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1.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0250854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086691

RESUMO

The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has been considered the most effective way to avoid the contamination of healthcare workers by different microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2. A spray disinfection technology (chamber) was developed, and its efficacy in instant decontamination of previously contaminated surfaces was evaluated in two exposure times. Seven test microorganisms were prepared and inoculated on the surface of seven types of PPE (respirator mask, face shield, shoe, glove, cap, safety glasses and lab coat). The tests were performed on previously contaminated PPE using a manikin with a motion device for exposure to the chamber with biocidal agent (sodium hypochlorite) for 10 and 30s. In 96.93% of the experimental conditions analyzed, the percentage reduction was >99% (the number of viable cells found on the surface ranged from 4.3x106 to <10 CFU/mL). The samples of E. faecalis collected from the glove showed the lowest percentages reduction, with 86.000 and 86.500% for exposure times of 10 and 30 s, respectively. The log10 reduction values varied between 0.85 log10 (E. faecalis at 30 s in glove surface) and 9.69 log10 (E. coli at 10 and 30 s in lab coat surface). In general, E. coli, S. aureus, C. freundii, P. mirabilis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis showed susceptibility to the biocidal agent under the tested conditions, with >99% reduction after 10 and 30s, while E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa showed a lower susceptibility. The 30s exposure time was more effective for the inactivation of the tested microorganisms. The results show that the spray disinfection technology has the potential for instant decontamination of PPE, which can contribute to an additional barrier for infection control of healthcare workers in the hospital environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2 , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Humanos
2.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064516

RESUMO

Sphingolipids are important structural membrane components and, together with cholesterol, are often organized in lipid rafts, where they act as signaling molecules in many cellular functions. They play crucial roles in regulating pathobiological processes, such as cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. The bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and sphingosine have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several microbes. In contrast to ceramide, which often promotes bacterial and viral infections (for instance, by mediating adhesion and internalization), sphingosine, which is released from ceramide by the activity of ceramidases, kills many bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. In particular, sphingosine is an important natural component of the defense against bacterial pathogens in the respiratory tract. Pathologically reduced sphingosine levels in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells are normalized by inhalation of sphingosine, and coating plastic implants with sphingosine prevents bacterial infections. Pretreatment of cells with exogenous sphingosine also prevents the viral spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from interacting with host cell receptors and inhibits the propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in macrophages. Recent examinations reveal that the bactericidal effect of sphingosine might be due to bacterial membrane permeabilization and the subsequent death of the bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Micoses/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/imunologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/metabolismo , Micoses/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Esfingosina/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070174

RESUMO

This review focuses on the molecular chaperone ClpB that belongs to the Hsp100/Clp subfamily of the AAA+ ATPases and its biological function in selected bacterial pathogens, causing a variety of human infectious diseases, including zoonoses. It has been established that ClpB disaggregates and reactivates aggregated cellular proteins. It has been postulated that ClpB's protein disaggregation activity supports the survival of pathogenic bacteria under host-induced stresses (e.g., high temperature and oxidative stress), which allows them to rapidly adapt to the human host and establish infection. Interestingly, ClpB may also perform other functions in pathogenic bacteria, which are required for their virulence. Since ClpB is not found in human cells, this chaperone emerges as an attractive target for novel antimicrobial therapies in combating bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Endopeptidase Clp/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/etiologia , Endopeptidase Clp/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Virulência/fisiologia
4.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(4): 783-797, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059250

RESUMO

This evidence-based review highlights cutaneous infections of bacterial, viral, and fungal origin that are frequently encountered by clinicians in all fields of practice. With a focus on treatment options and management, the scope of this article is to serve as a reference for physicians, regardless of field of specialty, as they encounter these pathogens in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ectima/diagnóstico , Ectima/tratamento farmacológico , Erisipela/diagnóstico , Erisipela/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema Multiforme/diagnóstico , Eritema Multiforme/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Fasciite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Foliculite/diagnóstico , Foliculite/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Labial/diagnóstico , Herpes Labial/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Humanos , Impetigo/diagnóstico , Impetigo/tratamento farmacológico , Erupção Variceliforme de Kaposi/diagnóstico , Erupção Variceliforme de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/microbiologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/virologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5638-5651, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993695

