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1.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 96-103, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152193

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID pandemic is a challenge for public health surveillance and an opportunity to assess its strengths and weaknesses to improve the response. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the Colombian public health surveillance system during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country. Materials and methods: We analyzed the data published between March 6 and April 24, 2020, by the Instituto Nacional de Salud and the World Health Organization (WHO). We evaluated: i) the quality of the data according to the fulfillment of Benford's law, and ii) the timeliness of the information measured as the difference in dates between the data generated by the Instituto Nacional de Salud and WHO's situational reports. We assessed the fulfillment of Benford's law using the p values of the log-likelihood ratio, the chi square or Moreno's exact tests. Results: Until April 24 there were 4,881 cases of COVID-19 in Colombia. During most of the first 50 days of the pandemic, Benford's law was fulfilled except the first days of the epidemic. The difference between Instituto Nacional de Salud and WHO reports largely depends on the different reporting times. Conclusion: In general, the Colombian public health surveillance system fulfilled Benford's law suggesting that there was quality in the data. Future studies comparing the performance of the departments and districts will improve the diagnosis of the Colombian surveillance system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Internet , Vigilância da População/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Distribuições Estatísticas , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
3.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108339, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147451

RESUMO

Here, we report our studies of immune-mediated regulation of Zika virus (ZIKV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the human cornea. We find that ZIKV can be transmitted via corneal transplantation in mice. However, in human corneal explants, we report that ZIKV does not replicate efficiently and that SARS-CoV-2 does not replicate at all. Additionally, we demonstrate that type III interferon (IFN-λ) and its receptor (IFNλR1) are expressed in the corneal epithelium. Treatment of human corneal explants with IFN-λ, and treatment of mice with IFN-λ eye drops, upregulates antiviral interferon-stimulated genes. In human corneal explants, blockade of IFNλR1 enhances replication of ZIKV and HSV-1 but not SARS-CoV-2. In addition to an antiviral role for IFNλR1 in the cornea, our results suggest that the human cornea does not support SARS-CoV-2 infection despite expression of ACE2, a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in the human corneal epithelium.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Córnea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Córnea/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/transmissão , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5278, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077712

RESUMO

There are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines available against Zika virus (ZIKV) to counteract its potential for congenital disease. Antibody-based countermeasures targeting the ZIKV envelope protein have been hampered by concerns for cross-reactive responses that induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of heterologous flavivirus infection. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a membrane-associated and secreted glycoprotein that functions in flavivirus replication and immune evasion but is absent from the virion. Although some studies suggest that antibodies against ZIKV NS1 are protective, their activity during congenital infection is unknown. Here we develop mouse and human anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies that protect against ZIKV in both non-pregnant and pregnant mice. Avidity of antibody binding to cell-surface NS1 along with Fc effector functions engagement correlate with protection in vivo. Protective mAbs map to exposed epitopes in the wing domain and loop face of the ß-platform. Anti-NS1 antibodies provide an alternative strategy for protection against congenital ZIKV infection without causing ADE.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Zika virus/química , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S340-S347, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001726

RESUMO

Objectives. To provide a comprehensive workflow to identify top influential health misinformation about Zika on Twitter in 2016, reconstruct information dissemination networks of retweeting, contrast mis- from real information on various metrics, and investigate how Zika misinformation proliferated on social media during the Zika epidemic.Methods. We systematically reviewed the top 5000 English-language Zika tweets, established an evidence-based definition of "misinformation," identified misinformation tweets, and matched a comparable group of real-information tweets. We developed an algorithm to reconstruct retweeting networks for 266 misinformation and 458 comparable real-information tweets. We computed and compared 9 network metrics characterizing network structure across various levels between the 2 groups.Results. There were statistically significant differences in all 9 network metrics between real and misinformation groups. Misinformation network structures were generally more sophisticated than those in the real-information group. There was substantial within-group variability, too.Conclusions. Dissemination networks of Zika misinformation differed substantially from real information on Twitter, indicating that misinformation utilized distinct dissemination mechanisms from real information. Our study will lead to a more holistic understanding of health misinformation challenges on social media.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Epidemias , Disseminação de Informação , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0235877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091010

