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1.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 91-98, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095802

RESUMO

The myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) or screwworm is considered one of the most traumatic and relevant to the region due to its economic implications and its importance in public health. The purpose of this study was to compare the reproductive and developmental indexes of screwworm using citrated and freeze-dried bovine blood, spray-dried bovine blood (currently used by Panama-United States Commission for the Eradication and Prevention of Screwworm ñacronym in spanish [Copeg]) and bovine citrated liquid blood. The use of freeze-dried arises through the premise that, due to its process of elaboration constitutes an alternative of better quality for the feeding of the screwworm in function of the integrity of sanguine proteins during its processing. For the comparison of the different diets, the following parameters were used: pH, total pupae weight, pupae size, total pupae volume, emergency percentage, oviposition percentage and hatching percentage. In the case of freeze-dried blood, it showed better mean (standard deviation) indexes of emergence, 83.42 (11.45), and 73.11 (15.97) (p = .01); and hatching, 89.70 (8.88), and 84.08 (8.29), (p = .004) compared to the diet based on spray-dried blood. By virtue of the above, freeze-dried blood proved to be a source of protein with potential to develop insect breeding programs.


La miasis causada por Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) o gusano barrenador del ganado (GBG) es considerada una de las más traumáticas y relevantes para la región debido a sus implicaciones económicas y su importancia en la salud pública. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar los índices reproductivos y de desarrollo del GBG con sangre bovina liofilizada citratada, sangre bovina secada por pulverización (actualmente utilizada por la Comisión Panamá-Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado [Copeg]) y sangre líquida bovina citrata. El uso de liofilizado surge bajo la premisa de que, debido a su proceso de elaboración, constituye una alternativa de mejor calidad para la alimentación del GBG en función de la integridad de las proteínas sanguíneas durante su procesamiento. Para la comparación de las diferentes dietas, se utilizaron los siguientes parámetros: pH, peso total de las pupas, tamaño de pupas, volumen total de pupas, porcentaje de emergencia, porcentaje de oviposición y porcentaje de eclosión. En el caso de la sangre liofilizada, mostró mejores promedios (desviación estándar) de índices de emergencia, 83.42 (11.45) y 73.11 (15.97) (p = .01), y eclosión, 89.70 (8.88) y 84.08 (8.29) (p = .004) en comparación con la dieta basada en sangre secada por pulverización. En virtud de lo anterior, la sangre bovina liofilizada demostró ser una fuente de proteína con potencial para desarrollar programas de crianza de insectos.


Assuntos
Animais , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/parasitologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/sangue , Bovinos/sangue
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007391, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myiasis due to Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is an important obligate zoonotic disease in the OIE-list of diseases and is found throughout much of Africa, the Indian subcontinent, southeast and east Asia. C. bezziana myiasis causes not only morbidity and death to animals and humans, but also economic losses in the livestock industries. Because of the aggressive and destructive nature of this disease in hosts, we initiated this study to provide a comprehensive understanding of human myiasis caused by C. bezziana. METHODS: We searched the databases in English (PubMed, Embase and African Index Medicus) and Chinese (CNKI, Wanfang, and Duxiu), and international government online reports to 6th February, 2019, to identify studies concerning C. bezziana. Another ten human cases in China and Papua New Guinea that our team had recorded were also included. RESULTS: We retrieved 1,048 reports from which 202 studies were ultimately eligible for inclusion in the present descriptive analyses. Since the first human case due to C. bezziana was reported in 1909, we have summarized 291 cases and found that these cases often occurred in patients with poor hygiene, low socio-economic conditions, old age, and underlying diseases including infections, age-related diseases, and noninfectious chronic diseases. But C. bezziana myiasis appears largely neglected as a serious medical or veterinary condition, with human and animal cases only reported in 16 and 24 countries respectively, despite this fly species being recorded in 44 countries worldwide. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that cryptic myiasis cases due to the obligate parasite, C. bezziana, are under-recognized. Through this study on C. bezziana etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention and control, we call for more vigilance and awareness of the disease from governments, health authorities, clinicians, veterinary workers, nursing homes, and also the general public.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dípteros/citologia , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Dípteros/fisiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/diagnóstico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
3.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(2): 282-295, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758067

RESUMO

Before its eradication from North America, the subtropical-tropical new world screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) invaded southwestern temperate areas of the U.S.A., where it caused myiasis in wildlife and livestock. Outbreaks of the fly occurred during years when adult migrants were carried northward on North American monsoon winds from the northern areas of Mexico and south Texas. We deconstruct, retrospectively, the biology and the effect of weather on the eradication of the fly in North America. Screwworm was found to be an ideal candidate for eradication using the sterile insect technique (SIT) because females mate only once, whereas males are polygynous, and, although it has a high reproductive potential, field population growth rates are low in tropical areas. In northern areas, eradication was enhanced by cool-cold weather, whereas eradication in tropical Mexico and Central America is explained by the SIT. Despite low average efficacy of SIT releases (approximately 1.7%), the added pressure of massive SIT releases reduced intrinsically low fly populations, leading to mate-limited extinction. Non-autochthonous cases of myiasis occur in North America and, if the fly reestablishes, climate warming by 2045-2055 will expand the area of favourability and increase the frequency and severity of outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Dípteros/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Aquecimento Global , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/parasitologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
5.
J Med Entomol ; 55(4): 777-786, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722869