RESUMO

Extensive studies focused on the therapeutic efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against bacterial infection. However, little is known about its prophylactic efficacy against bacterial infection. Herein, we found that EGCG showed an effective prophylactic efficacy against bacterial infection with a broad spectrum, including Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and drug-resistant bacteria. Pretreatment with EGCG through intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection, or intragastric administration significantly reduced the bacterial load, inflammatory response, and mortality in mouse abdominal infection models induced by bacterial inoculation or cecal ligation and puncture. Pretreatment with EGCG by intraperitoneal injection significantly increased the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages in the abdominal cavity and peripheral blood of mice, and depletion of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages by specific antibodies or chemical drugs obviously increased the bacterial load in mice. Of note, EGCG did not directly induce neutrophil and macrophage migration, and it just induced phagocyte migration in the presence of macrophages in a co-cultured system, implying that EGCG-induced phagocyte migration relies on its immunoregulatory effects on macrophages. EGCG markedly induced the production of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages and mouse peritoneal lavage, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, CXC chemokine ligands 1 and 2 (CXCL1 and 2), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). EGCG significantly induced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in macrophages, and inhibition of p38 and JNK MAPKs markedly reduced EGCG-induced chemokine and cytokine production. Anti-67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) antibody treatment significantly reduced EGCG-induced chemokine production and p38 and JNK phosphorylation in macrophages. Together, EGCG showed an obvious prophylactic efficacy against bacterial infection by inducing a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages through the 67LR/p38/JNK signaling pathway, supporting the further development of EGCG as a potent prophylaxis for bacterial infection and providing new clues to understand the healthcare function of green tea.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Catequina , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores de Laminina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(4): 497-499, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053499

