€Š1.0 vs 3.6 ±â€Š1.2, P < .05).Running subcuticular closure after TKA results in a better appearance compared to intermittent closure, although neither method has an advantage in terms of efficacy and risk of infection.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Pele/patologia , Suturas/tendências , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/tendências , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1091-1093, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The highest rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) are associated with colorectal operations (up to 30%). A sentinel paper showed that the use of intravenous (IV) cefazolin and metronidazole was associated with decreased rates of SSI compared with cefoxitin (6% vs 13%). We reviewed the association of SSI with prophylactic antibiotic choice. We specifically investigated the regimens of ceftriaxone and metronidazole IV, cefoxitin IV, or ertapenem. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 532 colon surgeries between 2016 and 2018. Inclusion criteria were patients 18-89 years of age undergoing elective colon surgery who received ceftriaxone/metronidazole, cefoxitin, or ertapenem for prophylaxis. All emergent cases were excluded. This resulted in 241 elective colon cases for review. The primary endpoint was to determine if the use of ceftriaxone/metronidazole decreased the rate of SSI. RESULTS: In total, there were 241 elective colon cases with 21 SSI. We compared SSI rates in the ceftriaxone/metronidazole group to those patients receiving either cefoxitin or ertapenem (4.5% vs 12.2%; P = .035). We then compared SSI in ceftriaxone/metronidazole to SSI in cefoxitin (4.5% vs 10%; P = .13). Finally, we compared SSI in the ceftriaxone/metronidazole group to SSI in the ertapenem group (4.5% vs 14%; P = .03). Comorbidities and underlying factors were similar across all antibiotic groups. CONCLUSION: In our experience, the use of ceftriaxone/metronidazole is associated with a decreased SSI rate. Furthermore, ceftriaxone/metronidazole use is superior to the use of ertapenem, with a trend toward superiority over cefoxitin. Based on this study, we recommend ceftriaxone/metronidazole as antibiotic prophylaxis for elective colon surgery.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection is one of the most severe complications of surgical treatments. However, the optimal procedure to prevent such infections remains uninvestigated. Ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) with a short wavelength has a high bactericidal effect; however, it is cytotoxic. Nonetheless, given that UVC with a wavelength of 222 nm reaches only the stratum corneum, it does not affect the skin cells. This study aimed to investigate the safety of 222-nm UVC irradiation and to examine its skin sterilization effect in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This trial was conducted on 20 healthy volunteers. The back of the subject was irradiated with 222-nm UVC at 50-500 mJ/cm2, and the induced erythema (redness of skin) was evaluated. Subsequently, the back was irradiated with a maximum amount of UVC not causing erythema, and the skin swabs before and after the irradiation were cultured. The number of colonies formed after 24 hours was measured. In addition, cyclobutene pyrimidine dimer (CPD) as an indicator of DNA damage was measured using skin tissues of the nonirradiated and irradiated regions. RESULTS: All subjects experienced no erythema at all doses. The back of the subject was irradiated at 500 mJ/cm2, and the number of bacterial colonies in the skin swab culture was significantly decreased by 222-nm UVC irradiation. The CPD amount produced in the irradiated region was slightly but significantly higher than that of the non-irradiated region. CONCLUSION: A 222-nm UVC at 500 mJ/cm2 was a safe irradiation dose and possessed bactericidal effects. In the future, 222-nm UVC irradiation is expected to contribute to the prevention of perioperative infection.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Esterilização/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Dorso , Biópsia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Eritema/diagnóstico , Eritema/etiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Dímeros de Pirimidina/análise , Dímeros de Pirimidina/efeitos da radiação , Pele/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013209, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies was searched up to 21 April 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in any language assessing prophylactic antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified by the Standardised Outcomes of Nephrology Group (SONG), specifically graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer and life participation. Summary effect estimates were obtained using a random-effects model and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using the risk of bias and the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight eligible studies (718 randomised participants). Overall, five studies (248 randomised participants) compared antibiotics versus no antibiotics, and three studies (470 randomised participants) compared extended duration versus short duration antibiotics. Risk of bias was assessed as high for performance bias (eight studies), detection bias (eight studies) and attrition bias (two studies). It is uncertain whether antibiotics reduce the incidence of surgical site infections as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.85; 5 studies, 226 participants; I2 = 25%). The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). It is uncertain whether extended duration antibiotics reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in either solid organ transplant recipients (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.48; 2 studies, 302 participants; I2 = 0%) or kidney-only transplant recipients (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.48; 1 study, 205 participants) as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all other reported outcomes (death, graft loss, and other infections). None of the eight included studies evaluated antimicrobial agent adverse reactions, graft health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, life participation, biochemical and haematological parameters, intervention cost, hospitalisation length, or overall hospitalisation costs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to methodological limitations, risk of bias and significant heterogeneity, the current evidence for the use of prophylactic perioperative antibiotics in transplantation is of very low quality. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs would help better inform clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Viés , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade
15.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 971-975, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine drain placement is still widely used in both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux en Y gastric bypass (REYGB). There is mounting evidence that drains may increase complication risk without preventing reoperation or other complications. METHODS: Data from 2017 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant Use File was evaluated for drain use during laparoscopic REYGB and SG. Primary outcomes were superficial and deep surgical site infections (SSI), reintervention/reoperation, and readmission. Preoperative patient risk factors were also compared to evaluate for association with drain placement. RESULTS: A total of 148 260 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Drains were used in 23 190 (15.6%) cases and not used in 125 070 (84.4%). Drain placement during surgery was associated with increased odds of superficial SSI, deep incisional SSI, and organ space SSI. Patients with drains were found to have increased odds of requiring at least 1 reoperation or intervention within 30 days of surgery. Preoperative risk factors associated with drain placement included diabetes mellitus, a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and oxygen dependence. Smokers were slightly less likely to have a drain placed. There was no significant association with chronic steroid and immunosuppressant usage. CONCLUSION: There is mounting data against drain placement during bariatric surgery. Prior studies using MBSAQIP data have shown an increased complication rate with drains, and our data set supports the idea that drains may increase complications after surgery. While no randomized prospective trials have been performed looking at drain usage in bariatric surgery, the growing retrospective data certainly inform against the regular use of drains.


Assuntos
Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Laparoscopia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Surgery ; 168(3): 457-461, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy remain a significant cause of morbidity. Studies have demonstrated that a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications. Few studies have investigated the specific preoperative biliary stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and the effect on infectious complications. The goal of this study was to investigate if the presence of a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Additionally, we aimed to investigate biliary stent culture sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and determine if those sensitivities impacted postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy at a single institution tertiary care center from 2007 to 2018 was performed. Perioperative variables including microbiology cultures from biliary stents were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 244 patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. A preoperative biliary stent was present in 45 (18%) patients. Infectious complications occurred in 25% of those patients with a preoperative biliary stent, and 19% of those without (P = .37). Of those patients with a stent that was cultured intraoperatively, 92% grew bacteria and 61% of those were resistant to the preoperative antibiotics administered. Of the patients with a preoperative biliary stent and bacteria resistant to the preoperative antibiotics, 17% developed a postoperative infectious complication, compared with 20% if the bacteria cultured was susceptible to the preoperative antibiotics (P = .64). CONCLUSION: Infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy are a significant cause of morbidity. Stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics did not reduce the postoperative infectious complications in the preoperative biliary stent group suggesting a multifactorial cause of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Biliar/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Drenagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/instrumentação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Orthop Traumatol ; 21(1): 10, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open fractures are among the most severe injuries observed in orthopedic patients. Treating open fractures is difficult because such patients with infections may require multiple operations and amputations. Furthermore, only a few studies have focused on antibiotic prophylaxis in open fractures and evaluated how to cover lost soft tissue to increase the success rate of reconstruction. We evaluated the risk factors for deep infection in lower limb Gustilo-Anderson (G-A) type III fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated patients who underwent surgical procedures for lower limb G-A type III fractures between January 2007 and January 2017 at our institution. We enrolled 110 patients with 114 lower limb G-A type III fractures (77 G-A type IIIA fractures and 37 G-A type IIIB fractures) who were followed up for at least 2 years. We compared patients presenting infections with those without infections by assessing the following factors: severe contamination, diabetes, smoking, Injury Severity Scale, segmental fracture, location of fracture, G-A classification, damage control surgery, methods of surgery, timing of fixation, combination of antibiotics used, duration of antibiotic prophylaxis, timing of wound closure, and soft-tissue reconstruction failure. RESULTS: Eighteen fractures presented deep infections. Compared with patients without infections, patients developing infections differed significantly in terms of severe contamination (P < 0.01), G-A classification (P < 0.01), duration of antibiotic prophylaxis (P < 0.01), timing of wound closure (P < 0.01), and incidence of soft-tissue reconstruction failure (P < 0.01). Skin grafting was associated with significantly higher failure rates than muscle and free flap reconstructions (P = 0.04). Treatment with antibiotics was significantly longer in patients with drug-resistant bacterial infections than in those without infections (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Early flaps rather than skin grafting should be used to cover G-A type IIIB fractures, because skin grafting resulted in the highest failure rate among soft-tissue reconstructions in open fractures. Longer duration of antibiotic use had a significant impact not only on deep infection rates but also on the presence of drug-resistant bacteria. These findings suggest that prolonged use of antibiotics should be avoided in cases of open fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV retrospective observational study.