RESUMO

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure results in a spectrum of disease ranging from severe birth defects to delayed onset neurodevelopmental deficits. ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis, predictors of birth defects, and neurodevelopmental deficits are not well defined in people. Here we assess the methodological and statistical feasibility of a congenital ZIKV exposure macaque model for identifying infant neurobehavior and brain abnormalities that may underlie neurodevelopmental deficits. We inoculated five pregnant macaques with ZIKV and mock-inoculated one macaque in the first trimester. Following birth, growth, ocular structure/function, brain structure, hearing, histopathology, and neurobehavior were quantitatively assessed during the first week of life. We identified the typical pregnancy outcomes of congenital ZIKV infection, with fetal demise and placental abnormalities. We estimated sample sizes needed to define differences between groups and demonstrated that future studies quantifying brain region volumes, retinal structure, hearing, and visual pathway function require a sample size of 14 animals per group (14 ZIKV, 14 control) to detect statistically significant differences in at least half of the infant exam parameters. Establishing the parameters for future studies of neurodevelopmental outcomes following congenital ZIKV exposure in macaques is essential for robust and rigorous experimental design.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Audição/patologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Transtornos da Visão/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Transtornos da Audição/etiologia , Macaca mulatta , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111925

RESUMO

Almost half of the Brazilian population has no access to sewage collection and treatment. Untreated effluents discharged in waters of reservoirs for human supply favor the flowering of cyanobacteria - and these microorganisms produce toxins, such as saxitoxin, which is a very potent neurotoxin present in reservoirs in the Northeast region. A recent study confirmed that chronic ingestion of neurotoxin-infected water associated with Zika virus infection could lead to a microcephaly-like outcome in pregnant mice. Cyanobacteria benefit from hot weather and organic matter in water, a condition that has been intensified by climate change, according to our previous studies. Considering the new findings, we emphasize that zika arbovirus is widespread and worsened when associated with climate change, especially in middle- or low-income countries with low levels of sanitation coverage.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proliferação de Células , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Risco
9.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096825

RESUMO

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Simplexvirus/metabolismo , Terapêutica/métodos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/virologia , Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5189, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060596

RESUMO

Among the various host cellular processes that are hijacked by flaviviruses, few mechanisms have been described with regard to viral egress. Here we investigate how flaviviruses exploit Src family kinases (SFKs) for exit from infected cells. We identify Lyn as a critical component for secretion of Dengue and Zika infectious particles and their corresponding virus like particles (VLPs). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of the SFKs, Lyn in particular, block virus secretion. Lyn-/- cells are impaired in virus release and are rescued when reconstituted with wild-type Lyn, but not a kinase- or palmitoylation-deficient Lyn mutant. We establish that virus particles are secreted in two distinct populations - one as free virions and the other enclosed within membranes. Lyn is critical for the latter, which consists of proteolytically processed, infectious virus progenies within autophagosome-derived vesicles. This process depends on Ulk1, Rab GTPases and SNARE complexes implicated in secretory but not degradative autophagy and occur with significantly faster kinetics than the conventional secretory pathway. Our study reveals a previously undiscovered Lyn-dependent exit route of flaviviruses in LC3+ secretory organelles that enables them to evade circulating antibodies and might affect tissue tropism.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/virologia , Flavivirus/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dengue , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Via Secretória , Células Vero , Vírion/metabolismo , Liberação de Vírus , Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/genética
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027393

RESUMO

The Northeast of Brazil has experienced a triple epidemic, with the simultaneous circulation of dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which may have contributed to the observed increase across this region of atypical forms of disease and deaths. In view of this fact, non-congenital neurological disorders related to arboviruses were compared with other etiologies, mortality and survival rates of patients admitted to referral neurology hospitals in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, from 2015 to 2018. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays. The arbovirus-exposed groups were compared with respect to epidemiological, clinical and neurologic characteristics by using the Pearson's chi-square test. For the survival analysis, the Kaplan-Meier and Hazard Ratio (HR) tests were used, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Encephalitis and encephalomyelitis were more frequent in arboviruses, while myelitis predominated in the neurological disorders of other etiologies. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was similarly distributed amongst the groups. Exposure to one of the arboviruses caused a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR: 6.37; CI: 2.91 - 13.9). Amongst the arbovirus-exposed groups, infection (DENV/CHIKV) increased nine times the risk of death (HR: 9.07; CI: 3.67 - 22.4). The survival curve indicates that have been exposed to some arbovirus decreased the likelihood of survival compared to those with other etiologies (Log-Rank: p<0.001). Within this scenario, neurologic manifestations of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV have the potential to increase mortality and decrease survival, and concomitant infection (DENV/CHIKV) is an aggravating factor in reducing the likelihood of survival when compared to monoinfections.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalomielite/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Brasil , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Dengue/complicações , Encefalomielite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 461-470, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046929