RESUMO

In recent years, the problem of bacterial resistance has become more and more serious, which has brought troubles to global public health and medical care. The time and money required to develop new antibiotics is even greater than before. Bacteriophage is a kind of virus that can specifically infect bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and other microorganisms. Relying on host bacteria to replicate in large numbers, rich species, low research and development cost, the value of anti-infection therapy is very considerable. It is a new generation of biological antimicrobial agents with great potential. This paper briefly describes the sterilization mechanism, progress of research on anti-infection aspect and clinical application of phage, in order to provide reference for phage anti-infection treatment and clinical application.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Bacteriófagos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Haemophilus influenzae , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Neisseria meningitidis , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Prática de Saúde Pública , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 238, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is a common symptom in children presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). We aimed to describe the epidemiology of systemic viral infections and their predictive values for excluding serious bacterial infections (SBIs), including bacteremia, meningitis and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children presenting to the ED with suspected systemic infections. METHODS: We enrolled children who presented to the ED with suspected systemic infections who had blood cultures obtained at seven healthcare facilities. Whole blood specimens were analyzed by an experimental multiplexed PCR test for 7 viruses. Demographic and laboratory results were abstracted. RESULTS: Of the 1114 subjects enrolled, 245 viruses were detected in 224 (20.1%) subjects. Bacteremia, meningitis and UTI frequency in viral bloodstream-positive patients was 1.3, 0 and 10.1% compared to 2.9, 1.3 and 9.7% in viral bloodstream-negative patients respectively. Although viral bloodstream detections had a high negative predictive value for bacteremia or meningitis (NPV = 98.7%), the frequency of UTIs among these subjects remained appreciable (9/89, 10.1%) (NPV = 89.9%). Screening urinalyses were positive for leukocyte esterase in 8/9 (88.9%) of these subjects, improving the ability to distinguish UTI. CONCLUSIONS: Viral bloodstream detections were common in children presenting to the ED with suspected systemic infections. Although overall frequencies of SBIs among subjects with and without viral bloodstream detections did not differ significantly, combining whole blood viral testing with urinalysis provided high NPV for excluding SBI.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Bacterianas , Infecções Urinárias , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(15): 1643-1654, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP), a large number of cytokines induced by local pancreatic inflammation seriously damage the intestinal barrier function, and intestinal bacteria and endotoxins enter the blood, causing inflammatory storm, resulting in multiple organ failure, infectious complications, and other disorders, eventually leading to death. Intestinal failure occurs early in the course of AP, accelerating its development. As an alternative method to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, the hydrogen breath test is safe, noninvasive, and convenient, reflecting the number of intestinal bacteria in AP indirectly. This study aimed to investigate the changes in intestinal bacteria measured using the hydrogen breath test in the early stage of AP to clarify the relationship between intestinal bacteria and acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Early clinical intervention and maintenance of intestinal barrier function would be highly beneficial in controlling the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). AIM: To analyze the relationship between intestinal bacteria change and ALI/ARDS in the early stage of SAP. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with AP admitted to the intensive care unit of the Digestive Department, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from 2016 to 2019 were finally enrolled, following compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of the hydrogen breath test within 1 wk of admission were collected, and the hydrogen production rates at admission, 72 h, and 96 h were calculated. The higher the hydrogen production rates the more bacteria in the small intestine. First, according to the improved Marshall scoring system in the 2012 Atlanta Consensus on New Standards for Classification of Acute Pancreatitis, 66 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≤ 1 were included in the mild AP (MAP) group, 18 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≥ 2 and duration < 48 h were included in the moderately SAP (MSAP) group, and 65 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≥ 2 and duration > 48 h were included in the SAP group, to analyze the correlation between intestinal bacterial overgrowth and organ failure in AP. Second, ALI (PaO2/FiO2 = 2) and ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 > 2) were defined according to the simplified diagnostic criteria proposed by the 1994 European Union Conference. The MSAP group was divided into two groups according to the PaO2/FiO2 score: 15 patients with PaO2/FiO2 score = 2 were included in group A, and three patients with score > 2 were included in group B. Similarly, the SAP group was divided into two groups: 28 patients with score = 2 were included in group C, and 37 patients with score > 2 were included in group D, to analyze the correlation between intestinal bacterial overgrowth and ALI/ARDS in AP. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients were included: 66 patients in the MAP group, of whom 53 patients were male (80.3%) and 13 patients were female (19.7%); 18 patients in the MSAP group, of whom 13 patients were male (72.2%) and 5 patients were female (27.8%); 65 patients in the SAP group, of whom 48 patients were male (73.8%) and 17 patients were female (26.2%). There was no significant difference in interleukin-6 and procalcitonin among the MAP, MSAP, and SAP groups (P = 0.445 and P = 0.399, respectively). There was no significant difference in the growth of intestinal bacteria among the MAP, MSAP, and SAP groups (P = 0.649). There was no significant difference in the growth of small intestinal bacteria between group A and group B (P = 0.353). There was a significant difference in the growth of small intestinal bacteria between group C and group D (P = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Intestinal bacterial overgrowth in the early stage of SAP is correlated with ARDS.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956882