RESUMO

Eradicating screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from continental North American via the sterile insect technique has provided huge economic benefit to livestock producers by eliminating screwworm myiasis. After confirmatory identification of fly samples from infested deer by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory on September 30, 2016, an alert was issued that screwworm myiasis was discovered in the Florida Keys. Personnel from USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service, the State of Florida, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and local officials responded to the outbreak focus on Big Pine Key. After witnessing infested Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium Barboyr & Allen), screwworm adult sampling was initiated at 0930 h on October 5, 2016 using nets to collect flies arriving at putrid liver, with the first female collected within 1 h. Larval samples were collected from infested animals for DNA analyses and to develop a "Florida outbreak" colony to test mating compatibility with the mass-produced strain used for sterile fly releases. Ground release chambers for sterile screwworm releases were placed in favorable habitats based on satellite image analyses. Sterile pupae were first placed in the chambers on October 11, 2016. Further liver trapping showed that 13 Keys were infested. One case, presumably through animal movement, occurred near Homestead on the Florida mainland. Ultimately there were 35 sterile fly release stations, including 4 located around Homestead, but no further cases were identified. About 188 million sterile flies were released until successful eradication was declared on March 23, 2017. Containing the outbreak prevented economic losses to livestock producers and other wildlife on the mainland and kept eradication costs to a minimum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle
6.
Aust Vet J ; 95(8): 265-272, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Australian-registered insecticide formulations against Old World screwworm (OWS) myiases for potential use in screwworm containment and eradication programs. METHODS: The longevity of protection provided by six insecticidal formulations (subcutaneous ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin, a topically applied aqueous formulation of spinosad, ivermectin controlled-release capsule and a dicyclanil spray-on formulation) was tested using implants of 1st-instar OWS larvae on Javanese thin-tail sheep. Therapeutic efficacy of four formulations (topical ivermectin, chlorfenvinphos/cypermethrin mixture, aerosol spinosad formulation and a formulation containing propetamphos and eucalyptus oil) was tested against 2- and 4-day-old OWS strikes. RESULTS: Both the ivermectin capsule and dicyclanil spray-on formulation gave 100% protection against screwworm implants for the full 12 weeks of the study. Ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin administered SC all gave 100% protection at 3 days post-treatment, but at 2 weeks the protection had become incomplete. Spinosad dipping did not give complete protection at any time. All four therapeutic treatments gave complete resolution of 2-day-old strikes and topical ivermectin, spinosad and chlorfenvinphos/cypermethrin, but not the propetamphos/eucalyptus oil formulation, gave complete resolution of all 4-day-old strikes. CONCLUSION: Dicyclanil spray-on and ivermectin capsule formulations, both registered for use in sheep, but not for cattle or other livestock species, gave much longer protection against screwworm implants than the currently recommended SC ivermectin. Pre-emptive action to facilitate rapid deployment of these formulations in the event of a screwworm incursion is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália , Dípteros , Indonésia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Ovinos
8.
J. bras. med ; 102(4)julho - agosto 2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-725925

RESUMO

Miíase é uma infestação ectoparasitária, que tem as espécies Cochliomyia hominivorax, Dermatobia hominis e Cochliomyia macellaria como maiores destaques. Os principais fatores de risco são baixo nível socioeconômico, padrões inadequados de higiene, enfermidades psiquiátricas, diabetes mellitus, imunodepressão, etilismo, desnutrição e úlcera varicosa. Os autores abordam a importância epidemiológica da miíase humana em regiões endêmicas, discorrendo sobre manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamento e medidas profiláticas...