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Desbridamento , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Expostas/complicações , Fraturas Expostas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/microbiologia , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/prevenção & controle , Osteomielite/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Fraturas da Tíbia/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas da Tíbia/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(13): e66, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of supracondylar humeral fractures is one of the most common procedures performed in pediatric orthopaedics. The use of full, standard preparation and draping with standard personal protective equipment (PPE) may not be necessary during this procedure. This is of particular interest in the current climate as we face unprecedented PPE shortages due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 1,270 patients treated with CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture at 2 metropolitan pediatric centers by 10 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. One surgeon in the group did not wear a mask when performing CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures, and multiple surgeons in the group utilized a semisterile preparation technique (no sterile gown or drapes). Infectious outcomes were compared between 2 groups: full sterile preparation and semisterile preparation. We additionally analyzed a subgroup of patients who had semisterile preparation without surgeon mask use. Hospital cost data were used to estimate annual cost savings with the adoption of the semisterile technique. RESULTS: In this study, 1,270 patients who underwent CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture and met inclusion criteria were identified. There were 3 deep infections (0.24%). These infections all occurred in the group using full sterile preparation and surgical masks. No clinically relevant pin-track infections were noted. There were no known surgeon occupational exposures to bodily fluid. It is estimated that national adoption of this technique in the United States could save between 18,612 and 22,162 gowns and masks with costs savings of $3.7 million to $4.4 million annually. CONCLUSIONS: We currently face critical shortages of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from this large series suggest that a semisterile technique during CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures is a safe practice. We anticipate that this could preserve approximately 20,000 gowns and masks in the United States over the next year. Physicians are encouraged to reevaluate their daily practice to identify safe opportunities for resource preservation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Fixação de Fratura/normas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Pinos Ortopédicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Redução Fechada/efeitos adversos , Redução Fechada/normas , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Orthopade ; 49(8): 679-684, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671415

RESUMO

Open fractures involve a high risk of open fracture-associated infections (OFAIs), and the treatment can often be protracted and complicated. Thus, prevention of OFAIs in the acute and perioperative management of open fractures is of great importance. Through vigilance and thorough treatment planning, between the day of injury and the hospital discharge, the risk of OFAIs can be considerably reduced.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle , Fraturas Expostas/complicações , Humanos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Surg ; 272(2): 248-252, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the use of postoperative antibiotics for simple appendicitis (SA) in children. Our aim was to conduct a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial to investigate this after a laparoscopic appendicectomy. METHODS: Following ethical approval, children (≤16 years) undergoing appendicectomy were recruited at a single institution. Patients were randomized intraoperatively to receive either 2 postoperative intravenous doses of placebo or antibiotics (Abx). All patients received a dose of Abx at induction of anesthesia. Primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative wound infection (WI), and secondary outcome was the incidence of intra-abdominal abscess formation. Data are reported as number of cases (%), median (range), relative risk, and analyzed using Mann Whitney U test, Chi-square test, as appropriate, a P-value ≤0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 304 patients were randomized. Sixty-one were subsequently excluded due to protocol violations or recruitment errors; therefore, 243 were included in the final analysis. One hundred twenty-two patients received placebo and 121 Intravenous Abx. There was no difference between the sex (50F/72 M vs 47F/74 M, P = 0.8), median age (12.4 vs 12.2 years, P = 0.5), and postoperative length of stay in a hospital (27.2 vs 25.6 hours, P = 0.7). There was also no difference in the preoperative blood results. A total of 9 WIs occurred: 8/122 (6.6%) placebo versus 1/121 (0.8%) Abx, P = 0.01 [relative risk for WI 7.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-62.4)]. There were no intra-abdominal abscess in either groups. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective randomized double blinded randomized controlled trial has revealed a significant decrease in WI rates by giving 2 postoperative intravenous doses of Abx, suggesting postoperative Abx are of benefit in SA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Austrália , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização/fisiologia
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