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recovery of other pathogens in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported, either at the time of a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis (co-infection) or subsequently (superinfection). However, data on the prevalence, microbiology, and outcomes of co-infection and superinfection are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of co-infections and superinfections and their outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched literature databases for studies published from October 1, 2019, through February 8, 2021. We included studies that reported clinical features and outcomes of co-infection or superinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. We followed PRISMA guidelines, and we registered the protocol with PROSPERO as: CRD42020189763. RESULTS: Of 6639 articles screened, 118 were included in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%-25%, I2 = 98%) and that of superinfection was 24% (95% CI: 19%-30%). Pooled prevalence of pathogen type stratified by co- or superinfection were: viral co-infections, 10% (95% CI: 6%-14%); viral superinfections, 4% (95% CI: 0%-10%); bacterial co-infections, 8% (95% CI: 5%-11%); bacterial superinfections, 20% (95% CI: 13%-28%); fungal co-infections, 4% (95% CI: 2%-7%); and fungal superinfections, 8% (95% CI: 4%-13%). Patients with a co-infection or superinfection had higher odds of dying than those who only had SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.82-5.99). Compared to those with co-infections, patients with superinfections had a higher prevalence of mechanical ventilation (45% [95% CI: 33%-58%] vs. 10% [95% CI: 5%-16%]), but patients with co-infections had a greater average length of hospital stay than those with superinfections (mean = 29.0 days, standard deviation [SD] = 6.7 vs. mean = 16 days, SD = 6.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that as many as 19% of patients with COVID-19 have co-infections and 24% have superinfections. The presence of either co-infection or superinfection was associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. Our findings support the need for diagnostic testing to identify and treat co-occurring respiratory infections among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Superinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , /terapia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/terapia , Prevalência , Superinfecção/mortalidade , Superinfecção/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/mortalidade , Viroses/terapia
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 279: 54-61, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965919

RESUMO

Hydrogen breath tests are a well-established method to help diagnose functional intestinal disorders such as carbohydrate malabsorption or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. In this work we apply unsupervised machine learning techniques to analyze hydrogen breath test datasets. We propose a method that uses 26 internal cluster validation measures to determine a suitable number of clusters. In an induced external validation step we use a predefined categorization proposed by a medical expert. The results indicate that the majority of the considered internal validation indexes was not able to produce a reasonable clustering. Considering a predefined categorization performed by a medical expert, a novel shape-based method obtained the highest external validation measure in terms of adjusted rand index. The predefined clusterings constitute the basis of a supervised machine learning step that is part of our ongoing research.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Testes Respiratórios , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Hidrogênio , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806981

RESUMO

Infectious diseases occur worldwide with great frequency in both adults and children. Both infections and their treatments trigger mitochondrial interactions at multiple levels: (i) incorporation of damaged or mutated proteins to the complexes of the electron transport chain, (ii) mitochondrial genome (depletion, deletions, and point mutations) and mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission), (iii) membrane potential, (iv) apoptotic regulation, (v) generation of reactive oxygen species, among others. Such alterations may result in serious adverse clinical events with great impact on children's quality of life, even resulting in death. As such, bacterial agents are frequently associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, ultimately leading to mitochondrial apoptosis by activation of caspases-3 and -9. Using Rayyan QCRI software for systematic reviews, we explore the association between mitochondrial alterations and pediatric infections including (i) bacterial: M. tuberculosis, E. cloacae, P. mirabilis, E. coli, S. enterica, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and (ii) parasitic: P. falciparum. We analyze how these pediatric infections and their treatments may lead to mitochondrial deterioration in this especially vulnerable population, with the intention of improving both the understanding of these diseases and their management in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Parasitárias/metabolismo , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Apoptose , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Oxirredução , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 170-175, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829687

RESUMO

At present, bacterial infections are mainly treated with antibiotics, but new treatment methods are urgently needed because of growing problems with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, phage therapy will be a potential solution to the problem of bacterial drug resistance, and the combined use of bacteriophage and antibiotics is also considered a potential treatment option. However, there has not been any well-designed clinical controlled trials on phage therapy. More future research needs to be done to solve the problems of phage therapy, for example, its narrow antibacterial spectrum, the uncertainty regarding treatment safety, and the bacterial resistance. Some refractory diseases such as breast cancer and alcoholic hepatitis are difficult to treat clinically. The successful experimental research on bacteriophages reported in these fields provides new ideas of treatment for more refractory diseases in the future. In addition, bacteriophages also showed promising performance in vaccine applications and osteanagenesis. We herein summarize the existing weaknesses of phage therapy and its application prospects in treating systemic diseases, hoping to promote further clinical application research of phage therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Bacteriófagos , Terapia por Fagos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2369, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888691