The myiasis consists of a parasitic infestation, the species having Cochliomyia hominivorax, Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia macellaria as most prominent. The main risk factors are low socioeconomic status, inadequate hygiene standards, psychiatric disease, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, alcoholism, malnutrition and varicose ulcer. There may be asymptomatic or systemic cases with serious complications. The purpose of this article is to address the epidemiological importance of human myiasis in endemic regions, discussing clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prophylactic measures...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Larva/parasitologia , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/epidemiologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Saneamento Básico , Dor/etiologia , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Higiene/educação , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Prurido/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Controle de Vetores
9.
Aust Vet J ; 92(7): 254-62, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess Australia's targeted surveillance to detect an incursion of screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana). METHODS: A multi-criteria analysis shell was used to combine data on potential pathways of entry, availability of host species and environmental factors affecting survival of screw-worm fly in order to map spatial variation in the relative likelihood of a screw-worm fly incursion into Australia. Australia's current screw-worm fly surveillance activities were reviewed to determine whether they are located in the areas of highest likelihood of an incursion. RESULTS: Under average environmental conditions, an incursion of screw-worm fly in Australia is relatively more likely to occur along the north coast, down the eastern seaboard or in the south-east. Cold winter temperatures would limit the environmental suitability for screw-worm fly survival to the north and north-east coast and adjacent inland areas. Australia's current targeted surveillance conducted by the Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy program of the Australian Department of Agriculture (adult screw-worm fly trapping and myiasis sampling) correlated well with areas considered to have a high relative likelihood of an incursion of screw-worm fly. Adult fly trapping conducted at sea ports was less well correlated. DISCUSSION: Changes to surveillance at sea ports are proposed to better target areas considered to have a higher relative likelihood of screw-worm fly incursion. These include increasing the trapping intensity along the north and north-east coasts and shifting surveillance activity from the west coast to the south-east.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Análise Espacial , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Clima , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Insetos Vetores , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Med Vet Entomol ; 23 Suppl 1: 1-7, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19335824

RESUMO

The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale. Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is a screwworm of temperate regions, which, although of limited agricultural importance, has invaded several new locations in the past few years. This special issue reports on the results of a 6-year project funded by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture entitled 'Enabling Technologies for the Expansion of the SIT for Old and New World Screwworm'. A major goal of the project was to better understand population genetic variation in screwworms as an aid to the identification of isolated populations. The project also addressed issues related to genetic sexing, cuticular hydrocarbons, population dynamics, genetic transformation and chromosome analysis.


Assuntos
Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , América Central , DNA/genética , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas , Masculino , México , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
13.
Med Vet Entomol ; 23 Suppl 1: 8-13, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19335825

RESUMO

New World screwworm populations in North and Central America have been the targets of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT) since the 1950s. Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based control programmes in some locations are unknown, but it has been hypothesized that failure may be related to mating incompatibility between sterile and wild fly populations or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. This paper outlines the development of a suite of four new microsatellite loci which can be used to study intra-specific relationships between populations of Cochliomyia hominivorax from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT control. Cross-amplification with the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria, was also successful with three of the new loci. We present results which suggest that populations from Trinidad and Jamaica form distinct groupings of flies and that C. hominivorax from Trinidad appears particularly distinct.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Primers do DNA , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/transmissão , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical
14.
Med Vet Entomol ; 23 Suppl 1: 14-22, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19335826

RESUMO

Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed.


Assuntos
Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/genética , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Animais , Cuba , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA , República Dominicana , Ecossistema , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Filogenia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Alinhamento de Sequência , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Esterilização/métodos , Estados Unidos , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
15.
Med Vet Entomol ; 23 Suppl 1: 86-91, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19335834

RESUMO

The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is one of the most important myiasis-causing flies in South America. It is responsible for severe economic losses to livestock producers, mainly because it causes mortality in newborn calves and reductions in the quality of leather and in the production of milk and meat. The economic losses caused by myiasis, along with those caused by other internal and external parasites, are the main factors limiting meat production. In Brazil, C. hominivorax has been controlled by applying insecticides, particularly organophosphate (OP)-based compounds. However, the improper and continuous use of these chemicals can lead to the selection of OP-resistant strains. This, associated with the fast development of OP resistance in other myiasis-causing flies, shows the importance of investigating resistance in C. hominivorax. Based on the findings of previous studies, the objective of the current work was to isolate and sequence the E3 gene in C. hominivorax. Mutations at the positions (Gly137 and Trp251) responsible for conferring OP resistance in Lucilia cuprina and Musca domestica L. (Muscidae) were identified in C. hominivorax. In addition, the orthologous region in C. hominivorax contained motifs that are highly conserved among carboxyl/cholinesterases and contribute to the catalytic mechanism of the active site. The characterization of this gene in natural populations of New World screwworm can be an important tool for monitoring resistance to insecticides throughout its current geographic distribution. This will provide information for the selection and implementation of more effective pest management programmes.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , DNA Complementar/genética , Dípteros/enzimologia , Dípteros/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Larva/genética , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/genética , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Esterilização/métodos
16.
Med Vet Entomol ; 23 Suppl 1: 98-105, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19335836