RESUMO

In recent times, there has been an increased focus on animal health and zoonotic diseases that have the potential to trigger epidemics or pandemics that disproportionately affect the poor and most vulnerable. The recent Ebola, Zika and COVID-19 outbreaks demonstrate the devastating human, social and economic impacts of such diseases if they are not prevented or controlled, ideally at source. The risk drivers for zoonoses, which are complex and often interdependent, include climate change and related disasters, antimicrobial resistance, and anthropogenic drivers such as land-use changes and animal production practices. Understanding these drivers requires a better understanding of the ecology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal-environment interface. Biosecurity and biosafety are critical for reducing the risk of accidental or deliberate release and should be included in risk management strategies. International frameworks for sustainable development, climate change, and disaster risk reduction have all integrated health as one of the core areas of work, calling for better preparedness and response to biological hazards and increased health system resilience. To improve their ability to prevent, prepare for, and respond to emerging and re-emerging threats, countries should address these risk drivers, taking a multidisciplinary One Health approach that involves the animal and human health and environment sectors. Cross-border cooperation is also vital, as diseases know no boundaries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Desastres , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5496, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127896

RESUMO

Mechanical anisotropy is an essential property for many biomolecules to assume their structures, functions and applications, however, the mechanisms for their direction-dependent mechanical responses remain elusive. Herein, by using a single-molecule nanopore sensing technique, we explore the mechanisms of directional mechanical stability of the xrRNA1 RNA from ZIKA virus (ZIKV), which forms a complex ring-like architecture. We reveal extreme mechanical anisotropy in ZIKV xrRNA1 which highly depends on Mg2+ and the key tertiary interactions. The absence of Mg2+ and disruption of the key tertiary interactions strongly affect the structural integrity and attenuate mechanical anisotropy. The significance of ring structures in RNA mechanical anisotropy is further supported by steered molecular dynamics simulations in combination with force distribution analysis. We anticipate the ring structures can be used as key elements to build RNA-based nanostructures with controllable mechanical anisotropy for biomaterial and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , Zika virus/genética , Anisotropia , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Viral/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941515

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV predominantly enters cells using the TAM-family protein tyrosine kinase receptor AXL, which is expressed on a range of cell types, including neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and osteoblasts. ZIKV infections have been associated with fetal brain damage, which prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency in 2016. ZIKV infection has also been linked to birth defects in other organs. Several studies have reported congenital heart defects (CHD) in ZIKV infected infants and cardiovascular complications in adults infected with ZIKV. To develop a better understanding of potential causes for these pathologies at a cellular level, we characterized ZIKV infection of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (fcMSCs), a cell type that is known to contribute to both embryological development as well as adult cardiac physiology. Total RNA, supernatants, and/or cells were collected at various time points post-infection to evaluate ZIKV replication, cell death, and antiviral responses. We found that ZIKV productively infected fcMSCs with peak (~70%) viral mRNA detected at 48 h. Use of an antibody blocking the AXL receptor decreased ZIKV infection (by ~50%), indicating that the receptor is responsible to a large extent for viral entry into the cell. ZIKV also altered protein expression of several mesenchymal cell markers, which suggests that ZIKV could affect fcMSCs' differentiation process. Gene expression analysis of fcMSCs exposed to ZIKV at 6, 12, and 24 h post-infection revealed up-regulation of genes/pathways associated with interferon-stimulated antiviral responses. Stimulation of TLR3 (using poly I:C) or TLR7 (using Imiquimod) prior to ZIKV infection suppressed viral replication in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, fcMSCs can be a target for ZIKV infection, potentially resulting in CHD during embryological development and/or cardiovascular issues in ZIKV infected adults.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/virologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/virologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Replicação Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Morte Celular , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Vero , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008640, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986701