RESUMO

Photoactivatable molecules enable ablation of malignant cells under the control of light, yet current agents can be ineffective at early stages of disease when target cells are similar to healthy surrounding tissues. In this work, we describe a chemical platform based on amino-substituted benzoselenadiazoles to build photoactivatable probes that mimic native metabolites as indicators of disease onset and progression. Through a series of synthetic derivatives, we have identified the key chemical groups in the benzoselenadiazole scaffold responsible for its photodynamic activity, and subsequently designed photosensitive metabolic warheads to target cells associated with various diseases, including bacterial infections and cancer. We demonstrate that versatile benzoselenadiazole metabolites can selectively kill pathogenic cells - but not healthy cells - with high precision after exposure to non-toxic visible light, reducing any potential side effects in vivo. This chemical platform provides powerful tools to exploit cellular metabolic signatures for safer therapeutic and surgical approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organosselênicos/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Corantes Fluorescentes/efeitos adversos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/efeitos da radiação , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Luz , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Compostos Organosselênicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/efeitos da radiação , Esferoides Celulares , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103768, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875204

RESUMO

Game birds may carry zoonotic bacteria in their intestines and transmit them to hunters through bird handling or through the handling and consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the prevalence of foodborne bacteria was screened from game bird faeces and mallard breast meat using PCR. The sampling occurred in southern Finland from August to December during the hunting season. Isolates were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were used to assess the microbial contamination of mallard meat. In total, 100 woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), 101 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), 110 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and 30 teals (Anas crecca) were screened during the hunting season. Additionally, 100 mallard breast meat samples were collected. Campylobacter and Listeria were commonly detected in the faeces and Listeria on mallard meat. L. monocytogenes of sequence types associated with human listeriosis were frequently found in game bird faeces and on mallard meat. Good hygiene during game bird handling, storing the game bird meat frozen, and proper heat treatment are important measures to minimize the health risk for hunters and consumers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , /transmissão , Aves/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Finlândia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/metabolismo , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808774

RESUMO

The fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance is one of the most important challenges facing health systems worldwide. Given the limitations of current diagnostic methods, the development of fast and accurate tests for the diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections would improve patient management and treatment, as well as contribute to reducing antibiotic misuse in clinical settings. In this scenario, analysis of host transcriptomics constitutes a promising target to develop new diagnostic tests based on the host-specific response to infections. We carried out a multi-cohort meta-analysis of blood transcriptomic data available in public databases, including 11 different studies and 1209 samples from virus- (n = 695) and bacteria- (n = 514) infected patients. We applied a Parallel Regularized Regression Model Search (PReMS) on a set of previously reported genes that distinguished viral from bacterial infection to find a minimum gene expression bio-signature. This strategy allowed us to detect three genes, namely BAFT, ISG15 and DNMT1, that clearly differentiate groups of infection with high accuracy (training set: area under the curve (AUC) 0.86 (sensitivity: 0.81; specificity: 0.87); testing set: AUC 0.87 (sensitivity: 0.82; specificity: 0.86)). BAFT and ISG15 are involved in processes related to immune response, while DNMT1 is related to the preservation of methylation patterns, and its expression is modulated by pathogen infections. We successfully tested this three-transcript signature in the 11 independent studies, demonstrating its high performance under different scenarios. The main advantage of this three-gene signature is the low number of genes needed to differentiate both groups of patient categories.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Transcriptoma , Viroses/genética , Área Sob a Curva , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Curva ROC , Viroses/virologia
20.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(2): 267-292, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892888

RESUMO

"The piscine respiratory system is represented by gills. Gill diseases are extremely common and may be caused by a large variety of etiologic agents. The gills are in direct contact with water and reflect its quality, for example, pollution, and they also must face the presence of biotic agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Evolution has established many defense mechanisms to combat these agents. Failure of these mechanisms is life-threatening for the fish, due to impaired respiration. Gills are relatively easily accessible for clinical examination and sampling, which facilitates intravital diagnosis."


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/microbiologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Peixes , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia
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