RESUMO

The New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was the first insect to be effectively controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Recent efforts to improve SIT control of this species have centred on the development of genetically transformed strains using the piggyBac transposon vector system. Eight transgenic strains were produced incorporating an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene under polyubiquitin regulation that has the potential for use as a genetic marking system for released males. The transgenic strains were genetically and phenotypically characterized, including for life fitness parameters and mating competitiveness. These characteristics were unique for each strain and thus some strains were deemed suitable for incorporation into SIT eradication programmes. The strain with the best attributes is designated 'CLAY'. Four of the strains, including CLAY, have been successfully cryopreserved so that their original characteristics should be unchanged when further evaluation is required. With the demonstration of efficient germ-line transformation in NWS, allowing production of fit and competitive transformants, it is now possible to consider further transgenic strain development to improve SIT that are currently being tested in other dipteran species. This includes strains that allow genetic marking with fluorescent proteins, genetic sexing by female lethality, male-specific fluorescent sorting and male sterility by testis-specific lethality. The SIT may also be improved upon by new strategies resulting in lethality of offspring of released insects using conditional lethal systems based upon temperature-dependent or dietary tetracycline regulation of lethal gene expression. Both the creation of new NWS transgenic strains and the ecological safety of their release will be enhanced by new vector systems that allow specific genomic targeting of vector constructs and their subsequent immobilization, ensuring transgene and strain stability.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Dípteros/genética , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Animais , DNA/administração & dosagem , DNA/genética , Dípteros/embriologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Letais , Infertilidade/genética , Infertilidade/veterinária , Larva , Masculino , Microinjeções , América do Norte , Pupa , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/genética , América do Sul , Esterilização/métodos , Transformação Genética
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 228(3): 357-67, 2006 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16448356

RESUMO

New World and Old World screwworms pose threats to the livestock industry in the United States and other countries. Diligence on the part of veterinarians, physicians, and their respective staffs is essential to protect the livestock industry.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Zoonoses , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Gestão de Riscos , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/transmissão , Estados Unidos
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 125(3-4): 373-7, 2004 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15482893

RESUMO

A field trial was carried out during a summer-fall period on a commercial beef cattle farm in Minas Gerais State, located in the Southeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate the prophylactic effect and the curative efficacy of fipronil in a 1% solution, 200 Zebu crossbred bulls, with ages varying from 20 to 30 months and weights from 233 to 362 kg, were selected. The bulls were assigned by ranked pair to an untreated control group (A) or to a treated group (B), resulting in 100 animals per group. All experimental animals were surgically castrated on day 0, following routine procedures. After castration all animals in the group B were treated with 10 mg/kg bw of a 1% fipronil solution, topically on the dorsal mid-line. The wounds were individually inspected on days: 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28 and 35. After castration the animals were naturally exposed to Cochliomyia hominivorax and remained in the same pasture throughout the trial. Among the animals in the control group, 83 were observed to harbor C. hominivorax eggs, with a total of 97 ovipositions, and among those 73 animals had active myiasis. In group B (fipronil 1%), 66 animals showed C. hominivorax eggs, with 92 ovipositions and five animals with active myiasis. Most ovipositions and active myiasis were detected until seven days post-castration for both groups. Wound parasite infestation evidenced bleeding, serous purulent exudation and presence of active C. hominivorax larvae. Treatment with fipronil 1% had a prophylactic effect on scrotal wounds against the development of C. hominivorax larvae in more than 95% of the treated animals for up to 17 days after castration. The treatment showed partial protection of 66% and 50% on days 21 and 28 post-treatment (pt), respectively. Three animals from the control group and one from the treated group showed active screwworms on day 21 pt, and one animal from the treated group and two from the control group also presented C. hominivorax larvae on scrotal wounds on day 28 pt. By the end of the observation period (day 35 pt), the castration wound had healed in all animals. All experimental animals presenting scrotal wounds infested with C. hominivorax larvae were treated with a 1% pour-on formulation of fipronil, on the same day that infestation was observed. Active C. hominivorax larvae were not seen during the monitoring period immediately after treatment. The curative efficacy of fipronil 1% against C. hominivorax larvae infestation in castration wounds was 100%.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Miíase/veterinária , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Dípteros/metabolismo , Masculino , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/prevenção & controle , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/parasitologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Escroto/parasitologia , Escroto/cirurgia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Med Vet Entomol ; 18(1): 1-9, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15009439

RESUMO

Sterile insect technique (SIT) programs are designed to eradicate pest species by releasing mass-reared, sterile insects into an infested area. The first major implementation of SIT was the New World Screwworm Eradication Program, which successfully eliminated the New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), from the Continental US, Mexico and much of Central America. Ionizing radiation is currently used for sterilization, but transgenic insect techniques could replace this method, providing a safer, more cost-effective alternative. Genetic transformation methods have been demonstrated in NWS, and verified by Southern blot hybridization, PCR and sequencing of element insertion junctions. A lethal insertional mutation and enhancer detection-like phenotypic expression variations are presented and discussed. In addition to supporting the eradication efforts, transformation methods offer potential means to identify genes and examine gene function in NWS.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/prevenção & controle , Animais , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Plasmídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transformação Genética/fisiologia
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