RESUMO

Several hundred thousand Zika cases have been reported across the Americas since 2015. Incidence of infection was likely much higher, however, due to a high frequency of asymptomatic infection and other challenges that surveillance systems faced. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model with empirically-informed priors, we leveraged multiple types of Zika case data from 15 countries to estimate subnational reporting probabilities and infection attack rates (IARs). Zika IAR estimates ranged from 0.084 (95% CrI: 0.067-0.096) in Peru to 0.361 (95% CrI: 0.214-0.514) in Ecuador, with significant subnational variability in every country. Totaling infection estimates across these and 33 other countries and territories, our results suggest that 132.3 million (95% CrI: 111.3-170.2 million) people in the Americas had been infected by the end of 2018. These estimates represent the most extensive attempt to determine the size of the Zika epidemic in the Americas, offering a baseline for assessing the risk of future Zika epidemics in this region.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Equador/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Peru/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23869-23878, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907937

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has associated Zika virus (ZIKV) infection with congenital malformations, including microcephaly, which raises global alarm. Nonetheless, mechanisms by which ZIKV disrupts neurogenesis and causes microcephaly are far from being understood. In this study, we discovered direct effects of ZIKV on neural progenitor cell development by inducing caspase-1- and gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptotic cell death, linking ZIKV infection with the development of microcephaly. Importantly, caspase-1 depletion or its inhibitor VX-765 treatment reduced ZIKV-induced inflammatory responses and pyroptosis, and substantially attenuated neuropathology and brain atrophy in vivo. Collectively, our data identify caspase-1- and GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in neural progenitor cells as a previously unrecognized mechanism for ZIKV-related pathological effects during neural development, and also provide treatment options for ZIKV-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Células-Tronco Neurais , Piroptose/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Microcefalia/virologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
17.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(5): 405-411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941805

RESUMO

Several major epidemics of Zika fever, caused by the ZIKA virus (ZIKV), have emerged in Brazil since early 2015, eventually spreading to other countries on the South American continent. The present study describes the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of patients with confirmed acute ZIKV infection during the first epidemic that occurred in Salvador, Brazil. All included patients were seen at the emergency room of a private tertiary hospital located in Salvador, Brazil from 2015 through 2017. Patients were considered eligible if signs of systemic viral febrile disease were present. All individuals were tested for ZIKV and Chikungunya infection using PCR, while rapid test was used to detect Dengue virus antibodies or, alternatively, the NS1 antigen. A diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection was confirmed in 78/434 (18%) individuals with systemic viral febrile illness. Positivity was mainly observed in blood, followed by saliva and urine. Coinfection with Chikungunya and/or Dengue virus was detected in 5% of the ZIKV-infected patients. The most frequent clinical findings were myalgia, arthralgia and low-grade fever. Laboratory analysis demonstrated normal levels of hematocrit, platelets and liver enzymes. In summary, in acute settings where molecular testing remains unavailable, clinicians face difficulties to confirm the diagnosis of ZIKV infection, as they rely only on clinical examinations and conventional laboratory tests.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Epidemias , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
18.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 329-332, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877071

RESUMO

Zika virus infection: what advice in post-epidemic situation? Zika virus transmission is vector-borne, but it can also be sexual. The Zika disease contracted by an adult or child is most often mild but infection of the woman during pregnancy can lead to severe neurological congenital lesions. The Zika virus continues to circulate in many parts of the world. Risk of infection during travel is low but cannot be overlooked. An infected man can be infectious, during sexual intercourse, up to 3 months after contracting the disease. Information of pregnant women and couples with a child project is warranted if at least one of the two trips or has travelled in Zika virus transmission zone. Laboratory serologic tests can be used to determine if the partners have been infected and to verify, through the investigation of the virus in the semen, that there is no risk of sexual transmission.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Viagem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3310, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand the influence of the religious beliefs on the decision of a group of women residing in the Huila Department to continue their pregnancies despite perinatal infection by the Zika virus. METHOD: a focused ethnography. The participants were 21 women who had presented a perinatal infection by the Zika virus and whose babies were born with congenital microcephaly. 2 discussion groups and 6 semi-structured interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis was used for data treatment. RESULTS: three themes emerged, namely: "God, why me?" is the initial questioning of the women to God for the prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly in their babies, "Clinging to a divine miracle" describes how the women did not lose their faith and begged for a divine miracle for their babies to be born healthy, and "It was God's will" means acceptance, resignation, and respect for God's will, as well as the denial to abort despite the medical recommendations. CONCLUSION: religiosity and religious beliefs were determinant factors in the women's decision to continue their pregnancies. It becomes necessary to continue investigating this theme to understand their experiences and to generate follow-up and support actions from nursing care.


Assuntos
Infecções , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Religião
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